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1832 United States presidential election

The 1832 United States presidential election was the 12th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1832. It saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, defeated Henry Clay, candidate of the National Republican Party; the election saw the first use of the presidential nominating conventions, the Democrats, National Republicans, the Anti-Masonic Party all used national conventions to select their respective presidential candidates. Jackson won re-nomination with no opposition, the 1832 Democratic National Convention replaced Vice President John C. Calhoun with Martin Van Buren; the National Republican Convention nominated a ticket led by Clay, a Kentuckian who had served as the Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams. The Anti-Masonic Party, one of the first major third parties in U. S. history, nominated former Attorney General William Wirt. Jackson faced heavy criticism for his actions in the Bank War, but he remained popular among the general public.

Jackson won a majority of the popular vote and 219 of the 286 electoral votes cast, carrying most states outside of New England. Clay won 37.4% of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes, while Wirt won 7.8% of the popular vote and carried the state of Vermont. Virginia Governor John Floyd, who had not campaigned, received the electoral votes of South Carolina. After the election, members of the National Republican Party and the Anti-Masonic Party formed the Whig Party, which became the primary opponent to the Democrats over the next two decades. With the demise of the Congressional nominating caucus in the election of 1824, the political system was left without an institutional method on the national level for determining presidential nominations. For this reason, the candidates of 1832 were chosen by national conventions; the first national convention was held by the Anti-Masonic Party in Baltimore, Maryland, in September 1831. The National Republican Party and the Democratic Party soon imitated them holding conventions in Baltimore, which would remain a favored venue for national political conventions for decades.

President Jackson and Vice-President John C. Calhoun had a strained relationship for a number of reasons, most notably a difference in opinions regarding the Nullification Crisis and the involvement of Calhoun's wife Floride in the Eaton affair; as a result of this, Secretary of State Martin Van Buren and Secretary of War John H. Eaton resigned from office in April 1831, Jackson requested the resignation of all other cabinet offices as well except one. Van Buren instigated the procedure as a means of removing Calhoun supporters from the Cabinet. Calhoun further aggravated the president in the summer of 1831 when he issued his "Fort Hill Letter," in which he outlined the constitutional basis for a state's ability to nullify an act of Congress; the final blow to the Jackson-Calhoun relationship came when the president nominated Van Buren to serve as Minister to the United Kingdom and the vote in the Senate ended in a tie, which Calhoun broke by voting against confirmation on January 25, 1832.

At the time of Calhoun's vote to end Van Buren's political career, it was not clear who the candidates of the Democrats would be in the election that year. Jackson had been nominated by several state legislatures, following the pattern of 1824 and 1828, but his worry was that the various state parties would not unite on a vice-presidential nominee; as a result, the Democratic Party followed the pattern of the opposition and called a national convention. The 1832 Democratic National Convention, the first of the Democratic Party, was held in the Athenaeum in Baltimore from May 21, 1832, to May 23, 1832. Several decisions were made at this initial convention of the party. On the first day, a committee was appointed to provide a list of delegates from each state; this committee, which came to be called the Credentials Committee, reported that all states were represented. Delegates were present from the District of Columbia, on the first contested roll call vote in convention history, the convention voted 126-153 to deprive the District of Columbia of its voting rights in the convention.

The Rules Committee gave a brief report. Each state was allotted as many votes. Secondly, balloting was taken by states and not by individual delegates. Thirdly, two-thirds of the delegates would have to support a candidate for nomination, a measure intended to reduce sectional strife; the fourth rule, which banned nomination speeches, was the only one the party abandoned. No roll call vote was taken to nominate Jackson for a second term. Instead, the convention passed a resolution stating that "we most cordially concur in the repeated nominations which he has received in various parts of the union." Martin Van Buren was nominated for vice-president on the first ballot, receiving 208 votes to 49 for Philip Pendleton Barbour and 26 for Richard Mentor Johnson. Afterwards, the convention adjourned; the Barbour Democratic National Convention was held in June 1832 in Virginia. Jackson was nominated for president and Philip P. Barbour was nominated for vice-president. Although Barbour withdrew, the ticket appeared on the ballot in five states: Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, Virginia.

Soon after the Anti-Masonic Party held its national convention, supporters of Henry Clay called a national convention of the National Republican Party. 18 of the 24 states sent delegations to the convention, which convened on December 12, 1831. Four of the six states that did not send

Bangladesh Youth Leadership Center

Bangladesh Youth Leadership Center is the first leadership institution in Bangladesh. Developed at Harvard Kennedy School's Center for Public Leadership in 2008, Bangladesh Youth Leadership Center was established in Bangladesh in 2009; the signature component of BYLC is the four-month-long youth leadership program, Building Bridges through Leadership Training. Besides the BBLT program, BYLC conducts programs and workshops for university students; the concept of a youth leadership center was developed at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government in January 2008. The proposal for a month-long leadership program, Building Bridges Through Leadership Training, was jointly developed by Ejaj Ahmad a graduate student at Harvard University, Shammi S. Quddus an undergraduate student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the proposal was one of a hundred college projects awarded a grant by Projects for Peace in 2008. Ahmad and Quddus ran the pilot phase of BBLT in Chittagong in the summer of 2008, with technical and financial support from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Public Service Center.

Building on the success and lessons learned from the pilot, the BBLT program was encapsulated within the framework of a non-profit organization, the Bangladesh Youth Leadership Center. In early 2009, BYLC was registered with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms in Bangladesh as a non-partisan social venture; the signature program of BYLC, BBLT, expanded into a four-month program for BBLT 4 in July 2010. The first month consists of intensive classroom training in leadership skills after school. In the next three months, students work in teams to implement their leadership training by designing and conducting community projects in local slums; the Art and Practice of Leadership is a three-day national workshop for third and fourth year university students. This workshop provides participants with an exceptional opportunity to learn about leadership and career development; the participants embark on a stimulating personal journey that develops their leadership potential and helps them gain new competencies to better compete in the job market.

Employers today look for more than just a degree. They look for individuals who will not only excel in their professional capacity, but will lead and mobilize people around them. Participants are drawn from all over Bangladesh and become part of a powerful network of youth leaders. Building Bridges through Leadership Training is BYLC's 10-week long signature leadership training program. Designed for HSC/Alim/A Levels and first and second year university students, the BBLT program uses a competitive selection process to enroll 42 students from the three different educational tracks, namely English medium, Bengali medium, Madrassa, in equal numbers; the curriculum for the program draws from leadership courses taught at Harvard University. The intensive training program, coupled with an experiential learning model, challenges students to critically think about leadership and apply their skills to effectuate positive change in society. In the first phase of the program, students conduct experiments, take risks, question held assumptions in the classroom.

In the second phase, students have the opportunity to translate their learning into action by implementing community service projects in underprivileged communities. Building Bridges through Leadership Training is BYLC's 4-week long signature leadership training program. Designed for students of class 6 to class 10, the BBLTJ program uses a competitive selection process to enroll 42 students from the three different educational tracks, namely English medium, Bengali medium, Madrassa, in equal numbers; the curriculum for the program draws from leadership courses taught at Harvard University. The intensive training program, coupled with an experiential learning model, challenges students to critically think about leadership and apply their skills to effectuate positive change in society. In the first phase of the program, students conduct experiments, take risks, question held assumptions in the classroom. In the second phase, students have the opportunity to translate their learning into action by implementing community service projects in underprivileged communities.

The Youth Leadership Bootcamp is a 4-day residential workshop for undergraduate students. The workshop is designed to deliver a transformative personal experience for the participants, build their leadership capabilities, help them generate innovative thinking. Through a competitive application and interview-based screening process, BYLC selects 100 bright and passionate students who are committed to making a positive difference in the lives of others. Bootcamp participants not only develop tangible skills to make them more competitive in their careers, but gain valuable insights into the workplace through exposure visits; the 3-day Youth Leadership Summit focuses on the core challenges encountered by youth leaders. Through a competitive screening process, YLS brings a diverse group of young delegates from around the world together with distinguished experts and leaders in the public and non-profit sectors for a journey of collective exploration and networking; the summit features a mix of plenaries and panels on entrepreneurship, global citizenship and career, gender and leadership and innovation.

Teambuilding activities and reflection sessions give delegates opportunities to deepen their understanding of effective and inclusive leadership. Eligible applicants are at the start of their career. Youth Leadership Prize aims to demonstrate the


Bernedo is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The town of Bernedo is considered the capital of the municipality. Over the years, the municipality of Bernedo has absorbed other, smaller municipalities, which have ceased to exist; the name Bernedo appeared as early as 1025 in documentation of the region of San Millán de la Cogolla. During the Middle Ages, Bernedo was a walled fortress with tower; the King of Navarre, Sancho the Wise, granted charter rights for the town in the year 1182. For three centuries it was part of the Kingdom of Navarre, it passed to the Crown of Castile in 1476, in 1490 the Catholic Monarchs incorporated it to the city of Vitoria. Bernedo was the last populated area, incorporated to the province of Álava. Throughout modern history, a number of smaller municipalities have been merged into the municipality of Bernedo. In 1965, the municipalities of San Román de Campezo and Quintana were joined with Bernedo. In 1976, the municipality absorbed the short-lived municipality of Arlucea-Marquínez, which itself had been formed by a 1963 merger between the municipalities of Arlucea and Marquínez.

The municipality is composed of 11 towns or villages, which are governed by town councils: Angostina Arlucea Bernedo and main population of the municipality Marquínez Navarrete Oquina Quintana San Román de Campezo Urarte Urturi Villafría City and Municipality Website for Bernedo BERNEDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Website of Marquínez / Markinez

Possible Sky

Possible Sky is a composition for choir and orchestra by the American composer Meredith Monk. The work was commissioned by the New World Symphony, it was first performed April 2003 in Miami Beach, Florida by Thomas and the New World Symphony. The composition was Monk's first work for orchestra. In composing Possible Sky, Monk made several visits to Miami to work with the musicians in developing the piece, she described this process in the score program notes, writing:Since exploring and extending possibilities for the voice is the heart of my work, I asked the musicians to share the extended techniques for their instruments that they were aware of as well as find new sounds during the session. I sang phrases. We experimented with sketches of material which I had composed in New York; some of the fruit of those sessions has found its way into Possible Sky. Monk added:The interaction with these young musicians was playful and rewarding; this exchange is unusual in the orchestra world where players read and interpret a finished score.

The concept of this project proposed by Michael Tilson Thomas with the encouragement and support of R. Kurt Landon was to offer the musicians a chance to experience in a direct way the creation of a new work; the work is scored for SAB choir and an orchestra comprising two flutes, three oboes, three clarinets, three bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, harp, four percussionists, strings. When Monk was named the 2012 Composer of the Year by Musical America, the Los Angeles Times music critic Mark Swed gave special praise to Possible Sky, writing, "arresting Monkian melodies and inexplicable but somehow immediate, percolate through the orchestra." He added, "Even more startling, though, is the physicality. Orchestra musicians, bolstered by members of Monk's ensemble, sound as though they, make music from their bodies rather than following the directions of notes on a page."

Joseph Simpson (artist)

Joseph Simpson British painter and etcher of portraits and sporting subjects. 1879 born in Carlisle, Cumbria 1905 Simpson came to London, working for the press doing poster designs and doing oils in his spare time. 1909 Frank Brangwyn encouraged Simpson to do his first etching. 1918 Simpson became an official artist with the R. A. F. 1926 Simpson’s first exhibition of etchings took place in Glasgow at Wishart Brown in March 1939 died London, England Granville Fell, H. "The Etched Work of Joseph Simpson." The Print Collector’s Quarterly Vol 19: 212-233 a catalogue of 74 etchings. Cybermuse to search the National Gallery of Canada collection Fell’s catalogue listing of over 70 prints

New Jersey Route 23

Route 23 is a state highway in the northern part of New Jersey in the United States. The route runs 52.63 mi from County Route 506 and County Route 577 in Verona, Essex County northwest to the border with New York at Montague Township in Sussex County, where the road continues to Port Jervis, New York as Orange County Route 15. Route 23 heads through Essex and Passaic Counties as a suburban arterial varying from two to four lanes and becomes a six-lane freeway north of a complex interchange with U. S. Route 46 and Interstate 80 in Wayne; the freeway carries Route 23 north to a concurrency with U. S. Route 202. Past the freeway portion, the route heads northwest along the border of Morris and Passaic Counties as a four- to six-lane divided highway with a wide median at places, winding through mountainous areas and crossing Interstate 287 in Riverdale; the route continues northwest through Sussex County as a two-lane, undivided road that passes through farmland and woodland as well as the communities of Franklin and Sussex before reaching the New York border just south of an interchange with Interstate 84 and US 6 in Port Jervis, NY, near High Point State Park.

Route 23 was established in 1927 to run from Verona to the New York border near Port Jervis, replacing pre-1927 Route 8 between Verona and Sussex. The route followed two turnpikes that were created in the early 19th century: the Newark-Pompton Turnpike and the Paterson-Hamburg Turnpike. In the mid-1950s, there were plans to build an Interstate Highway along Route 23 between Interstate 80 and Interstate 287, but it was never built. In the 1960s, the route was planned to be upgraded to a freeway all the way up to Port Jervis and south to Piscataway, Middlesex County. In the mid-1980s, the portion of Route 23 from north of U. S. Route 46 in Wayne to Interstate 287 in Riverdale was improved, with the road upgraded to a six-lane freeway south of the Alps Road intersection and to a six-lane surface road north of Alps Road. Route 23 begins at an intersection with County Route 506 and County Route 577 in Verona, heading to the north through residences and some businesses along four-lane, undivided Pompton Avenue.

After a short distance, the road forms the border between Cedar Grove to the west and Verona to the east before enters Cedar Grove. In Cedar Grove, the route narrows to two lanes at the County Route 640 before widening to four lanes again at the County Route 639 intersection. Shortly before leaving Cedar Grove, Route 23 crosses County Route 604, which heads to the west as County Route 527; the road crosses into Little Falls, Passaic County, where it narrows to two lanes and becomes the Newark-Pompton Turnpike. In Little Falls, Route 23 heads through the central part of the community before crossing the Passaic River into Wayne where the road leaves the Newark-Pompton Turnpike and widens to a four lane divided highway. Route 23 passes two shopping malls, Willowbrook Mall and Wayne Towne Center, enters the "Spaghetti Bowl" interchange with U. S. Route 46 and Interstate 80. Within this interchange, the route passes under NJ Transit's Montclair-Boonton Line. North of Interstate 80, the road rejoins the route of the Newark-Pompton Turnpike and becomes a six-lane freeway, featuring a cloverleaf interchange with West Belt Road that provides access to the Wayne Route 23 Transit Center along the Montclair-Boonton Line.

Route 23 continues north with frontage roads serving businesses, coming to an interchange with U. S. Route 202 and County Route 511 Alternate, forming a concurrency with U. S. Route 202; the road passes over a Norfolk Southern railroad line before it has an interchange with County Route 670. Following this, the roadway passes west of the Mother's Park & Ride, a park and ride facility serving NJ Transit buses, reaches an interchange with County Route 683, where the Newark-Pompton Turnpike again leaves Route 23 and U. S. Route 202. At a U-turn ramp, the eastbound direction of County Route 504 follows both directions of the road, having to use the ramp in order to continue across the road. Northbound U. S. Route 202 splits from Route 23. At this point, the westbound direction of County Route 504 and the southbound direction of U. S. Route 202 follow southbound Route 23 until an intersection. Route 23 passes over the Pompton River. In Pequannock, the road is a six-lane divided highway with at-grade intersections, some controlled by jughandles, that heads through a mix of businesses and woodland.

At the north end of Pequannock, the route passes over a New York and Western Railway branch line and intersects County Route 660, where the Newark-Pompton Turnpike rejoins Route 23. The route intersects County Route 511 Alternate and crosses into Riverdale, with County Route 511 Alternate following Route 23 until it heads to the north on the Newark-Pompton Turnpike. Route 23 interchanges with Interstate 287 and climbs a hill past the interchange, heading to the west; the route runs through Kinnelon, passing over the NYSW New Jersey Subdivision line, before entering Butler. In Butler, Route 23 passes through commercial areas, crossing County Route 511 before heading northwest; the road drops to four lanes, still divided by a Jersey barrier. It heads under Maple Lake Road before passing through Kinnelon again. Upon leaving Kinnelon, the route enters West Milford in Passaic County at the crossing of the Pequannock River. At this point, the route enters a more wooded, mountainous sett