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1850s

The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1, 1850, to December 31, 1859. The 1850s was a turbulent decade, as wars such as the Crimean War and shook European politics, as well as the expansion of colonization towards the Far East, which sparked conflicts like the Second Opium War. In the meantime, the United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a increasing population. Crimean War fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire; the majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence known as Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War; the Indian Mutiny: revolt against British colonial rule in India Bleeding Kansas: battles erupt in Kansas Territory between proslavery and "Free-State" settlers, directly precipitating the American Civil War.

Reform War in Mexico Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. Nian Rebellion in Qing China. Miao Rebellion in Qing China. Red Turban Rebellion in Qing China. Punti-Hakka Clan Wars in Qing China. Panthay Rebellion in Qing China. Moldavia and Wallachia form Romania. Gideon T. Stewart attempts to create a Prohibition Party. Dissolution of the Mughal Empire by the British. Establishment of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, granting independence to the Voortrekkers by the British. Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, assassination attempts include: Eight were killed and 142 wounded in Paris in a failed assassination attempt on Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution by natural selection in November 1859. Epidemiology begins when John Snow traces the source of an outbreak of cholera in London to a contaminated water pump. Discovery of Neanderthal fossils in Neanderthal, Germany Solar flares discovered by Richard Christopher Carrington University of Sydney established in 1850 Distinction between coats and jackets begins to blur Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transpacific telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods.

First commercially successful sewing machine made by Isaac Singer Ukrainian settlers bring Carniolan honeybees to the Primorsky Krai The word girlfriend first appears in writing in 1855. The word boyfriend first appears in writing in 1856. Charles Dickens publishes Bleak House, Hard Times, Little Dorrit and A Tale of Two Cities Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Scarlet Letter in 1850 Herman Melville publishes Bartleby, the Scrivener in 1853 Charlotte Brontë publishes Villette in 1853 Elizabeth Gaskell publishes North and South in 1854 Note: Names of country leaders shown below in bold face have remained in power continuously throughout the entirety of the decade American texts from the 1850s American speeches from the 1850s

Franco Vázquez

Franco Damián Vázquez is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Spanish club Sevilla and the Argentina national team. Vázquez began his career with Argentine club Belgrano in 2007, before moving to Italian side Palermo in 2011. After a brief loan spell in Spain with Rayo Vallecano during the 2012–13 season, he made his breakthrough with the Sicilian club, earning a transfer to La Liga side Sevilla in 2016. Vázquez holds both Italian nationality as his mother was born in Italy. Internationally, he played for Italy in two friendly matches in 2015, but declared his intention to represent his birth nation and debuted for Argentina in 2018. Vázquez was born in Argentina to an Argentine father. Therefore, Vázquez holds both passports. Nicknamed "El Mudo" due to his introversion in his youth, Vázquez began his career at Argentine club Belgrano, with whom he debuted in 2007 and became a mainstay at the club, achieving interest from a number of Italian clubs as a consequence.

In August 2011, Vázquez was linked with a move to Italian side Palermo as a replacement for fellow Argentine Javier Pastore. The move, effective from January 2012, was confirmed on 1 September 2011 for a €4.53 million transfer fee. He joined the Palermo squad on 29 December 2011 debuted on 8 January in a match against Napoli, he scored no goals. On 24 August 2012, Vázquez moved on loan to La Liga club Rayo Vallecano, he played as a substitute and failed to make a breakthrough in the first team squad, not being signed permanently by the club at the end of the season and therefore returning to Palermo. Vázquez was kept out of the squad list by head coach Gennaro Gattuso and therefore ineligible to play in any matches for the first half of the 2013–14 Serie B season. However, he was reincluded into the first team roster by new boss Giuseppe Iachini in January 2014 as a replacement to on-loan youngster Valerio Verre. Vázquez was being used as a second striker in a more regular basis, a role that gave him the opportunity to score goals.

In the following 2014–15 Serie A campaign, Vázquez gained notoriety thanks to him forming a successful and effective striking partnership with Paulo Dybala, which saw them both finish the season as two of the top assist providers in the league, with ten assists. On 16 January 2015, he agreed a contract extension with Palermo lasting until 30 June 2019. On 15 May 2016, he scored in a 3–2 home win over Hellas Verona to help save Palermo from relegation at the conclusion of the 2015–16 Serie A season. On 16 July 2016, Vázquez returned to Spain's top flight, joining Sevilla for a reported €15 million transfer fee. On 9 August, in his first official appearance for his new club, he scored in a 3–2 extra-time defeat to Real Madrid in the 2016 UEFA Super Cup. On 20 August, he assisted on his La Liga debut in a 6 -- 4 home victory over Espanyol. A dual Argentine Italian citizen, Vázquez had declared he was uncertain about whether to accept the possible upcoming call-up from Italy in 2014. In January 2015, he stated he would accept a call-up from then-Italy head coach Antonio Conte, in part because of the heavy competition for a spot on the Argentina national team.

However, he accepted the call, regretted it, declaring instead his intentions to represent Argentina. Vázquez has appeared in two international matches for Italy, both friendlies and therefore remains eligible to play for La Albiceleste. On 21 March 2015, Vázquez received his first Italian national team call-up for a UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match against Bulgaria and a friendly match against England. Italy head coach Antonio Conte was criticised for calling up Argentine-born Vázquez as well as Brazilian-born Éder. Speaking at a Serie A meeting on 23 March 2015, Roberto Mancini said, "The Italian national team should be Italian. An Italian player deserves to play for the national team while someone who wasn't born in Italy if they have relatives, I don't think they deserve to." Conte's response to the use of foreign-born players was, "If Mauro Camoranesi was allowed to help Italy win the 2006 World Cup why can't Éder and Franco Vázquez lead the Azzurri to glory in next year's European Championship?"Vázquez made his international debut in Italy's 1–1 friendly draw against England at Juventus Stadium in Turin on 31 March 2015, coming on as a substitute for fellow oriundo Éder.

He made his second appearance for Italy that year, as a substitute in a 1–0 friendly defeat to Portugal, on 16 June. In August 2016, Vázquez declared his wish to represent his country of birth, Argentina, at international level, instead of Italy. In August 2018, Vázquez was called up by Argentina for their September friendlies. On 7 September 2018, Vázquez made his debut with Argentina in a 3–0 win over Guatemala, as he came on as a 56th minute substitute. Vázquez is a quick and mobile left-footed player, despite not being fast, possesses a decent burst of acceleration and good physical strength, as well as excellent dribbling skills, close control, a solid first touch, which enables him to turn past challenges, beat opposing players, run towards goal during counter-attacks, or retain the ball in tight spaces and hold up the ball for teammates with his back to goal. On top of his technical skills, flair and elegant movements on the ball, he is known for his vision and passing ability, wh

Roger Gaudry

Roger Gaudry, was a chemist, corporate director, former rector of the Université de Montréal. Born in Quebec City, Quebec, he received a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry in 1937 and a Doctor of Science in Chemistry in 1940 from Université Laval. A Rhodes scholar, he attended the University of Oxford from 1937 to 1939. From 1940 to 1945, he was Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the Faculty of Medicine at Université Laval, he was appointed Associate Professor in 1945 and Professor in 1950. In 1954, he became Assistant Director of Research at Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison Ltd. in Montréal From 1957 to 1965, he was Director and Vice-President from 1963 to 1965. From 1965 to 1975, he served as the rector of the Université de Montréal, he was a member of the Board of Directors of the following companies: Connaught Laboratories Ltd. CDC Life Sciences Inc. Bank of Montreal, Hoechst Canada, S. K. W. Canada Ltd. Bio-Recherche Ltée, Corby Distilleries Ltd, St. Lawrence Starch Co. Ltd. From 1983 to 1995, he was President of the Fondation Jules et Paul-Emile Léger, a Canadian charity which supports groups that help restore human dignity to those who have been rejected by society.

In 1954, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In 1968, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 1980, he received an honorary doctorate from Concordia University. In 1992, he was made a Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec. In 1996, he became the recipient of the José Vasconcelos World Award of Education In 2003, the main pavilion at Université de Montréal, Roger-Gaudry Building, was renamed in his honor. Elizabeth Lumley. Canadian Who's Who. University of Toronto Press