Crimean War

The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance made up of the Ottoman Empire, France and Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, a part of the Ottoman Empire; the French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at the Ottoman Empire's expense, it has been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery". While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection.

Britain arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes to the agreement, Nicholas prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853; the war started in the Balkans in July 1853, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, which were under Ottoman suzerainty began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli, they moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence, there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped, "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".

Frustrated by the wasted effort, with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched their way to a point south of Sevastopol after the successful Battle of the Alma; the Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate; the front led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller military actions took place in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea, the North Pacific. Sevastopol fell after eleven months, neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. France and Britain welcomed this development; the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war.

It forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute; the Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells and telegraphs. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written photographs; as the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war became an iconic symbol of logistical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in Britain was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded; the Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Russia. The humiliation forced Russia's educated elites to identify the Empire's problems and to recognize the need for fundamental reforms.

They saw rapid modernization of the country as the sole way of it remaining a European power. Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia's social institutions, including serfdom, local self-government and military service, which led to the Russian Revolution and the civil war. More scholars have turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse; as the Ottoman Empire weakened during the 19th century, Russia stood poised to take advantage by expanding south. In the 1850s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen. A. J. P. Taylor argues that the war resulted not from aggression but from the interacting fears of the major players: In some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes. Neither Nicholas I nor Napoleon III nor the British government could retreat in the conflict for prestige once it was launched.

Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security.

Sarath Amunugama

Sarath Amunugama, JP is a leading Sri Lankan academic, a professor of French and the founding Vice-Chancellor of the University of the Visual & Performing Arts, Colombo. He is a former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Kelaniya. Amunugama received his secondary education at Kingswood College and entered the University of Ceylon before attending University of Sorbonne III, Paris specializing in modern languages where he gained his Licentiate, Master's and PhD, he gain a DESS from the University of Burgundy. During his long teaching career he had held several distinguished positions such as dean, Faculty of Humanities, University of Kelaniya before benign appointed as the first Vice Chancellor of the newly established University of the Visual & Performing Arts on July 1, 2005. In 2008 he was appointed vice chancellor of the University of Kelaniya, he was awarded the title Chevalier of the L'Ordre des Palmes académiques by the government of France. In 2006 he was made a Justice of Peace by the government of Sri Lanka.

University of the Visual & Performing Arts University of Kelaniya

Supreme Ruler The Great War

Supreme Ruler The Great War is a grand strategy video game developed by BattleGoat Studios. It is the sixth installment in the Supreme Ruler series and was released on August 1, 2017; the game is the sequel to Supreme Ruler Ultimate. Supreme Ruler The Great War operates as a real-time strategy game, but the player is able to pause the game and choose the game speed. In the game, the player tries to control a country. War is a dominant theme in the game with its military element played in battalion-sized units created by the player during the game. There is a detailed economic aspect that records a large variety of statistics including under and over employment and natural resources. Starting eras of the game sandboxes include: 1914 - Brinksmanship 1914 - The Great War 1917 - The Great WarThere is a game Campaign featuring objectives and events, starting on June 28, 1914; the Campaign can be played from a number of starting regions: German Empire United Kingdom Russian Empire France Austro-Hungary Supreme Ruler The Great War was developed and published by BattleGoat Studios on Steam.

The game uses the proprietary BattleGoat Game Engine, used and updated since the release of the original Supreme Ruler 2010 game in 2005. The Supreme Ruler games series is a modern update of the original Supreme Ruler game first released for the TRS-80 microcomputer in 1982. Game developer George Geczy created the original game and has been the technical lead and primary programmer in each of the modern game releases. Supreme Ruler The Great War was released to the public on Steam for Windows and Mac OSX on August 1st, 2017. In a review of the game at Wargamer, Bill Gray called playing the game " a rewarding, if frustrating experience, but overall I’d say I’m impressed", "Overall, I feel the good vastly outweighs the bad and the ugly, so it has my strong recommendation."John Breeden writing for Game Industry News recommended the game saying that "perfectly captures the flavor of the times, the long slog that nearly murdered a generation." List of grand strategy video games List of PC games