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1864 United States presidential election

The 1864 United States presidential election, the 20th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864. In the midst of the American Civil War, incumbent President Abraham Lincoln of the National Union Party defeated the Democratic nominee, former General George B. McClellan, by a wide margin of 212–21 in the electoral college, with 55% of the popular vote. For the election, the Republican Party and some Democrats created the National Union Party to attract War Democrats. Despite some intra-party opposition from Salmon Chase and the Radical Republicans, Lincoln won his party's nomination at the 1864 National Union National Convention. Rather than re-nominate Vice President Hannibal Hamlin, the convention selected Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a War Democrat, as Lincoln's running mate. John C. Frémont ran as the nominee of the Radical Democracy Party, which criticized Lincoln for being too moderate on the issue of racial equality, but Frémont withdrew from the race in September.

The Democrats were divided between the Copperheads, who favored immediate peace with the Confederacy, War Democrats, who wished to continue the war. The 1864 Democratic National Convention nominated McClellan, a War Democrat, but adopted a platform advocating peace with the Confederacy, which McClellan rejected. Despite his early fears of defeat, Lincoln won strong majorities in the popular and electoral vote as a result of the recent Union victory at the Battle of Atlanta; as the Civil War was still raging, no electoral votes were counted from any of the eleven southern states that had joined the Confederate States of America. Lincoln's re-election ensured. Lincoln's victory made him the first president to win re-election since Andrew Jackson in 1832, as well as the first Northern president to win re-election. Lincoln was assassinated less than two months into his second term, he was succeeded by Andrew Johnson, who had to work toward emancipation of all slaves; the Presidential election of 1864 took place during the American Civil War.

According to the Miller Center for the study of the presidency, the election was noteworthy for occurring at all, an unprecedented democratic exercise in the midst of a civil war. A group of Republican dissidents who called themselves Radical Republicans formed a party named the Radical Democracy Party and nominated John C. Frémont as their candidate for president. Frémont withdrew and endorsed Lincoln. In the Border States, War Democrats joined with Republicans as the National Union Party, with Lincoln at the head of the ticket; the National Union Party was a temporary name used to attract War Democrats and Border State Unionists who would not vote for the Republican Party. It faced off including Peace Democrats; the 1864 presidential election conventions of the parties are considered below in order of the party's popular vote. National Union candidates: Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant, Commanding General from Illinois As the Civil War progressed, political opinions within the Republican Party began to diverge.

Senators Charles Sumner and Henry Wilson from Massachusetts wanted the Republican Party to advocate constitutional amendments to prohibit slavery and guarantee racial equality before the law. Not all northern Republicans supported such measures. Democratic leaders hoped that the radical Republicans would put forth their own ticket in the election; the New York World interested in undermining the National Union Party, ran a series of articles predicting a delay for the National Union Convention until late in 1864 to allow Frémont time to collect delegates to win the nomination. Frémont supporters in New York City established a newspaper called the New Nation, which declared in one of its initial issues that the National Union Convention would be a "nonentity". Before the election, some War Democrats joined the Republicans to form the National Union Party. With the outcome of the Civil War still in doubt, some political leaders, including Salmon P. Chase, Benjamin Wade, Horace Greeley, opposed Lincoln's re-nomination on the grounds that he could not win.

Chase himself became the only candidate to contest Lincoln's re-nomination but he withdrew in March when a slew of Republican officials, including some within the state of Ohio upon whom Chase's campaign depended, endorsed Lincoln for re-nomination. Lincoln was still popular with most members of the Republican Party, the National Union Party nominated him for a second term as president at their convention in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 7–8, 1864; the party platform included these goals: "pursuit of the war, until the Confederacy surrendered unconditionally. It praised the use of black troops and Lincoln's management of the war. Andrew Johnson, the former senator from and current military governor of Tennessee, was named as Lincoln's vice presidential running-mate; the choice of Andrew Johnson as Lincoln's running mate was a politically calculated move by the Republican Party to ensure the electoral votes of the border states. Others who were considered for the nomination, at one point or another, were former Senator Daniel Dickinson, Major General Benjamin Butler, Major General William Rosecrans, Joseph Holt, former Treasury Secretary and Senator John Dix.

Democratic Presidential candidates: George B. McClellan, General from New Jersey Thomas H. Seymour, Former Governor of Connecticut The Democratic Party was bitterly split between

One Day International

A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup held every four years, is played in this format. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white coloured kits with a red coloured ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.

The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001; the ICC, international cricket's governing body, maintains the ICC ODI Rankings for teams, batsmen and all rounders. England are the top ranked ODI side. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each.

The Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings; the innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team.

Since the late 1990s, the target or result has been determined by the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method, a method with statistical approach. It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate and that a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the DLS, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cups so that each ball is used for only 25 overs.

In October 2007, the ICC sanctioned that after the 34th over, the ball would be replaced with a cleaned previously-used ball. Before October 2007, only one ball would be used during an innings of an ODI and it was up to the umpire to decide whether to change the ball; the bowling side is subjected to fielding restrictions during an ODI, in order to prevent teams from setting wholly defensive fields. Fielding restrictions dictate the maximum number of fielders allowed to be outside the thirty-yard circle. Under current ODI rules, there are three levels of fielding restrictions: In the first 10 overs of an innings (the mandatory powe

Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss sculptor, painter and printmaker. Beginning in 1922, he lived and worked in Paris but visited his hometown Borgonovo to see his family and work on his art. Giacometti was one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, his work was influenced by artistic styles such as Cubism and Surrealism. Philosophical questions about the human condition, as well as existential and phenomenological debates played a significant role in his work. Around 1935 he gave up on his Surrealistic influences in order to pursue a more deepened analysis of figurative compositions. Giacometti wrote texts for periodicals and exhibition catalogues and recorded his thoughts and memories in notebooks and diaries, his self-critical nature led to great doubts about his work and his ability to do justice to his own artistic ideas but acted as a great motivating force. Between 1938 and 1944 Giacometti's sculptures had a maximum height of seven centimeters, their small size reflected the actual distance between his model.

In this context he self-critically stated: "But wanting to create from memory what I had seen, to my terror the sculptures became smaller and smaller". After World War II, Giacometti created his most famous sculptures: his tall and slender figurines; these sculptures were subject to his individual viewing experience—between an imaginary yet real, a tangible yet inaccessible space. In Giacometti's whole body of work, his painting constitutes only a small part. After 1957, his figurative paintings were as present as his sculptures, his monochromatic paintings of his late work do not refer to any other artistic styles of modernity. Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland, in the canton Graubünden's southerly alpine valley Val Bregaglia near the Italian border, as the eldest of four children of Giovanni Giacometti, a well-known post-Impressionist painter, Annetta Giacometti-Stampa, he was a descendant of Protestant refugees escaping the inquisition. Coming from an artistic background, he was interested in art from an early age.

Alberto attended the Geneva School of Fine Arts. His brothers Diego and Bruno would go on to become architects as well. Additionally, his cousin Zaccaria Giacometti professor of constitutional law and chancellor of the University of Zurich, grew up together with them, having been orphaned at the age of 12 in 1905. In 1922, he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor an associate of Rodin, it was there that Giacometti experimented with Cubism and Surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading Surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Miró, Max Ernst, Bror Hjorth, Balthus. Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the sitter's gaze, he preferred models he was close to -- the artist Isabel Rawsthorne. This was followed by a phase. Obsessed with creating his sculptures as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation.

A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife". During World War II, Giacometti took refuge in Switzerland. There, in 1946, he met a secretary for the Red Cross, they married in 1949. After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. For the remainder of Giacometti's life, Annette was his main female model, his paintings underwent a parallel procedure. The figures appear isolated and attenuated, as the result of continuous reworking, he revisited his subjects: one of his favourite models was his younger brother Diego. In 1958 Giacometti was asked to create a monumental sculpture for the Chase Manhattan Bank building in New York, beginning construction. Although he had for many years "harbored an ambition to create work for a public square", he "had never set foot in New York, knew nothing about life in a evolving metropolis. Nor had he laid eyes on an actual skyscraper", according to his biographer James Lord.

Giacometti's work on the project resulted in the four figures of standing women—his largest sculptures—entitled Grande femme debout I through IV. The commission was never completed, because Giacometti was unsatisfied by the relationship between the sculpture and the site, abandoned the project. In 1962, Giacometti was awarded the grand prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale, the award brought with it worldwide fame; when he had achieved popularity and his work was in demand, he still reworked models destroying them or setting them aside to be returned to years later. The prints produced by Giacometti are overlooked but the catalogue raisonné, Giacometti – The Complete Graphics and 15 Drawings by Herbert Lust, comments on their impact and gives details of the number of copies of each print; some of his most important images were in editions of only 30 and many were described as rare in 1970. In his years Giacometti's works were shown in a number of large exhibitions throughout Europe. Riding a wave of international popularity, despite his declining health, he traveled to the United States in 1965 for an exhibition of his works at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

As his last work he prepared the text for the book Paris sans fin, a sequence of 150 lithographs containing memories of all

Scott Fulhage

Scott Alan Fulhage is a former National Football League punter who played for the Cincinnati Bengals from 1987 to 1988 and the Atlanta Falcons from 1989 to 1992. Scott played college football at Kansas State University and is one of four players to be the starting punter four years straight. Scott Fulhage went undrafted in 1987 after a successful college career and was signed in the off season by the Cincinnati Bengals. Fulhage was part of the 1988 Cincinnati Bengals team that made a run to Super Bowl XXIII, where the Bengals fell to the San Francisco 49ers 20-16. In the Super Bowl, Fulhage punted 5 times for 221 yards. Fulhage was considered one of the most consistent punters in 1989, leading the NFC with 24 punts inside the opponents' 20-yard line, finishing third in the NFL with 84 attempts. In 6 years of playing in the NFL, Fulhage completed one fake punt against the San Francisco 49ers, a 12-yard pass for a successful first down, in the 1989 season during his time with the Atlanta Falcons.

Fulhage is credited with two rushing attempts, during the 1989 and 1992 seasons, but gained a total of 0 yards. Although he started with a slow career he picked up the pace; the remainder of his statistics show consistency and a solid history as a punter, with only one fumble in those six years. He played in 88 games, punted 399 times for a total of 16,513 yards with a long of 65 yards

Vincenzo Costaguti

Vincenzo Costaguti was an Italian Catholic Cardinal. Costaguti was born in 1612 in Rome to the Costaguti, he was the son of his first wife Paola Costa. The Costaguti family were responsible for commissioning the Palazzo Costaguti in Sant'Angelo, Rome which includes artistic works by Domenichino and Badalocchio, his younger half-brother, Giambattista Costaguti later became a cardinal. At the age of 20 he went into the service of the Church and was appointed a protonotary apostolic participantium and was appointed as a regent of the Apostolic Chancery under Vice-Chancellor Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Thereafter he was appointed Commissary General of Umbria and Marca before obtaining a doctorate utroque iure in 1638 which qualified him to be appointed referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatura of Justice and of Grace. For a brief period in 1643 he was appointed Vice-legate of Ferrara. At only 31, Costaguti was elevated to Cardinal in 1643 and was installed as Cardinal-Deacon at the Church of Santa Maria in Portico Octaviae.

When Pope Urban VIII died the following year he participated in the Papal conclave of 1644 which elected Pope Innocent X. He was in the company of Pope Innocent and contemporary, John Bargrave, suggested he was popular among the College of Cardinals and the people of Rome because of his good humour and generosity. Pope Innocent made him Legate in Urbino from 1648 to 1651 after which he opted for the title of Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Angelo in Pescheria in 1652, he participated in the conclave of 1655 which elected Pope Alexander VII and under his pontificate became Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Eustachio and Cardinal-Deacon of San Callisto where he remained for only 6 months before his death. In early December 1660 he did not recover, he died on 6 December 1660 at age 48

Rae and Edith Bennett Travelling Scholarship

The Rae and Edith Bennett Travelling Scholarship is a scholarship awarded annually to students and graduates of the University of Melbourne to undertake graduate study in the United Kingdom. The scholarship was established by the estate of Victorian bank manager Rae Bennett, with the condition that scholarship recipients were "chosen from graduates displaying force of character industry thrift and true sportsmanship or sportswomanship along with their scholastic attainments and further qualities of good citizenship and signs of good family upbringing". Recipients have come from all faculties in the University, have included visual artist Callum Cooper, Opera Australia principal artist Christopher Field, historians Alana Harris, Benjamin Mountford. Poet Judith Bishop won the award in 1994 and completed a thesis on the poetry of Yves Bonnefoy at the University of Cambridge; the Robert Wallace Chair of English at the University of Melbourne, Professor Deirdre Coleman was one of the inaugural recipients in 1979.

Rae and Edith Bennett Travelling Scholarship Melbourne Scholarships Office Melbourne University Secretary's Department List of Rae and Edith Bennett Travelling Scholarship Winners 1979-2006