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1885 United Kingdom general election

The 1885 United Kingdom general election was held from 24 November to 18 December 1885. This was the first general election after an extension of the redistribution of seats. For the first time a majority of adult males could vote and most constituencies by law returned a single member to Parliament fulfilling one of the ideals of Chartism to provide direct single-member, single-electorate accountability, it saw the Liberals, led by William Ewart Gladstone, win the most seats, but not an overall majority. As the Irish Nationalists held the balance of power between them and the Conservatives who sat with an increasing number of allied Unionist MPs, this exacerbated divisions within the Liberals over Irish Home Rule and led to a Liberal split and another general election the following year; the 1885 election saw the first socialist party participate, with the Social Democratic Federation led by H. M. Hyndman standing three candidates. List of MPs elected in the 1885 United Kingdom general election Parliamentary franchise in the United Kingdom 1885–1918 Representation of the People Act 1884 Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 1885 United Kingdom general election in Ireland 1885 United Kingdom general election in Scotland Craig, F. W. S.

British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987, Dartmouth: Gower, ISBN 0900178302 Rallings, Colin. British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, Ashgate Publishing Ltd Walker, Brian, "The 1885 and 1886 General Elections in Ireland", History Ireland, 13: 36–40, JSTOR 27725365 Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979

Tail (horse)

For the plant horsetail see Equisetum. The tail of the horse and other equines consists of the dock and the skirt; the dock consists of the muscles and skin covering the coccygeal vertebrae. The term "skirt" refers to the long hairs. On a horse, thick tail hairs begin to grow at the base of the tail, grow along the top and sides of the dock. In donkeys and other members of Equus asinus, as well as some mules, the zebra and the wild Przewalski's horse, the dock has short hair at the top of the dock, with longer, coarser skirt hairs beginning to grow only toward the bottom of the dock. Hair does not grow at all on the underside of the dock; the tail is used by the horse and other equidae to keep away biting insects, the position and movement of the tail may provide clues to the animal's physical or emotional state. Tail carriage may be a breed trait. Tails of horses are groomed in a number of ways to make them more stylish for show or practical for work. However, some techniques for managing the tails of horses are controversial and may constitute animal cruelty.

The tail can communicate basic information about state of mind. A high-carried tail reflects high spirits, while a tail tucked in to the buttocks indicates discomfort. A horse will carry its tail farther from its body the faster it goes. A horse must raise its tail to defecate, certain digestive disorders, such as gas colic, may include the clinical sign of the tail being carried higher and farther from the body than is typical for a particular animal. A horse, irritated or unhappy may violently swish its tail from side to side, an angry animal may go so far as to wring its tail up and down as well as side to side. A horse, content will have the dock of the tail in a relaxed state, not moving other than to sway with the natural movement of the animal. In cold weather, horses may stand with their hindquarters facing into the wind and their tails clamped to their buttocks in order to protect their bodies from the weather. If veterinary treatment involves inspection of the anus, or in a mare, the vagina, the horse may clamp down its tail in order to protect these sensitive regions, though a human handler is able to move the tail away by bringing it sideways.

A horse may stomp its hind feet and swish its tail as a precursor to kicking, but sometimes the tail movement and the actual kick come in quick succession before the recipient of the kick is able to avoid it. A horse, about to buck may sometimes tense and curve or "kink" its tail in a distinctive fashion, although this action will not be visible to the rider, facing forward; when in harness or under saddle, the horse may express displeasure or resistance to a handler's commands a rider's leg command to move forward, by twisting or wringing its tail. The use of spurs may result in strong expressions of irritation; because tail-swishing can indicate a horse resistant to a rider's commands, the practice is penalized at horse shows in events where manners or responsive performance are judged. In certain breeds, a high- or low-carried tail is considered a breed conformation trait. Thick or thin hair may be a breed trait as well as straight or wavy hair. Color of the tail is linked to the overall equine coat color of the horse and is not a breed trait unless the overall color is selected for within a breed.

However, in coat colors where point coloration occurs, the tail is one part of the anatomy that will exhibit the contrast color, along with the mane, lower legs, tips of the ears. In the case of primitive markings, the mane and tail will be the same color as the striping, characteristic of these colors. Basic tail grooming enhances the appearance of the horse and promotes the health of the hair and skin. Horses that are placed into work or competition have their tails cut, braided or styled in a number of ways. For pleasure riding, the tail is brushed or combed to remove tangles and foreign material. Horses used in exhibition or competition may have far more extensive grooming. Certain types of show grooming can inhibit the ability of the horse to use its tail for defense against insects; the tail may be encouraged to grow as long as possible, sometimes has additional hair artificially attached. Other times, it may be clipped, thinned, or cut short. A few breeds are shown with docked tails. A "natural" tail, is not clipped or braided, is seen in many competitive disciplines, including most western performance disciplines and some English riding events at lower levels.

The tail may be encouraged to grow as long as possible and may have the skirt kept braided when not in competition to encourage longer growth. In some breeds, a natural tail, neither thinned nor artificially enhanced, is a show requirement. Tails can be thinned and shaped by pulling hairs at the sides of the dock, or by pulling the longest hairs in the skirt of the tail, to make the tail shorter and less full, though retaining a natural shape; this grooming style is out of fashion, though was once popular for the hunter and western breeds. Banging the tail is quite common in Europe, it involves cutting the hair of the skirt straight across at the bottom well below the hocks. This style is common in dressage. In some nations, banged tails are seen in other disciplines and may be considered standard grooming. Tail extensions, described below, are sold with a banged bottom, therefore the banged style is sometimes seen in some western riding disciplines where rules permit a false tail. How

Mikhail Zygar

Mikhail Viktorovich Zygar is a Russian journalist and filmmaker, the founding editor-in-chief of the only Russian independent news TV-channel, Dozhd. Under Zygar's leadership, Dozhd provided an alternative to Kremlin-controlled federal TV channels by focusing on news content and giving a platform to opposition voices; the channel's coverage of politically sensitive issues, like the Moscow street protests in 2011 and 2012 as well as the conflict in Ukraine, has been different from the official coverage by Russia's national television stations. Zygar is the author of the book All the Kremlin's Men, the history of Putin's Russia, based on interviews with Russian politicians from Putin's inner circle; the book has become an outstanding best-seller in Russia. Zygar was born in Moscow, 31 January 1981, he became known as a war correspondent of Kommersant, the most influential Russian newspaper, covering wars in Iraq and Lebanon, genocide in Darfur, revolution in Kyrgyzstan. In May 2005 Zygar was the only international journalist to report from Uzbekistan's Andijan.

After that he investigated. In August, 2005 he was brutally beaten by unknown men in Moscow Uzbek security agents. In 2009 and 2010 he worked as political deputy editor-in-chief of Russian Newsweek. In 2010 Zygar became the first editor in chief of Dozhd, the first independent TV-channel in Russia in 10 years. Dozhd rose to prominence in 2011 with its coverage of the mass protests against Vladimir Putin. Zygar organised live coverage of all the protest rallies, which were ignored by state-owned television. Vice News called Zygar and his team'the last journalists in Russia'. In 2012 - 2014 Zygar was among the group of'leading Russian journalists' who had annual interviews with President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev. According to AP reporter'Mikhail Zygar's questions were sharper than those of the others'. In 2014 Dozhd became a target of politically motivated attacks, its troubles began when the channel was aggressively covering the daily anti-government protests in Ukraine, which state-owned television dismissed as a neo-Nazi coup.

In that year nearly all cable networks dropped Dozhd and since the channel has been ignored. The channel cut its expenses in half, shed about 30 percent of its staff and reduced its monthly budget before being hit with an eviction notice. Dozhd raised about $1 million in a crowd-funding campaign in March, proving that the demand for independent media in Russia is still there; the TV-channel started broadcasting from an ordinary flat in Moscow. In December 2015 Zygar announced, he told «Kommersant» that he intends to engage in his own multimedia project «1917. Free History». «I’m five and a half years running the channel, every Executive needs to expire once a period, that’s right, I gotta do something,» added Zygar. But according to other independent media Zygar's resignation could be caused by political pressure. Chief editor of «Echo of Moscow» radio Alexei Venediktov claimed that some high-ranking statesmen including Prime-Minister Dmitry Medvedev were infuriated by the book and they demanded Dozhd's owner Natalia Sindeeva to get rid of Zygar.

In 2018, Zygar has joined the Information and Democracy Commission, created at the initiative of Reporters Without Borders with the intention to “mobilize all those who are committed to defending a free and pluralistic public space, essential for democracy”. In 2014 CPJ announced, he was the seventh Russian to be honored.'War in Myth'. Collection of Zygar's essays about his work in hotspots like Iraq, Uzbekistan, etc. Gazprom. New Russian Weapon, together with Valery Panyushkin. Investigation of the most mighty Russian state-owned-corporation.'All the Kremlin's Men'. The book became the most important Russian non-fiction about the metamorphoses of Putin and his inner circle; the book was the #1 bestseller in Russia for 4 months. In it Mikhail Zygar traces Vladimir Putin's ascent to become the most powerful Russian president in decades, illustrates the grip that extreme paranoia has on Moscow's power elite, it took Zygar seven years to write, interviewing current and former associates of the Russian president.

In his book, Zygar battles against the idealization of Putin as a ingenious puppet-master. Zygar is far from adapting the insulted tone of the Russian establishment in his assessment, he is more interested in tracing Russian leadership's slide into the aggressive world view that has led to the war in Eastern Ukraine and military intervention in Syria. The book became a huge event in Ukraine, it revealed that annexation of Crimea was planned by the Kremlin in December, 2013. Nobel prize winner Svetlana Alexievich praised the book saying that "This is the first consistent description of everything that has happened over the last 20 years that I have read, it is a serious study and an opportunity to learn from first hand reports". John Kampfner of The Guardian called the book "one of the most compelling" accounts written about Vladimir Putin; the Sydney Morning Herald reviewed the book as a "fascinating, in-depth and authoritative study of Russian politics". The book was published in Germany, Finland, Czech Republic, H