1896 in art
The year 1896 in art involved some significant events. January 24 – Painter Sir Frederic Leighton is created 1st Baron Leighton in the peerage of the United Kingdom one day before his death in London of angina pectoris. February – Edvard Munch moves to Paris and concentrates on printmaking. December – Walter Crane publishes Of The Decorative Illustration of Books and New. A bout of typhoid fever puts an end to Maurice de Vlaminck's career as a cyclist. William Merritt Chase founds Parsons The New School for Design as the Chase School of Art in Greenwich Village, New York. At Giverny Claude Monet begins painting his Mornings on the Seine series, which will continue through 1897. Interior design gallery Maison de l'Art Nouveau opens in Paris. Max Beerbohm publishes Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen in London, his first collection of drawings. Bernard Berenson publishes Florentine Painters of the Renaissance; the Royal Society of Miniature Painters and Gravers is founded. Hubert von Herkomer is made a knight in the United Kingdom.
Michael Ancher – A stroll on the beach Harry Bates – equestrian statue of Lord Roberts Aubrey Beardsley – Illustrations to Pope's The Rape of the Lock Alfred Boucher – Volubilis Lovis Corinth – Self-portrait with skeleton Paul Dubois – Baptism of Clovis Thomas Eakins – The Pianist Julian Fałat – Self-portrait with palette Paul Gauguin Bé bé Te tamari no atua Self-portrait "près du Golgotha" Self-portrait for my friend Daniel Oyez Hui Iesu J. W. Godward Campaspe He Loves Me, He Loves Me Not Akseli Gallen-Kallela – The Defense of the Sampo Niels Hansen Jacobsen – Trold, der vejrer kristenblod Paja Jovanović – Migration of the Serbs Fernand Khnopff The Caress of the Sphinx Posthumous portrait of Marguerite Landuyt Maximilien Luce Le bon samaritain Scène de rue à Paris Juan Luna – Ecce Homo Frederick McCubbin – On the wallaby track Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Stencilled friezes for Catherine Cranston's Buchanan Street tearooms, Glasgow Konstantin Makovsky – Appeal of Kuzma Minin Arturo Michelena – Miranda en la Carraca Mihály Munkácsy – Ecce homo Pablo Picasso – First Communion Camille Pissarro – Pont Boieldieu in Rouen, Rainy Weather Félicien Rops – Pornocrates François-Léon Sicard – Le Bon Samaritain Hugo Simberg – The Garden of Death Arthur Streeton –'The purple noon's transparent might' Viktor Vasnetsov Sirin and Alkonost – Birds of Joy and Sorrow The Temptation J. W. Waterhouse Hylas and the Nymphs Pandora James McNeill Whistler Savoy Pigeons The Thames Waterloo Bridge from the Savoy Westminster from the Savoy Anders Zorn – Self-portrait with model January 4 – André Masson, French artist January 20 – Charles E. Brown, English aviation photographer April 14 – Alfredo Volpi, Brazilian Modernist painter July 2 Quirino Cristiani, Argentine animation director and cartoonist Prudence Heward, Canadian painter July 13 – Mordecai Ardon, Israeli painter August 4 – José Fioravanti, Argentine monumental sculptor August 14 – Eric Grate, Swedish sculptor and graphics artist August 15 – Paul Outerbridge, photographer September 24 – Camilo Mori, Chilean painter December 31 – Cathleen Mann, English portrait painter and costume designer Date unknown – Sava Šumanović, Serbian painter January 4 – Henri Alfred Jacquemart, French sculptor and animalier January 25 – Frederic Leighton, English painter and sculptor specialising in classical subjects February 5 – Jean-Auguste Barre, French sculptor February – John Cooke Bourne, English topographical artist and photographer April 16 – Viktor Oskar Tilgner, Austrian sculptor May 3 – Alfred William Hunt, English painter May 5 – Jacob Fjelde, Norwegian American sculptor May 15 – Évariste Vital Luminais, French historical painter July 7 – Erdmann Encke, German sculptor August 13 – Sir John Everett Millais, English pre-Raphaelite painter August 14 – Olin Levi Warner, American sculptor November 9 – Napoleon Sarony, Canadian American portrait photographer
1898 in art
The year 1898 in art involved some significant events. Berlin Secession. Bromsgrove Guild of Applied Arts, a company of artists and designers associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, is founded by sculptor Walter Gilbert in Britain. Käthe Kollwitz's cycle of lithographs and etchings The Weavers is first exhibited publicly; the term "Young Poland" is coined after a manifesto by Artur Górski, published in the Kraków newspaper Życie, to signify the period of modernism in the Polish arts. Edwin Austin Abbey – King Lear, Act I, Scene I José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior – The Inopportune Ivan Aivazovsky – Among Waves Teodor Axentowicz – Self-portrait Arnold Böcklin – Plague Edward Burne-Jones – The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon John Collier – Godiva Luigi Crosio – Refugium Peccatorum Madonna Evelyn De Morgan – Helen of Troy Herbert James Draper – The Lament for Icarus Thomas Eakins – Salutat Paul Gauguin – The White Horse J. W. Godward At The Gate Of The Temple Idle thoughts On The Balcony The Ring Vilhelm Hammershøi – Interior with young man reading Edward Robert Hughes – The Shrew Katherina Anna Elizabeth Klumpke – Rosa Bonheur Henri Matisse – Le Mur Rose Edvard Munch – Metabolism Pierre-Auguste Renoir – Yvonne and Christine Lerolle at the Piano L. A.
Ring – Ved frokostbordet og morgenaviserne Therese Schwartze – Portrait of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands in her coronation robes James Tissot – Self-portrait F. C. Yohn – Winter at Valley Forge - The Relief John S. Conway – The Victorious Charge Reinhold Felderhoff – Diana F. Holland Day The Seven Last Words of Christ, a series of photographs Study for the Crucifixion, a photograph Félix Vallotton – Intimités, a suite of woodcuts Mary Seton Watts – Watts Cemetery Chapel, gesso interior decoration 28 January – Milan Konjović, Serbian painter 3 February – Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect and designer 8 February – Jean Charlot, French painter and illustrator 14 March – Reginald Marsh, French-born American painter 6 April – Jeanne Hébuterne, French painter and model 16 May Jean Fautrier, French painter, practioner of tachisme Tamara de Lempicka, born Maria Górska, Polish-born Art Deco painter 17 May – A. J. Casson, Canadian painter 21 May Armand Hammer, American art collector John McLaughlin, American hard-edge painter 26 May – Aaron Douglas, American painter 17 June – M. C.
Escher, Dutch graphic artist 2 July – Gen Paul, French painter 17 July – Berenice Abbott, American photographer 22 July – Alexander Calder, American sculptor and artist 30 July – Henry Moore, English artist and sculptor 31 July – Doris Zinkeisen, Scottish-born theatrical designer and commercial artist 26 August – Peggy Guggenheim, American art collector 12 September – Arkady Shaikhet, Ukrainian-born Soviet documentary photographer 16 September – Leslie Garland Bolling, African American sculptor 25 September – Robert Brackman, Ukrainian-born American artist and teacher 10 October Lilly Daché, French milliner and fashion designer Georges Malkine, French painter, only painter to sign the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924 21 November – René Magritte, Belgian surrealist painter 6 December – Alfred Eisenstaedt, Prussian-born American photographer 10 December – Ivan Tabaković, Serbian painter date unknown – E. Chambré Hardman, British photographer 8 January – Achille Empéraire, French painter and friend of Paul Cézanne 25 February – Francis Frith, English topographical photographer 16 March – Aubrey Beardsley, English illustrator, of tuberculosis 24 March – J. L. K. van Dort, Ceylonese illustrator 18 April – Gustave Moreau, French Symbolist painter 17 June – Sir Edward Burne-Jones, English Pre-Raphaelite artist 29 July – Arturo Michelena, Venezuelan painter 8 August – Eugène Boudin, French landscape painter 24 October – Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, French painter date unknown - Giulio Salviati, Italian glassmaker and mosaicist
Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, he studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced and warmhearted personality". Paul Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was one of Paul Gauguin's masters. Pierre-Auguste Renoir referred to his work as "revolutionary", through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".
Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and Rachel Manzano de Pissarro, his father held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas, his father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle, Isaac Petit, married his widow. The marriage caused a stir within St. Thomas' small Jewish community because she was married to Frederick's uncle and according to Jewish law a man is forbidden from marrying his aunt. In subsequent years his four children attended the all-black primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split between the synagogue and St. Thomas' Protestant church.
When Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France. He studied at the Savary Academy in Passy near Paris. While a young student, he developed an early appreciation of the French art masters. Monsieur Savary himself gave him a strong grounding in drawing and painting and suggested he draw from nature when he returned to St. Thomas, which he did when he was seventeen. However, his father preferred, he took every opportunity during those next five years at the job to practise drawing during breaks and after work. When Pissarro turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye living on St. Thomas, inspired him to take on painting as a full-time profession, becoming his teacher and friend. Pissarro chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela, where he and Melbye spent the next two years working as artists in Caracas and La Guaira, he drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855 he moved back to Paris where he began working as assistant to Anton Melbye, Fritz Melbye's brother.
In Paris he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye. He studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him: Courbet, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, Corot, he enrolled in various classes taught by masters, at schools such as École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse. But Pissarro found their teaching methods "stifling," states art historian John Rewald; this prompted him to search for alternative instruction, which he received from Corot. His initial paintings were in accord with the standards at the time to be displayed at the Paris Salon, the official body whose academic traditions dictated the kind of art, acceptable; the Salon's annual exhibition was the only marketplace for young artists to gain exposure. As a result, Pissarro worked in the traditional and prescribed manner to satisfy the tastes of its official committee. In 1859 his first painting was exhibited, his other paintings during that period were influenced by Camille Corot. He and Corot both shared a love of rural scenes painted from nature.
It was by Corot that Pissarro was inspired to paint outdoors called "plein air" painting. Pissarro found Corot, along with the work of Gustave Courbet, to be "statements of pictorial truth," writes Rewald, he discussed their work often. Jean-François Millet was another whose work he admired his "sentimental renditions of rural life". During this period Pissarro began to understand and appreciate the importance of expressing on canvas the beauties of nature without adulteration. After a year in Paris, he therefore began to leave the city and paint scenes in the countryside to capture the daily reality of village life, he found the French countryside to be "picturesque," and worthy of being painted. It was still agricultural and sometimes called the "golden age of the peasantry". Pissarro explained the technique of painting outdoors to a student: "Work at the same time upon sky, branches, keeping everything going on an equal basis and unceasingly rework until you have got it. Paint generously and unhesitatingly, for it is best not to lose the first impression."Corot, would complete his own scenic paintings back in his studio where they would be revised to his precon
1891 in art
The year 1891 in art involved some significant events. May 10 – Danish sculptor Anne Marie Brodersen marries her compatriot, the classical composer Carl Nielsen, in St Mark's English Church, the couple having first met on March 2 in Paris. June – Sidney Paget produces his first illustrations for Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories in The Strand Magazine. Henri Matisse begins his studies at the Académie Julian. Correspondence of Marie Bashkirtseff and Gustave Flaubert is published. Paul Gauguin sails to French Polynesia. Impressionist Armand Guillaumin wins 100,000 francs in the French state lottery and is able to devote himself to painting full-time. Félix Vallotton makes his first woodcuts. William-Adolphe Bouguereau The Goose Girl Work Interrupted Frank Bramley – For Of Such Is The Kingdom Of Heaven Edward Burne-Jones – Sponsa de Libano Philip Hermogenes Calderon – St. Elizabeth of Hungary Milly Childers – Hugh Culling Eardley Childers Pierre Puvis de Chavannes – The Shepherd's Song Édouard Detaille – Vive L'Empereur: charge du quatrième hussards à la bataille de Friedland, 14 juin 1807 Thomas Eakins – Miss Amelia Van Buren James Ensor – Skeletons Fighting Over a Pickled Herring Luke Fildes – The Doctor Akseli Gallen-Kallela – Aino Triptych Paul Gauguin – Tahitian Women on the Beach J. W. Godward Innocent Amusement A Pompeian Lady The Sweet Siesta of a Summer Day Hubert von Herkomer In the Black Country On Strike Carl Kahler – My Wife's Lovers Benjamin Williams Leader – The Excavation of the Manchester Ship Canal: Eastham Cutting with Mount Manisty in the Distance Sir Frederic Leighton – Perseus and Andromeda Jan Matejko – Constitution of May 3, 1791 Claude Monet The Haystack Series The Poplar Series Edvard Munch – Melancholy Mikhail Nesterov – The Vision of the Youth Bartholomew Henrietta Rae – Miss Nightingale at Scutari Ilya Repin – Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks Tom Roberts – A break away!
Henri Rousseau – Tiger in a Tropical Storm Augustus Saint-Gaudens – Adams Memorial John Singer Sargent – Egyptians Raising Water from the Nile Giovanni Segantini Midday in the Alps The Punishment of Lust Georges Seurat – completion of The Circus John "Hans" Staehli – Chiming Fountain, Oregon Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Moulin Rouge: La Goulue Edward Arthur Walton – Bluette J. W. Waterhouse – Circe Offering the Cup to Ulysses George Frederic Watts – After the Deluge January 21 – Franz Sedlacek, Austrian painter February 13 – Grant Wood, American painter April 2 – Max Ernst, German painter, graphic artist and poet April 4 – Virgilio Guidi, Italian painter April 7 – David Low, New Zealand-born editorial cartoonist May 10 – Mahmoud Mokhtar, Egyptian sculptor June 8 – Audrey Munson, American actress and artist's model June 19 – John Heartfield, born Helmut Herzfeld, German graphic designer August 15 – Iva Despić-Simonović, Croatian sculptor August 25 – Alberto Savinio, Italian writer and composer October 7 – Charles R. Chickering, American illustrator October 11 – George Ault, American painter December 2 – Otto Dix, German painter and graphic artist December 9 – Mark Gertler, British painter January 27 – Jervis McEntee, American painter of the Hudson River School January 30 – Charles Joshua Chaplin, French painter and engraver January 31 – Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, French classicist painter February 9 – Johan Jongkind, Dutch painter March 19 – Ernest Hoschedé, French businessman and collector of Impressionist paintings March 26 – Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate, Dutch watercolorist March 29 – Georges Seurat, French Post-Impressionist painter April 5 – Daniel Cottier, Scottish-born artist and designer April 14 – Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fieve, Spanish painter, son of Juan Antonio Ribera May 12 – Louisa Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford, British Pre-Raphaelite watercolourist May 16 – John Banvard, American panorama painter September 5 – Jules-Élie Delaunay, French academic painter September 6 – Elise Arnberg, Swedish miniaturist and photographer September 9 – William Theed, English sculptor September 11 – Théodule Ribot, French realist painter September 15 – John Steell, Scottish portrait sculptor October 30 – Truman Seymour, American soldier and painter
1897 in art
The year 1897 in art involved some significant events. February 18 – Conclusion of the Benin Expedition of 1897, leading to the Benin Bronzes being carried off to London. April 3 – Vienna Secession founded by artists including Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil. Secession hall designed by Olbrich. May 1 – Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek art museum opened in Copenhagen. May 27 – A Separate Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture is staged at Sukiennice Museum in Main Square, Kraków. August 4 – The "Lady of Elche" Iberian sculpture is found at L'Alcúdia near Elche in Spain. September – Edvard Munch stages a major retrospective in Christiania. October 27 – First meeting of the Society of Polish Artists "Sztuka" in Kraków. At Giverny, Claude Monet begins painting his Water Lilies series, which will continue until the end of his life. Elbridge Ayer Burbank begins painting portraits of Native Americans in the United States from life. Women photographers Zaida Gertrude Käsebier open portrait studios in New York City.
A Book of Fifty Drawings by Aubrey Beardsley is published. Bernard Berenson publishes Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. Edwin Austin Abbey – The Play Scene in Hamlet Philip Burne-Jones – The Vampire Georges Clairin – Sarah Bernhardt as the Queen in'Ruy Blas' Herbert James Draper – Pot Pourri Roberto Ferruzzi – Madonnina Akseli Gallen-Kallela – Lemminkäinen's Mother Paul Gauguin – Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? Ogata Gekkō – Ryu sho ten J. W. Godward – Dolce far Niente Jean-Jacques Henner – Portrait of Mlle Fouquier Jacek Malczewski – Vicious Circle Claude Monet Branch of the Seine near Giverny Morning on the Seine near Giverny The Seine at Giverny Edvard Munch – The Kiss Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre Boulevard Montmartre in Spring Boulevard Montmartre on a Winter Morning Maurice Prendergast – Summer Visitors Henri Rousseau – The Sleeping Gypsy John Singer Sargent – Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Phelps Stokes Henryk Siemiradzki – A Christian Dirce Douglas Tilden – Admission Day Monument, San Francisco Vasily Vereshchagin – Napoleon near Borodino Arthur Wardle – The Totteridge XI Painters under the direction of Jan Styka – Transylvania Panorama January 17 – Charles Ragland Bunnell, American painter January 21 – René Iché, French sculptor March 16 – Antonio Donghi, Italian painter June 22 – Albert Renger-Patzsch, German photographer June 26 – Victor Servranckx, Belgian painter August 19 – Roman Vishniac, Russian American photographer September 23 – Paul Delvaux, Belgian painter.
October 27 – Lena Gurr, American painter and lithographer February 7 – Charles Edward Boutibonne, French Classicist painter February 9 – George Price Boyce, English Pre-Raphaelite watercolour landscape painter March 21 – Ādams Alksnis, Latvian painter May 20 – Jacques Émile Édouard Brandon, French artist June 7 – Victor Mottez, French fresco and portrait painter October 5 – Sir John Gilbert, English painter November 18 – Henry Doulton, English potter date unknown – Jang Seung-eop, Korean painter
Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat was a French painter, Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Bonnat was born in Bayonne, but from 1846 to 1853 he lived in Madrid, where his father owned a bookshop. While tending his father's shop, he copied engravings of works by the Old Masters, developing a passion for drawing. In Madrid he received his artistic training under Madrazo, he worked in Paris, where he became known as a leading portraitist, never without a commission. His many portraits show the influence of Velázquez, Jusepe de Ribera and other Spanish masters, as well as Titian and Van Dyke, whose works he studied in the Prado. Following the period in Spain Bonnat worked the ateliers of the history painters Paul Delaroche and Leon Cogniet in Paris. Despite repeated attempts, he failed to win the prix de Rome receiving only a second prize. However, a scholarship from his native Bayonne allowed him to spend three years in Rome independently. During his stay in Rome, he became friends with Edgar Degas, Gustave Moreau, Jean-Jacques Henner and the sculptor Henri Chapu.
Bonnat won a medal of honor in Paris in 1869, going on to become one of the leading artists of his day. Bonnat went on to win the Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and became a professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1882. Bonnat was quite popular with American students in Paris. In addition to his native French, he spoke Spanish and Italian and knew English well, to the relief of many monolingual Americans. In May 1905 he succeeded Paul Dubois as director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Julius Kaplan characterised Bonnat as "a liberal teacher who stressed simplicity in art above high academic finish, as well as overall effect rather than detail." Bonnat's emphasis on overall effect on the one hand, rigorous drawing on the other, put him in a middle position with respect to the Impressionists and academic painters like his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1917, Bonnat was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Corresponding member. Bonnat's vivid portraits of contemporary celebrities are his most characteristic works, but his most important works are arguably his powerful religious paintings, such as his Christ on the Cross, Job, St Vincent Taking the Place of Two Galley Slaves, the large Martyrdom of St Denis for the Pantheon in Paris.
However, he received few commissions for religious and historical paintings, most of his output consists of portraits. He produced genre paintings of Italian peasants, a small number of Orientalist scenes; the writers Émile Zola and Théophile Gautier were among Bonnat's supporters. Gautier hailed him as "the antithesis of Bouguereau," because of the stark naturalism and lack of surface finish that characterize Bonnat's work. Bonnat is an academic painter, he was a member of the Institute, one of the only 14 painters who had administrative power over the Academy des Beaux Arts and thereby the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He had friends and connections among the independent artists of his time as well, such as Edgar Degas, whom he met during his stay in Rome and who painted two portraits of Bonnat, Édouard Manet, who shared his predilection for Spanish painting, he taught together with Pierre Puvis de Chavannes in the private atelier he ran before becoming professor at the École. He supported Auguste Rodin's candidacy for the Institut, defended Gustave Courbet's submissions to the salon.
In a gesture of gratitude for the help he had been provided in his youth, Bonnat built a museum in his native city of Bayonne, the Musée Bonnat. Most of the works in the museum are from Bonnat's personal collection of works of art, amassed over a lifetime of travelling around Europe, it includes an exceptionally fine collection of Old Master drawings from Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to Ingres and Géricault. Bonnat died on 8 September 1922 at Monchy-Saint-Éloi; some of Bonnat's more notable students include: John Singer Sargent, Stanhope Forbes, Gustave Caillebotte, Prince Eugen, Duke of Närke, Gustaf Cederström, Laurits Tuxen, P. S. Krøyer, Suzor-Coté, Alfred Philippe Roll, Georges Braque, Thomas Eakins, Raoul Dufy, Jean Béraud, Franklin Brownell, Marius Vasselon, Hubert-Denis Etcheverry, Fred Barnard, Louis Béroud, Paul de la Boulaye, Aloysius O'Kelly, Erik Werenskiold, Edvard Munch, Alphonse Osbert, Henry Siddons Mowbray, Charles Sprague Pearce, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Hyakutake Kaneyuki, Nils Forsberg and Walter Tyndale.
1904: Member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. Musée Bonnat This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bonnat, Léon Joseph Florentin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Glasgow School of Art
The Glasgow School of Art is Scotland's only public, self-governing art school offering undergraduate degrees. The school is housed in a number of buildings in the centre of Glasgow, the most famous of, designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in phases between 1896-1909; the eponymous Mackintosh Building, soon became one of the city's iconic landmarks, stood for over 100 years until it was damaged by fire in May 2014 and destroyed by a second fire in June 2018 with only the burnt out shell remaining. Founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design, the school changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art in 1853. Located at 12 Ingram Street the school moved to the McLellan Galleries in 1869. In 1897, work began on a new building to house the school on Renfrew Street, funded by a donation of £10,000 from the Bellahouston Trust, left from the will of Moses Stevens of Bellahouston; the building was designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, chosen for the commission by the school's director, Francis Newbery, who oversaw a period of expansion and fast-growing reputation.
The first half of the building was completed in 1899 and the second half in 1909. The School's campus has grown since that time and in 2009 an international architectural competition was held to find an architect-led design team who would develop the Campus Masterplan and design the Phase 1 building; the competition was won by New York-based Steven Holl Architects working with Glasgow-based JM Architects. The Reid Building was completed in 2014 and sits opposite the now destroyed Mackintosh Building on a site occupied by the Foulis and Newbery Tower Buildings; the school has produced most of Scotland's leading contemporary artists including, since 2005, 30 per cent of Turner Prize nominees and five recent Turner Prize winners: Simon Starling in 2005, Richard Wright in 2009, Martin Boyce in 2011, Duncan Campbell in 2014 and Charlotte Prodger in 2018. The School of Architecture is rated by the architecture profession and the School of Design has been described by Design Week as "leaders in design education".
The School is organised into five academic schools: The Mackintosh School of Architecture The School of Design The School of Fine Art The School of Simulation and Visualisation The Innovation SchoolGSA has a long-established portfolio of non-degree art and design classes for children and adults delivered through GSA Open Studio. Disciplines within the five schools include fine-art photography; the original Mackintosh building was damaged by fire on 23 May 2014. An initial fire service estimate was that 90 per cent of the building and 70 per cent of its contents had been saved; the fire, which began in the basement spread upwards and, although it was brought under control quite significant damage was done to the historic studios and stairways. The renowned Mackintosh library was destroyed. There were no reported casualties; the fire broke out. Eyewitnesses said that the fire appeared to have started when a projector exploded in the basement of the Charles Rennie Mackintosh building just before 12:30 pm.
Investigators determined that the cause was not a faulty projector, but "a canister of expanding foam" used in close proximity to a hot projector, causing flammable gases to ignite. According to The Scotsman newspaper, the use of aerosol cans is against school policy; the report from the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service found that the design of the building contributed to the spread of the fire: "the number of timber lined walls and voids, original ventilation ducts running both vertically and horizontally throughout the building" as well as "a vertical service void", which "ran the entire height of the building … allowed flames, hot gases, smoke to travel". Fire and smoke dampers, which are intended to prevent the spread of fire and smoke through ducts, had not been retrofitted. In addition, an intended "fire suppression system" for the building had not been completed. A school staff member was on hand when the blaze first ignited, but was unable to contain the fast-spreading flames. A careful restoration process began soon after the fire.
The restoration was performed with historical accuracy, including the use of original wood species such as longleaf pine and tulipwood. A large fire broke out in the Mackintosh Building on 15 June 2018. Emergency services received the first call at 11:19 pm BST, 120 firefighters and 20 fire engines were dispatched to the fire. No casualties were reported; the cause of the fire is not yet known. Alan Dunlop, visiting professor of architecture at Robert Gordon University who studied at the Mackintosh School of Architecture, was contacted by the press after the fire and stated: "I can’t see any restoration possible for the building itself, it looks destroyed." This point of view was not supported by the early external building surveys, which appeared to indicate that much of the exterior had survived, though extensively damaged. Drone footage enabled a clearer assessment of the extent of the interior damage, a programme of partial dismantling was established to stabilise the portions of the facad