1911 Australian census

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First commonwealth census
The First Commonwealth Census - 1911 - First page.jpg
General information
Country Commonwealth of Australia
Date taken 3 April 1911; 107 years ago (1911-04-03)
Total population 4,455,005
Percent change Increase 18.05%
Most populous state/territory New South Wales (1,646,734)
Least populous state/territory Federal Territory (1,714)

The 1911 Australian census was the first national population census held in Australia, the day used for the census, was taken for the night between the 2 and 3 April 1911. The total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 4,455,005 - an increase of 681,204 people, 18.05% since the 1901 "Federation" Census.[1][a][2]

The Census Volumes II and III were published on 30 September 1914, at that time it was intended to issue shortly thereafter Volume 1.[3]

Collection method[edit]

The first Commonwealth Statistician was George Handley Knibbs, he began his career as a licensed surveyor in government service. In April 1911, a Monday, census collectors set out all over Australia under mostly clear skies to begin gathering in Australia’s first national census forms, they covered suburbs to rural towns and the outback. They travelled by bike or horse where they had the transport that was needed to cover large areas, however, most travelled by foot, some in Northern Queensland had to find their way through a flooded landscape while others in South Australia had difficulties finding water and fodder for their horses due to droughts. They had distributed the forms prior to the census day.[4]

Collectors had to supply their own transport and cover any associated costs such as fodder and petrol, they were paid according to their method of transport. Collectors on foot were paid ten shilling a day, those on bicycle fifteens shillings a day and those on horse 20 shillings a day. Police were used in the days immediately following the census to get travellers, swagmen and campers to provide their information. Train conductors and ships' captains were also used as collectors in the 1911 census and several subsequent censuses, to cover people travelling overnight on census night.[5]

Census questions[edit]

For Every Person present in the Night from 2 to 3 April 1911, or returning on 3rd April (if not included elsewhere).[6]

  • Name in full (Underline Surname.)
  • Sex - {Write M for Male}, {Write F for Female}
  • Date of Birth: Day
  • If married, write M. If widowed, write W. If divorced, write D. If never married, write N. M.
  • Date of existing Marriage: Year.................
  • Number of Children (living and dead) from existing Marriage .....................
    • (a) Number of Children: (living and dead) from previous Marriage ...............
  • Relation to Head of Household
  • State if Blind or Deaf and Dumb ................
  • Country (or Australian State) where born
  • If a British subject by parentage. write P.
    • If a British subject by Naturalization. write N.
    • Race -
  • If born outside Commonwealth, state length of residence therein
    • (a) Date of Arrival in Commonwealth
  • Religion
  • Education
    • (a) At present receiving Education
  • Profession or Occupation
    (If engaged in more than one occupation. underline principal occupation.)
    • (a) State if Employer or Employee, &c
    • (b) If out of work, state period
    • (c) Occupation of Employer (if any).

Population and dwellings[edit]

Population counts for Australian states and territories had 4,455,005 and 19,939 full-Aboriginals for a total population of 4,474,944.[7]
Note: All figures are for the census usually resident population count.

States and Territories Males Females Total
States
New South Wales 857,698 789,036 1,646,734
Victoria 655,591 659,960 1,315,551
Queensland 329,506 276,307 605,813
South Australia 207,358 201,200 408,558
Western Australia 161,565 120,549 282,114
Tasmania 97,591 93,620 191,211
Territories
Northern Territory 2,734 576 3,310
Federal Territory 992 722 1,714
Australia Commonwealth of Australia 2,313,035' 2,141,970 4,455,005
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics[b][8][9]
States and Territories Males Females Total
States
    New South Wales 1,152 860 2,012
    Victoria 103 93 196
    Queensland 5,145 3,542 8,687
    South Australia 802 637 1,439
    Western Australia 3,433 2,936 6,369
    Tasmania 2 1 3
Territories
    Northern Territory 743 480 1,223
    Federal Territory 5 5 10
Australia Commonwealth 11,385 8,554 19,939
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Full-blooded Australian Aboriginals Enumerated[10]

Birthplace[edit]

At the Census of the 3rd April, 1911, each person was asked to state on a " personal" card, the" Country or Australian State where born," and to state on a "personal" card, the Country or Australian State where born," and from the replies to this query, taken in conjunction with the other data furnished, the tables contained in Part II.[11]

Country Population
Percent
Australasia 3,699,538 -
Australia Australian-born 3,667,670 82.90%
     New South Wales 1,315,030 -
     Victoria 1,181,787 -
     Queensland 415,064 -
     South Australia 394,768 -
     Western Australia 114,550 -
     Tasmania 193,770 -
     Northern Territory 710 -
     Australia (undefined) 51,991 -
Totals, Overseas-born 787,335 17.10%
New Zealand New Zealand 31,868 0.72%
Europe 664,671 15.02%
England England 346,030 7.75%
Scotland Scotland 93,083 -
Isle of Man Isle of Man 1,007 -
United Kingdom Ireland 139,434 -
Wales Wales 12,175 -
United Kingdom Other European British pos. 2,378 -
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary 2,774 -
Belgium Belgium 339 -
Denmark Denmark 5,663 -
France France 2,876 -
Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany 32,990 -
State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Greece 1,798 -
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy 6,719 -
Netherlands Netherlands 745 -
Norway Norway 3,451 -
Portugal Portugal 173 -
Russia Russia 4,456 -
Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain 658 -
Sweden Sweden 5,586 -
Switzerland Switzerland 1,736 -
Other European Countries 600 -
Asia 36,442 0.82%
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg China 20,775 -
Africa 4,958 0.11%
Red Ensign of South Africa (1910–1912).svg South Africa (undefined) 2,525 -
America 11,278 0.25%
United States United States of America 6,642 -
Canada Canada 2,944 -
Polynesia 3,410 0.08%
United Kingdom Fiji 852 -
At sea 4,238 0.10%
Unspecified 30,470 -
Totals, Commonwealth 4,455,005 100.00%
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (Part II. Birthplaces)[12]

Race[edit]

At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near European settlements were enumerated, and the main population tables included only those of half or less Aboriginal descent. Details of those "full-blood" Aborigines enumerated were included in separate tables.[13]

Race Population Percentage
European 4,402,662 98.83%
Totals, others 52,343 1.17%
Aboriginal (half) 10,113 0.23%
Asiatic 38,690 0.87%
     Chinese 25,772 -
     Hindus 3,698 -
     Japanese 3,576 -
African 693 0.01%
American 89 0.00%
     American Indians 51 -
Polynesian 2,751 0.06%
     Polynesians (so described) 2,197 -
Indefinite 7 0.00%
Australia Commonwealth of Australia 4,455,005 100.00%
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Race Population Percentage
Full-Aboriginal (counted separately)* 19,939 -
Australia Commonwealth of Australia 4,455,005 100.00%
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
*Counted separately to grand total.

Religion[edit]

According to these figures it appears that of the 4,455,005 people in Australia on census day (April 3. 1911) 4,274,414 were Christians, 36,785 non-Christians, 14,673 are described as indefinite, 10,016 were of no religion, 83,003 objected to state to what faith, if any, they belonged, and the remaining 36,114 were unspecified.

Religion. 1911 Census
Number Percentage
Christian 4,274,414 95.95%
    Church of England 1,710,443 38.4%
    Presbyterians 558,336 -
    Methodists 547,806 -
    Baptist 97,074 -
    Congregational 74,046 -
    Lutheran 72,395 -
    Church of Christ 38,748 -
    Salvation Army 26,665 -
    Seventh-day Adventist 6,095 -
    Unitarian 2,175 -
     Protestant (undefined) 109,861 -
    Roman; Catholic 921,425 20.7%
    Greek Catholic 2,646 -
     Catholic (undefined) 75,379 -
     Others 31,320 -
Non-Christian 36,785
    Hebrew 17,287 -
    Confucian 5,194 -
    Mohammedan 3,908 -
    Buddhist 3,269 -
    Pagan 1,447 -
     Others 5,680 -
Indefinite 14,673
    Freethinker 3,254 -
    Agnostic 3,084 -
     No Denomination 2,688 -
    Others 5,647 -
No Religion 10,016
    No Religion 9,251 -
    Atheist 579 -
    Others 186 -
Object to state 83,003 -
Unspecified 36,114 -
Grand total .. 4,455,005 100.00%
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics[14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Excluding the Dwellings occupied solely by Full-blooded Aboriginals).
  2. ^ At the Census of 3rd April, 1911 (Full-blooded Aboriginals not included).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1911, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  2. ^ Census of The Commonwealth Of Australia, 1911. PART XIV.-SUMMARY TABLES
  3. ^ VOLUME I. STATISTICIAN'S REPORT INCLUDING APPENDICES]
  4. ^ Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, July 2011
  5. ^ Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, July 2011
  6. ^ SPECIMEN OF A FILLED IN PERSONAL CARD. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. CENSUS, 3rd APRIL, 1911.
  7. ^ Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1911, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  8. ^ Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1911, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  9. ^ Census of The Commonwealth Of Australia, 1911. PART XIV.-SUMMARY TABLES
  10. ^ Census of The Commonwealth Of Australia, 1911. PART XIV.-SUMMARY TABLES
  11. ^ Census of The Commonwealth Of Australia STATISTICIAN'S REPORT INCLUDING APPENDICES.
  12. ^ Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1911, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  13. ^ Madden, Richard; Al-Yaman, Fadwa (2003). "How Statisticians Describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples" (PDF). 2003 Seminars on Health and Society: An Australian Indigenous Context. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Retrieved 25 June 2006. 
  14. ^ Census of The Commonwealth Of Australia, 1911. PART XIV.-SUMMARY TABLES (Page: 2111) Religion.