Presidential elections in South Korea
Presidential elections in South Korea determine who will serve as the President of South Korea for the next five years. Since the establishment of the First Republic in 1948, the presidential elections have taken place 20 times: in 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1963, 1967, 1971, 1972, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012, 2017. Prior to the Presidential Election Act of 1987, the elections were indirect. Since 1987, the president is elected directly by the public in a single round plurality vote for a single, non-renewable five-year term; the presidential election rules are defined by the South Korean Constitution and the Public Official Election Act. The election campaign period, as set by the Election Law, is short – 23 days. According to the book Internet Election Campaigns in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, the election campaign periods in Korea were made intentionally short in order to "prevent excessive campaign spending for long-running election campaigns and harmful effects from overheated elections", but, on the downside, "this works against new candidates who are not well known".
The president is elected by direct popular vote, It is conducted in a single round on a first-past-the-post basis. Winning party ideology: Conservative · Liberal · Independent Elections in South Korea
2010 South Korean local elections
The 5th local elections were held in South Korea on 2 June 2010. The voter turnout reached the highest in 15 years. Overall voter turnout: 54.5% Source：투표진행상황 The ruling GNP was able to win 4 out of 7 mayoral seats but suffer by massive landslide on the gubernatorial election winning only 2 out of 9 seats. On the other hand, DEP swept 5 out of 9 gubernatorial seats; the LFP won Daejeon while two independent candidates won gubernatorial seats one in Gyeongsangnam-do and the other in Jeju-do. Source: 구·시·군의회의원선거 정당별 당선인수 기초의원비례대표선거 정당별 당선인수 5th local elections results - the Central Election Management Committee
Visa requirements for South Korean citizens
Visa requirements for South Korean citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of South Korea. As of 26 March 2019, South Korean citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the South Korean passport 1st in the world according to the Henley Passport Index; as of 2018, the passports of South Korea and Chile are the only ones to provide visa-free access to all G8 countries. Visa requirements for holders of normal passports travelling for tourist purposes: Visa requirements for South Korean citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas recognized countries and restricted zones: As of 1 January 2014, the South Korean government, due to safety concerns, has banned its citizens from visiting Afghanistan, Somalia, Syria and Yemen. South Korean citizens are not allowed to visit North Korea except when special authorizations are granted by the Ministry of Unification on a limited basis.
Yet eight people on six occasions, from Lim Su-kyung in 1989 to Ro Su-hui in 2012, have visited North Korea unapproved and returned to South Korea via Panmunjom despite imprisonment of up to 10 years upon conviction. Holders of an APEC Business Travel Card travelling on business do not require a visa to the following countries: 1 – up to 90 days2 – up to 60 days3 – up to 59 daysThe card must be used in conjunction with a passport and has the following advantages: no need to apply for a visa or entry permit to APEC countries, as the card is treated as such undertake legitimate business in participating economies expedited border crossing in all member economies, including transitional members expedited scheduling of visa interview Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption; such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.
In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Anguilla, Bhutan, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu and Vietnam. Turkey requires passports to be valid for at least 150 days upon entry. Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Zambia. Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include European Union countries. Azerbaijan and Herzegovina, Nauru and New Zealand require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure.
Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months validity upon arrival include Albania, North Macedonia and Senegal. Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry. Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon and South Africa. Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay; some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens or accept passports that have expired. Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages in the passport being presented one or two pages. Endorsement pages, which appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available. Many African countries, including Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Mauritania, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination.
Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently. Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt. To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel. Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport, giving passengers a card instead that reads: "Since January 2013 a pilot scheme has been
2017 South Korean presidential election
Presidential elections were held in South Korea on 9 May 2017, after the impeachment and dismissal of Park Geun-hye. The elections were conducted in a single round on a first-past-the-post basis, had been scheduled for 20 December 2017. However, they were brought forward after the decision of the Constitutional Court on 10 March 2017 to uphold the National Assembly's impeachment of Park. Following procedures set out in the Constitution of South Korea, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn succeeded Park as the acting president. After Park was removed from the office by the Constitutional Court's ruling, acting president Hwang announced he would not run for a term in his own right. Opinion polling before April placed the Democratic Party's candidate, Moon Jae-in, runner-up in the 2012 elections, as the front-runner. Second place in the opinion polls was held by former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who declined to run in February, followed by Ahn Hee-jung, whilst he lost the Democratic primaries to Moon.
Support for People's Party founder Ahn Cheol-soo surged, threatening Moon's lead in the polls throughout early April, before descending to equal that of Liberty Korea Party's candidate, Hong Jun-pyo, in final polls. Unlike the previous presidential elections, the new president-elect assumed the office upon the confirmation of results by the National Election Commission, with the inauguration at the National Assembly on the same day. Park Geun-hye of the conservative Saenuri Party won the previous presidential election in 2012, succeeding Lee Myung-bak of the same party; the Saenuri Party lost the parliamentary election in April 2016, with opposition parties including liberal Democratic Party of Korea and People's Party winning a majority in the National Assembly. Commentators described the result as leaving Park a lame duck president, as she may not run again under South Korea's one-term presidency rule, and the Nikkei Asian Review noted that, in the wake of her "crushing defeat", "rivals sense a prime opportunity to complete the power shift in the December 2017 presidential vote".
The Korea Times stated: "The drama of deals and power struggles for next year's election has begun." On 9 December 2016, President Park was impeached by the National Assembly by a vote of 234 for and 56 against after her implication in the 2016 South Korean political scandal. The Constitutional Court reviewed the motion of impeachment. On 10 March 2017, Park was formally removed from office, with a unanimous ruling by all eight of the Constitutional Court's justices supporting her impeachment. A presidential election would have to be held within 60 days. In the interim, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn succeeded Park and served out the remainder of the 18th term until election day; the six parties represented in the National Assembly are the social liberal Democratic Party of Korea, the conservative Liberty Korea Party, the centrist People's Party, the conservative Bareun Party, the progressive Justice Party, Pro-Park Geun-hye conservative Saenuri Party. Ballot numbers for party candidates were given according to the candidate's party seat distribution in the National Assembly.
Ballot numbers for independent and minor party candidates were determined through a random lottery by the National Election Commission. A record number of 15 candidates registered, out of. Candidates were determined by an open primary of citizens who registered as a voter between February 15 to March 9, March 12 to March 21. Overall, 2,144,840 people registered as a primary voter, making the 2017 primary the largest in Korean history; the primary was conducted from March 22 to April 3, with the voting base divided by four regions: Honam, Yeongnam and Seoul Capital Area, Gangwon Province, Jeju Province as a single region. 71.6% of the registered voters voted in the primary, putting the vote total at 1,642,640. Candidates were: Moon Jae-in, former party chairman, member of the National Assembly for Busan Sasang District, 2012 Democratic United Party presidential nominee Ahn Hee-jung, Governor of South Chungcheong Province Choi Sung, Mayor of Goyang, former member of the National Assembly for Goyang Lee Jae-myung, Mayor of Seongnam Candidate was determined by a combination of opinion polls, conducted between March 30 to March 31, the votes cast by the delegates at the party convention held in March 31.
Candidates were: Lee In-je, member of the National Assembly Hong Jun-pyo, incumbent governor of South Gyeongsang Province Kim Kwan-yong, incumbent Governor of North Gyeongsang Province Kim Jin-tae, member of the National Assembly for Chuncheon Candidate was chosen by an open primary and an opinion poll conducted between April 4 and 5. The primary was conducted through March 25 with 7 regional primaries being held. Ahn Cheol-soo was declared winner of the primary on April 4; the candidate were: Ahn Cheol-soo, former party co-chairman, former co-chairman of the New Politics Alliance for Democracy, withdrawn presidential candidate in 2012, founder of AhnLab, Inc. member of the National Assembly for Nowon District Sohn Hak-kyu, former member of the National Assembly for Seongnam, former Governor of Gyeonggi Province, former assemblyman for Gwangmyeong Park Joo-seon, deputy speaker of the National Assembly, member of the National Assembly
Constitution of South Korea
The Constitution of the Republic of Korea is the basic law of South Korea. It was promulgated on July 17, 1948, was last revised on October 29, 1987. South Korea's first 1948 Constitution, drafted by Dr. Chin-O Yu, framed a presidential system mixed with a parliamentary system, it gave the president to act as the head of state, be elected directly by the National Assembly, share executive power with the cabinet. The Constitutional Charter of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea of 1919 became the forerunner of 1948 Constitution; the 1949 Constitution has first amended in 1952 ahead of Syngman Rhee's re-election, providing for direct presidential elections and a bicameral legislature. It was passed with procedural irregularities after fierce debate. In 1954, Rhee again forced an amendment, removing term limits for himself and emphasizing a capitalistic economic model. Rhee was overthrown in 1960 following widespread protests against his authoritarian rule. In response to Rhee's abuses, the Second Republic turned to a parliamentary system.
The 1960 Constitution provided for a figurehead president, a bicameral legislature, a cabinet headed by a prime minister, an election commission, a constitutional commission. It provided for elections for supreme court justices and provincial governors, as well as natural law-based individual rights. With the May 16 coup of Park Chung-hee in 1961, the 1960 version was nullified, in 1962, the Third Republic's Constitution was passed; this document returned to a presidential system. It had a number of similarities to the United States Constitution, such as nominal judicial review functions. In 1972, Park extended his rule with the Fourth Republic constitution, called the Yusin Constitution, which gave the president sweeping powers and permitted him to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms. After Park was assassinated in 1979, the Fifth Republic began with the 1980 Constitution under President Chun Doo-hwan; the president's powers were curbed somewhat, he was barred from reelection after his seven-year term.
It provided for a unicameral legislature and a cabinet system. With the pro-democratic protests of 1987, the 1988 Constitution of the Sixth Republic was passed; the constitutional bill was passed by the National Assembly on October 12, 1987, approved by 93 percent in a national referendum on October 28, taking effect on February 25, 1988, when Roh Tae-Woo was inaugurated as president. Amendment of the Constitution of South Korea The spirit of April nineteenth and March 1st movement is stipulated in the preamble of Constitution of South Korea, but it took a long time to be established. The contents of the April revolution were removed on the fifth amendment, these were included in the preamble on the sixth amendment, identified with May 16 coup. After the ninth amendment, the spirit of the April revolution was excepted from the preamble, it was included for the ‘Resistance ideology for protection of democratic constitution’ on the 10th amendment; the Provisional Charter of Korea is the first constitution of Korean Provisional Government, promulgated in 1919.
It made the name of the country as ‘Republic of Korea’, it is made up of the preamble of 10 articles. The provisional charter of Korea became the primary spirit of current Constitution, stipulated in the preamble of Constitution of South Korea. Provisional Charter of Korea The Republic of Korea is a democratic republic country; the Republic of Korea should be governed by the provisional people of the provisional government. All citizens of the Republic of Korea are equal without gender and stratum. All citizens of the Republic of Korea have the rights to be free of religion, writing, association, the charge of address and ownership; the citizens who have the qualification of the citizen of the Republic of Korea have a right to vote and to be elected. The citizens of the Republic of Korea have a duty to education and military service; the Republic of Korea will join the League of Nations in order to exert its founding spirit in the world and to contribute to human culture and peace by the will of the citizens.
The Republic of Korea gives preference to the old imperial family. The Republic of Korea forbids the punishment of life and licensed prostitution; the Provisional Government convenes the National Assembly within one year after the restoration of the country. Consisting of a preamble, 130 articles, supplementary provisions, the Constitution provides for an executive branch headed by a president and an appointed prime minister, a unicameral legislature called the National Assembly, a judiciary consisting of the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and lower courts; the President is limited to a single five-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly. Although not required by the Constitution, the President appoints members of the cabinet. President Kim Dae-jung changed to the cabinet system; the National Assembly consists of at least 200 members elected to four-year terms. The Supreme Court's chief justice is appointed by the president and up to 13 other justices appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chief justice with the approval of the National Assembly.
The President serves a six-year term. The Constitution declares South Korea a "democratic republic", its territory consisting of "the Korean Peninsula and its adjacent islands," and that "The Republic of Korea shall seek
Democratic Party of Korea
The Democratic Party known as the Minjoo Party of Korea the New Politics Alliance for Democracy, is a liberal political party in South Korea. The party was founded on 26 March 2014 as a merger of the Democratic Party and the preparatory committee of the New Political Vision Party; the former Democratic Party was absorbed into the NPAD after the latter's creation, while the preparatory committee of the NPVP was dissolved, with members who supported the merger joining the NPAD individually. The Democratic Party was formed as the New Politics Alliance for Democracy on 26 March 2014 after the independent faction led by Ahn Cheol-soo in the process of forming a party called the New Political Vision Party, merged with the main opposition Democratic Party, led by Kim Han-gil. Ahn and Kim became joint leaders of the new party; the party performed poorly in by-elections that July and both leaders stepped down, having served for three months. Leadership of the party was assumed by an emergency committee.
The next year, at a party convention on February 7, Moon Jae-in was elected the new chairman of the party. Moon, who had served as chief of staff for former president Roh Moo-hyun, was the leader of the party's "pro-Roh" faction, opposed to Ahn and Kim. Moon came under fire for imposing a "pro-Roh hegemony" in the party, as Ahn and Kim were jeered and harassed at a memorial service for Roh held in May 2015; the party hemorrhaged support as the factional conflict intensified, falling from around 40 to 30 percent in opinion polls. A survey conducted on November 12–14 showed that supporters of the party wanted Ahn and Seoul mayor Park Won-soon to assume the leadership alongside Moon. On November 29, Ahn rejected a proposal from Moon to establish a joint leadership, the next month he presented Moon with an ultimatum, demanding that he call a convention to elect a new party leader. Moon rejected the demand, Ahn left the party. Ahn was followed by a number of supportive NPAD assembly members, including his former co-leader Kim Han-gil, the group began preparations to form a new party.
On January 12, Kwon Rho-kap, a former aide of President Kim Dae-jung and a popular figure in the party's traditional stronghold of Honam exited the party citing Moon's "pro-Roh hegemony". Meanwhile and Kim merged their group with that of another defector from the NPAD, Chun Jung-bae, to form the People's Party. Following the defections, the NPAD was renamed the Minjoo Party of Korea, Moon resigned on 27 January 2016. Moon handed power to Kim Chong-in, an academic and former assemblyman who had more served as economic advisor to conservative President Park Geun-hye. Kim was seen as an unexpected choice, as he had worked for the right-wing Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo administrations in the 1980s, serving as an assembly member for the ruling Democratic Justice Party and as health and welfare minister under Roh. Kim Chong-in viewed the pro–Roh Moo-hyun faction and what he considered the extremist wing of the party as responsible for the party's troubles, pledged to diminish their influence. In the lead-up to the 2016 parliamentary election he moved against key members of the pro-Roh faction in the nominations process, deselecting Lee Hae-chan, Prime Minister under Roh and was now chairman of the Roh Moo-hyun Foundation.
Lee left the party in response. Kim's moves proved controversial, many of his nominations for the party's proportional representation list were rejected by the rest of the party leadership, while favored candidates of Moon were ranked near the top of the approved list. Kim decided to stay on as leader after a personal visit from Moon. Kim affirmed that he would continue to attempt to change the party's image, stating that the events had shown the party was "still unable to move on from its old ways". Though losing votes to the People's Party formed by Ahn and Kim Han-gil—particularly in Honam—the party emerged as the overall winner of the election, garnering a plurality of seats in the National Assembly with a margin of one seat over the Saenuri Party. Lee Hae-chan returned to the Assembly as an independent representing Sejong City. Following its election victory, Kim Chong-in announced that the Minjoo Party would change its emphasis from welfare to economic growth and structural reform. Kim stated that the party would change its position to support the establishment of for-profit hospitals, in contrast to the party's earlier opposition to the policy.
After the constitutional court impeached president Park Geun-hye over bribery, the Democratic Party's Moon Jae-in won the presidential election with a 41.1% plurality of the votes, with Hong Joon-pyo of Liberty Korea coming second with 24%. The Party has a wide range of policies. Create a basis for the growth of agricultural and fisheries industries and develop agricultural and fishing villages. Promote innovation and prepare South Korea for the jobs of the future. Establish department in charge of science and technology policy. Establish innovative economy and prepare for future society. Raise minimum wage. Establish a social safety net. Guarantee healthcare and housing as a basic right. Ensure equal opportunity for all no matter background. Expand educational support for marginalized class. Bring creativity and innovation to the forefront of public schooling. Ensure fair and equal educational opportunities. Supporting gender oppose discrimination. Promote a society where the everyone lives together in peace.
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Government of South Korea
The Executive and Legislative branches operate at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch carry out local functions. Local governments contain executive and legislative bodies of their own; the judicial branch operates at both the local levels. The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea; this document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948. However, it has retained many broad characteristics; as with most stable three-branch systems, a careful system of checks and balances is in place. For instance, the judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the executive, by the legislature; when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision. At the national level, the legislative branch consists of the National Assembly of South Korea; this is a unicameral legislature. Most of its 300 members are elected from single-member constituencies.
The members of the National Assembly serve for four years. The National Assembly is charged with deliberating and passing legislation, auditing the budget and administrative procedures, ratifying treaties, approving state appointments. In addition, it has the power to recommend the removal of high officials; the Assembly forms 17 standing committees to deliberate matters of detailed policy. For the most part, these coincide with the ministries of the executive branch. Bills pass through these committees. However, before they reach committee, they must have gained the support of at least 20 members, unless they have been introduced by the president. To secure final passage, a bill must be approved by a majority of those present. After passage, bills are sent to the president for approval; each year, the budget bill is submitted to the National Assembly by the executive. By law, it must be submitted at least 90 days before the start of the fiscal year, the final version must be approved at least 30 days before the start of the fiscal year.
The Assembly is responsible for auditing accounts of past expenditures, which must be submitted at least 120 days before the start of the fiscal year. Sessions of the Assembly may be either extraordinary; these sessions are open-door by default but can be closed to the public by majority vote or by decree of the Speaker. In order for laws to be passed in any session, a quorum of half the members must be present. Seven political parties are represented in the National Assembly; the executive branch is headed by the president. The president is elected directly by the people, is the only elected member of the national executive; the president serves for one five-year term. The president is head of government, head of state, commander in chief of the South Korean armed forces; the president is vested with the power to declare war, can propose legislation to the National Assembly. He or she can declare a state of emergency or martial law, subject to the Assembly's subsequent approval; the President can veto bills, subject to a two-thirds majority veto override by the National Assembly.
However, the president does not have the power to dissolve the National Assembly. This safeguard reflects the experience of authoritarian governments under the First and Fourth Republics; the president is assisted in his or her duties by the Prime Minister of South Korea as well as the Presidential Secretariat. The Prime Minister is appointed by the president upon the approval of the National Assembly, has the power to recommend the appointment or dismissal of the Cabinet ministers; the officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is assisted in his/her duties by the Prime Minister's Office which houses both the Office for Government Policy Coordination and the Prime Minister’s Secretariat, the former of, headed by a cabinet-level minister and the latter by a vice minister-level chief of staff. In the event that the president is unable to fulfill his duties, the Prime Minister assumes the president's powers and takes control of the state until the President can once again fulfill his/her duties or until a new president is elected.
In the event that they are suspected of serious wrongdoing, the president and cabinet-level officials are subject to impeachment by the National Assembly. Once the National Assembly votes in favor of the impeachment the Constitutional Court should either confirm or reject the impeachment resolution, once again reflecting the system of checks and balances between the three branches of the government; the State Council is the highest body and national cabinet for policy deliberation and resolution in the executive branch of the Republic of Korea. The Constitution of the Republic of Korea mandates that the Cabinet be composed of between 15 and 30 members including the Chairperson, the Cabinet includes the President, the Prime Minister, the Vice Prime Minister, the cabinet-l