Lyuh Woon-hyung or Yo Un-hyung was a Korean politician who argued that Korean independence was essential to world peace, a reunification activist who struggled for the independent reunification of Korea since its national division in 1945. His pen-name was Mongyang, the Hanja for "dream" and "the sun." He is rare among politicians in modern Korean history in that he is revered in both South and North Korea. Lyuh was born in the son of a local yangban magnate. At age 15, Lyuh in less than one year moved to Heunghwa School. After moving to yet another school and leaving that school before graduation, Lyuh began in 1907 to study the Bible and befriended the American missionary Charles Allen Clark, who helped him found Kidok Kwangdong School in 1909. In 1910, Lyuh parted from Korean tradition by freeing slaves owned by his household. In 1911, Lyuh enrolled in Pyongyang Presbyterian Theological Seminary and, in 1914, went to China where he studied English literature at a university in Nanjing. In 1917, he moved to Shanghai.
In 1918, he organized the Mindan in that city. Lyuh took part in the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in 1919 and served as a member of that body's Legislative Assembly. Like many in the Korean independence movement, Lyuh left. In 1920, he joined the Koryǒ Communist Party and, in 1921, attended the First Congress of the Toilers of the Far East in Moscow; when Lyuh Woon Hyung was in Moscow, He met Vladimir Lenin. In 1924 he worked for Sino-Korean cooperation. After being released from prison in 1932, Lyuh took on a variety of independence activities in areas of the media and sports. During the Berlin Olympics a Korean marathon runner, Sohn Kee-chung, won the gold medal; the Chungang Daily News, of which Lyuh was the editor, ran the photograph but removed the Japanese flag from his jersey. The Japanese arrested Lyuh for the action. In addition to serving as editor of the Chungang Daily News, he served as the president of the Choson JungAng Ilbo and other sports associations.
In anticipation of Japan's defeat in the Second World War, Lyuh organized in 1944 the Korean Restoration Brotherhood, a nationwide underground organization. He formed the Committee for Preparation of Korean Independence Which is Succeeded Kotean Restoration Brotherhood. In September 1945, Lyuh proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of Korea and became its vice-premier; when United States landed in Korean Peninsula General Hodge didn't recognized People's Republic of Korea government that Lyuh Woon Hyung established. In October, he stepped down under pressure from the United States Military Government, organized the People's Party of Korea, becoming its chairman. For the following months of the anti-trusteeship movement and other political changes, Lyuh took a line of action in concert with the communists; when a movement to unify the political left and the political right arose in May 1946, Lyuh represented the center-left and occupied a position on the center between the left and the right.
Lyuh's political stance was, attacked by both the extreme right and the extreme left, his efforts to pursue a centrist position was made untenable by the political realities of the time. On July 19, 1947, Lyuh was assassinated in Seoul by a 19-year-old man named Han Chigeun, a recent refugee from North Korea and an active member of a nationalist right-wing group. Lyuh's death was mourned. 1886 May 25 – Born in Yangpyeong Yangseo-myeun Shingok-ri Myogok, Gyeonggi Province 1894 – In period of Donghak Peasant Revolution, his family fled to Danyang, Chungcheongbuk-do and after 2 years, returned to Myogok. 1900 – Enrolled in the Baejae School 1901 – Transferred to Heung-hwa School. 1902 – Entered school attached to the Correspondent bureau. 1903 – Spouse died in August. Grandfather died in October. 1905 – Mother died. 1906 – Father died. 1907 – Became Christian. Founded Gwang-dong school in Yangpyeong. 1908 – Founded branch of National Debt Repayment Movement in Yangpyeong and toured to speech about it.
1910 – Became a teacher of Chodang Uisuk of Gangneung. 1911 – Had been fired from school because of rejecting Japanese era name. Entered to Pyeongyang seminarium and studied to 2 years 1914 – Entered the English literature course of Jinling University in Nanjing, studied 3 years. 1917 – Got a job of travel Agent at Xiehe bookstore in Shanghai and helped Koreans in passage procedure. Met Sun Yat-sen. In summer, returned to Korea in private. Fled to China with Lee Beom-seok. 1918 – Founded New Korea Youth Party in Shanghai and had been appointed to the leader. 1919 – Became deputy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai. 1919 November 27 – Visited Japan and had a speech at the Imperial Hotel about Right to life of Koreans. 1920 – Joined the Koryǒ Communist Party in Shanghai and became a translation committee member and propaganda agent. 1921 – Established "Korea-China Cooperated company" in Shanghai. 1922 January – Participated in "Conference for Oppressed people of the Far east" in Moscow.
Met Vladimir discussed about anti-imperialism movement in Korea. In October, Organized "Hanguk Nobyunghoe" with Kim gu, Son jung-do etc. 1924 – Became a special member of the Communis
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
The Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the east and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water; the peninsula's names, in Korean and Japanese, all share the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon longer before that. In North Korea's standard language, the peninsula is called Chosŏn Pando, while in China, as well as in Singapore and Malaysia it is called Cháoxiǎn Bàndǎo. In Japan, it is either Chōsenhantō or Kanhantō. In Vietnam, it is called Bán đảo Triều Tiên. Meanwhile, in South Korea, it is called Hanbando, referring to the Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula, they both use "Korea" as part of their official English names, a name that comes from the Goryeo dynasty. Until the end of World War II, Korea was a single political entity whose territory coincided with the Korean Peninsula.
In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was divided into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. Since the Armistice Agreement ended the Korean War in 1953, the northern section of the peninsula has been governed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while the southern portion has been governed by the Republic of Korea; the northern boundaries for the Korean Peninsula are taken to coincide with today's political borders between North Korea and its northern neighbors and Russia. These borders are formed by the rivers Amnok and Duman.
Taking this definition, the Korean Peninsula has an area of 220,847 km2. The Korean Peninsula has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula's position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west; the peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining; when these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with cloudy days with rain, sometimes heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer.
High pressure is dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes low; the weather becomes dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is dry with some snow falling at times. Temperatures can drop to -20 °C in the mountainous areas; the Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia; the peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, the Sea of Japan to the east. Notable islands include Ulleung Island, Dokdo; the southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu; the southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and covered by volcanic matter.
To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan; some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan, Mount Kumgang, Mount Seorak, Mount Taebaek, Mount Jiri. There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan, they are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of
1948 South Korean Constitutional Assembly election
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in South Korea on 10 May 1948. It was held with supervision from the United Nations, it resulted in a victory for the National Association for the Rapid Realisation of Korean Independence, which won 55 of the 200 seats, although 85 were held by independents. Voter turnout was 95.5%. The elections were an important milestone in Korean political history; the Korean people had not experienced written constitutional rule. The Korean peninsula had not yet established a functioning democratic republic, this was the first step in that direction; the elections would lead to a constitution based off the constitution of the United States of America. The elections did not come without controversy. In 1948, the subject of an election of any kind in South Korea was an issue worldwide. On 8 and 9 March 1948, UN delegates from Australia, Canada and Syria expressed their doubts and some complete rejection of the elections on 10 May 1948 for South Korea; the U. N. delegates were concerned of Korea's political maturity at the time, feeling that the elections might not validly express the popular will after only being an independent country for four years.
There were Korean politicians, such as Kim Koo and Kim Kyu-sik, who denounced the election as it would dash the hopes of reunification with North Korea. However, with the voting out come from the South Korean Interim Legislature a 40 to 0 in favor of the election on 10 March, there was little reason to postpone or do away with the election at that time. Controversy within the peninsula itself against the elections were just as negative; the elections were intended to be held throughout the Korean peninsula, but Soviet Union forces and Kim Il-sung refused the UN supervisors entry into North Korea for the elections. They were therefore held only in the US-administered territory, making the elections a purely South Korean event; because of the segregation for the elections, Kim Koo and Kim Kyu-sik, denounced the elections as they would dash the hopes of reunification with North Korea. However the elections went ahead regardless of the doubts placed upon it; the voters elected members of parliament, who voted on the constitution and elected the president.
At the proceedings, they left one hundred seats open in the South Korean Parliament for North Koreans to vote on when they were able. The election system corresponded to the same, limited system, established under the Japanese. In larger towns, only land owners and tax payers could vote, while in small towns, elders voted for everyone else; the elections were marred by terrorism resulting in 600 deaths between May. In April, North Korea in an effort to delay the elections, sponsored a unity conference in Pyongyang to promote reunification of the two Koreas. Both Kim Koo and Kim Kyu-sik attended the conference; the conference was inconclusive towards any upcoming reunification, the conference did not delay the elections on 10 May of that year. Not all South Koreans supported the elections; the people of Jeju island, Jeju island people, saw the election as a unilateral attempt of the United States military government under the flag of United Nations to separate a southern regime and to employ its first president Syngman Rhee, but police fired and killed Jeju demonstrators.
April 3 uprising occurred, tens of thousands of Jeju people were killed by South Korean officials and right wings. Though these elections were not intended to be separate elections from the North Korean republic, regardless of the negativity from the U. N. and the Korean public, or the bloodshed discontent that resulted from these elections, it is still the first time in Korean history that the citizens were allowed to vote for a national legislative body, for prior to 1945 the Korean peninsula had been under Japanese colonial rule for thirty-five years, for thousands of years before Japanese rule, the peninsula was governed by the Korean royal family and scholarly officials. List of members of the South Korean Constituent Assembly, 1948–50 North Korean local elections, 1946 North Korean local elections, 1947 People's Republic of Korea Media related to Republic of Korea's Constituencies Assembly elections, 1948 at Wikimedia Commons
Division of Korea
The Division of Korea began at the end of World War II in 1945. With the defeat of Japan, the Soviet Union occupied the north of Korea, the United States occupied the south, with the boundary between their zones being the 38th parallel. With the onset of the Cold War, negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union failed to lead to an independent and unified Korea. In 1948, UN-supervised elections were held in the US-occupied south only. Syngman Rhee won the election; this led to the establishment of the Republic of Korea in South Korea, promptly followed by the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in North Korea. The United States supported the South, the Soviet Union supported the North, each government claimed sovereignty over the whole Korean peninsula. In 1950, North Korea invaded the South to try to reunify the peninsula under its communist rule; the subsequent Korean War, which lasted from 1950 to 1953, ended with a stalemate and has left the two Koreas separated by the Korean Demilitarized Zone up to the present day.
Diplomatic initiatives have so far failed to end the division. When the Russo-Japanese War ended in 1905 Korea became a nominal protectorate of Japan, was annexed by Japan in 1910; the Korean Emperor Gojong was removed. In the following decades and radical groups emerged in exile, to struggle for independence. Divergent in their outlooks and approaches, these groups failed to unite in one national movement; the Korean Provisional Government in China failed to obtain widespread recognition. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, in the middle of World War Two, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek agreed that Japan should lose all the territories it had conquered by force. At the end of the conference, the three powers declared that they were, "mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea... determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent." Roosevelt floated the idea of a trusteeship over Korea, but did not obtain agreement from the other powers.
Roosevelt raised the idea with Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Stalin advocated that the period of trusteeship be short. At the Tehran and Yalta Conferences, Stalin promised to join his allies in the Pacific War in two to three months after victory in Europe. On August 8, 1945, three months to the day after the end of hostilities in Europe, two days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan; as war began, the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in the Far East, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, called on Koreans to rise up against Japan, saying "a banner of liberty and independence is rising in Seoul". Soviet troops advanced and the US government became anxious that they would occupy the whole of Korea. On August 10, 1945 two young officers – Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel – were assigned to define an American occupation zone. Working on short notice and unprepared, they used a National Geographic map to decide on the 38th parallel.
They chose it because it divided the country in half but would place the capital Seoul under American control. No experts on Korea were consulted; the two men were unaware that forty years before and pre-revolutionary Russia had discussed sharing Korea along the same parallel. Rusk said that had he known, he "almost surely" would have chosen a different line; the division placed sixteen million Koreans in the American zone and nine million in the Soviet zone. To the surprise of the Americans, the Soviet Union accepted the division; the agreement was incorporated into General Order No. 1 for the surrender of Japan. Soviet forces began amphibious landings in Korea by August 14 and took over the north-east of the country, on August 16 they landed at Wonsan. On August 24, the Red Army reached Pyongyang. General Nobuyuki Abe, the last Japanese Governor-General of Korea, had established contact with a number of influential Koreans since the beginning of August 1945 to prepare the hand-over of power. Throughout August, Koreans organized people's committee branches for the "Committee for the Preparation of Korean Independence", led by Lyuh Woon-hyung, a left-wing politician.
On September 6, 1945, a congress of representatives was convened in Seoul and founded the short-lived People's Republic of Korea. In the spirit of consensus, conservative elder statesman Syngman Rhee, living in exile in the US, was nominated as President; when Soviet troops entered Pyongyang, they found a local branch of the Committee for the Preparation of Korean Independence operating under the leadership of veteran nationalist Cho Man-sik. The Soviet Army allowed these "People's Committees" to function. In September 1945, the Soviet administration issued its own currency, the "Red Army won". In 1946, Colonel-General Terentii Shtykov took charge of the administration and began to lobby the Soviet government for funds to support the ailing economy. In February 1946 a provisional government called the Provisional People's Committee was formed under Kim Il-sung, who had spent the last years of the war training with Soviet troops in Manchuria. Conflicts and power struggles ensued at the top levels of government in Pyongyang as different aspirants maneuvered to gain positions of power in the new government.
In March 1946 the provisional government instituted a sweeping land-reform program: land belonging to Japanese and collaborator landowners was divided and redistributed to poor farmers. Organizing the many poor civilians and agricultura
The Gwangju Uprising, alternatively called the May 18 Democratic Uprising by UNESCO, known as May 18 Gwangju Democratization Movement, was a popular uprising in the city of Gwangju, South Korea, from May 18 to 27, 1980. Estimates suggest. During this period, Gwangju citizens took up arms when local Chonnam University students who were demonstrating against the martial law government were fired upon, killed and beaten by government troops; the uprising ended on May 27, 1980. The event is sometimes called 5 · 18, in reference to the date; some critics of the event point to the fact that it occurred before Chun Doo-hwan took office, so contend that it could not have been a simple student protest against him that started it. During Chun Doo-hwan's presidency, the authorities defined the incident as a rebellion instigated by Communist sympathizers and rioters. By 1997, a national cemetery and day of commemoration, along with acts to "compensate, restore honor" to victims, were established. In 2011, 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime located in Gwangju's city hall were inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register.
A series of democratic movements in South Korea began with the assassination of President Park Chung-hee on October 26, 1979. The abrupt termination of Park's 18-year authoritarian rule left a power vacuum and led to political and social instability. While President Choi Kyu-hah, the successor to the Presidency after Park's death, had no dominant control over the government, South Korean Army major general Chun Doo-hwan, the chief of the Defense Security Command, seized military power through the Coup d'état of December Twelfth and tried to intervene in domestic issues; the military however could not explicitly reveal its political ambitions and had no obvious influence over the civil administration before the mass civil unrest in May 1980. The nation's democratization movements, suppressed during Park's tenure, were being revived. With the beginning of a new semester in March 1980, professors and students expelled for pro-democracy activities returned to their universities, student unions were formed.
These unions led nationwide demonstrations for reforms, including an end to martial law, human rights, minimum wage demands and freedom of press. These activities culminated in the anti-martial law demonstration at Seoul Station on May 15, 1980 in which about 100,000 students and citizens participated. In response, Chun Doo-hwan took several suppressive measures. On May 17, he forced the Cabinet to extend martial law, which had not applied to Jeju Province, to the whole nation; the extended martial law closed universities, banned political activities and further curtailed the press. To enforce martial law, troops were dispatched to various parts of the country. On the same day, the Defense Security Command raided a national conference of student union leaders from 55 universities, who were gathered to discuss their next moves in the wake of the May 15 demonstration. Twenty-six politicians, including South Jeolla Province native Kim Dae-jung, were arrested on charges of instigating demonstrations.
Ensuing strife was focused in South Jeolla Province in the then-provincial capital, for complex political and geographical reasons. These factors were both deep and contemporary: region is the granary of Korea. However, due to its abundant natural resources, the Jeolla area has been the target for exploitation by both domestic and foreign powers. Oppositional protest had existed in Korea – in the South Jeolla Province region – during the Donghak Peasant Revolution, Gwangju Students Movement, Yeosu–Suncheon Rebellion, regional resistance to the Japanese invasions of Korea, more under the Third Republic of South Korea and Fourth Republic of South Korea, as can be seen by the excerpts below: Park Chung Hee's dictatorship had showered economic and political favors on his native Gyeongsang Province in the southeast, at the expense of the Jeolla region of the southwest; the latter became the real hotbed of political opposition to the dictatorship, which in turn led to more discrimination from the centre.
In May 1980 the city of Gwangju in South Jeolla province exploded in a popular uprising against the new military strongman, General Chun Doo Hwan, who responded with a bloodbath that killed hundreds of Gwangju's citizens. The city of Kwangju was subject to severe and violent repression by the military after martial law was imposed; the denial of democracy and the heightening authoritarianism that accompanied the coming to power of Chun Doo Hwan to replace Park prompted nation-wide protests which, because of Cholla's historical legacy of dissent and radicalism, were most intense in that region. On the morning of May 18, students gathered at the gate of Chonnam National University, in defiance of its closing. By 9:30 am, around 200 students had arrived. At around 10 am, soldiers and students clashed: soldiers charged the students; the protest moved to the downtown, area. There the conflict broadened, to
First Republic of Korea
The First Republic of Korea was South Korea's first independent government, ruling the country from 1948 to 1960. It succeeded USAMGIK, the United States military government, which ruled the area from 1945 to 1948; the Philippines recognized South Korea on 15 August 1948. The First Republic was established on August 1948, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. Like subsequent governments, it claimed sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula, although it only had power over the area south of the 38th parallel; the investiture of the Rhee government followed the general election of May 10, 1948. The country's first constitution had been promulgated by the first National Assembly on July 17, it established a system with a strong president, elected indirectly by the National Assembly. The April Revolution in 1960 led to the resignation of Syngman Rhee and the transition to the Second Republic of South Korea. Rhee was supported in the elections by the Korea Democratic Party, but didn't include any of its members in his cabinet.
In retaliation, the members of the party formed a united opposition Democratic Nationalist Party, began to advocate a cabinet system which would remove power from the president. This led to a regrouping of the Rhee faction into the Nationalist Party, which became the Liberal Party, remained Rhee's base throughout his administration; the country's second parliamentary elections were held on May 30, 1950, gave the majority of seats to independents. The South Korean government continued many of the practices of the U. S. military government. This included the brutal repression of leftist activity; the Rhee government continued the harsh military action against the Jeju Uprising. It crushed military uprisings in Suncheon and Yeosu, which were provoked by orders to sail to Jeju and participate in the crackdown; this government oversaw several massacres, the most notable being the Bodo League massacre where between 100,000 and 1,140,000 were executed on suspicion of supporting communism. On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea.
Led by the United States, a 16-member coalition undertook the first collective action under the umbrella of the U. N. Command. Oscillating battle lines inflicted a high number of civilian casualties and wrought immense destruction. With the People's Republic of China's entry on behalf of North Korea in 1951, the fighting came to a stalemate close to the original line of demarcation. Armistice negotiations, initiated in July 1951 concluded on July 27, 1953 at Panmunjom, now in the Demilitarized Zone; the resulting Armistice Agreement was signed by the North Korean army, Chinese People's Volunteers and the U. S.-led and South Korean-supported United Nations Command. A peace treaty has not been signed up to now. Following the armistice, the South Korean government returned to Seoul on the symbolic date of August 15, 1953. After the armistice, South Korea experienced political turmoil under years of autocratic leadership of Syngman Rhee, ended by student revolt in 1960. Throughout his rule, Rhee sought to take additional steps to cement his control of government.
These began in 1952. In May of that year, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly-elected position. In order to do this, he declared martial law and jailed the members of parliament whom he expected to vote against it. Rhee was subsequently elected by a wide margin, he regained control of parliament in the 1954 elections, thereupon pushed through an amendment to exempt himself from the eight-year term limit. Rhee's prospects for reelection during the presidential campaign of 1956 seemed dim. Public disillusionment regarding his attempt to seek a third term was growing, the main opposition candidate Shin Ik-hee drew immense crowds during his campaign. Shin's sudden death while on the campaign trail, allowed Rhee to win the presidency with ease; the runner-up of that election, Cho Bong-am of the Progressive Party, was charged with espionage and executed in 1959. The events of 1960, known as the April Revolution, were touched off by the violent repression of a student demonstration in Masan on the day of the presidential election, March 15.
These protests were quelled by local police, but they broke out again after the body of a student was found floating in the harbor. Subsequently, nonviolent protests spread to Seoul and throughout the country, Rhee resigned on April 26; this period saw explosive growth in education at all levels during the turmoil of the Korean War. The First Republic saw the full implementation of an educational system, sketched out by the Council for Korean Education under USAMGIK; this education was shaped by the ideal of Hongik Ingan, the person, a benefit to all, sought to prepare students for participation in a democratic society. Some contend that this democratic education contributed to the student protests which brought down the authoritarian Rhee government in 1960; the first Education Law came into force on December 31, 1949. The most important aspect of this was the introduction of universal compulsory education at the primary level; this requirement led to widespread school construction. In addition, the dual ladder system used by the Japanese occupation government was replaced by a single-ladder system, with 6 years of primary education, 3 of middle-school education, 3 of high-school education, 4 of college education.
This period saw the adoption of South Korea's fi