Sir Sidney Robert Nolan was one of Australia's leading artists of the 20th century. His oeuvre is among the most prolific in all of modern art, he is best known for his series of paintings on legends from Australian history, most famously Ned Kelly, the bushranger and outlaw. Nolan's stylised depiction of Kelly's armour has become an icon of Australian art. Sidney Nolan was born in Carlton, at that time an inner working-class suburb of Melbourne, on 22 April 1917, he was the eldest of four children. His parents and Dora, were both fifth generation Australians of Irish descent. Nolan moved with his family to the bayside suburb of St Kilda, he attended the Brighton Road State School and Brighton Technical School and left school aged 14. He enrolled at the Prahran Technical College, Department of Design and Crafts, in a course which he had begun part-time by correspondence. From 1933, at the age of 16, he began six years of work for Fayrefield Hats, producing advertising and display stands with spray paints and dyes.
From 1934 he attended night classes sporadically at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School. Nolan was a close friend of the arts patrons John and Sunday Reed, is regarded as one of the leading figures of the so-called "Heide Circle" that included Albert Tucker, Joy Hester, Arthur Boyd and John Perceval. Boyd and Perceval were members of the Boyd artistic family who were centered at "Open Country", Murrumbeena. In 1938, he met and married his first wife, graphic designer Elizabeth Paterson, with whom he had a daughter, but his marriage soon broke up because of his increasing involvement with the Reeds, he joined the Angry Penguins in the 1940s, after deserting from the army during World War II. The Ern Malley hoax poems were seen by Nolan and Sunday Reed as being uncannily prescient in touching on their own personal circumstances; the Malley poems remained a real presence to him throughout his life. He painted and drew hundreds of Malley-themed works and in 1975 said it inspired him to paint his first Ned Kelly series: "It made me take the risk of putting against the Australian bush an utterly strange object."He lived for some time at the Reeds' home, "Heide" outside Melbourne.
Here he painted the first of his famous, iconic "Ned Kelly" series with input from Sunday Reed. Nolan conducted an open affair with Sunday Reed at this time although he married John Reed's sister, Cynthia in 1948, after Sunday refused to leave her husband, he had lived in a ménage à trois with the Reeds for several years and although he spoke to them, visited Heide, but once again in their lifetimes, the years there together have been seen as a dominating factor in the subsequent lives of them all. In November 1976, Cynthia Nolan ended her life by taking an overdose of sleeping pills in a London hotel. In 1978, Nolan married Mary née Boyd, youngest daughter within the Boyd family and married to John Perceval. Nolan painted a wide range of personal interpretations of historical and legendary figures, including explorers Burke and Wills, Eliza Fraser. With time his paintings of Mrs Fraser came to be associated with his growing animus towards Sunday Reed. However, when first painted on Fraser Island in 1947 after he had left Heide, he remained on friendly terms with the Reeds and sent them photos of the works for their approval.
Indeed, he gave one Fraser Island painting to Sunday Reed as a Christmas gift that year. His most famous work is a series of stylised descriptions of the bushranger Ned Kelly in the Australian bush. Nolan left the famous 1946–47 series of 27 Ned Kellys at "Heide", when he left it in charged circumstances. Although he once wrote to Sunday Reed to tell her to take what she wanted, he subsequently demanded all his works back. Sunday Reed returned 284 other paintings and drawings to Nolan, but she refused to give up the 25 remaining Kellys because she saw the works as fundamental to the proposed Heide Museum of Modern Art; because she collaborated with Nolan on the paintings. She gave them to the National Gallery of Australia in 1977 and this resolved the dispute. Nolan's Ned Kelly series follow the main sequence of the Kelly story; however Nolan did not intend the series to be an authentic depiction of these events. Rather, these episodes/series became the setting for the artist's meditations upon universal themes of injustice and betrayal.
The Kelly saga was a way for Nolan to paint the Australian landscape in new ways, with the story giving meaning to the place. Although the Depression and World War II happened during this period, Nolan decided to concentrate on something other than people struggling in life. Nolan wanted to retell the story of a hero. A hero which now has become a metaphor for humankind—the fighter, the victim, the hero—resisting tyranny with a passion for freedom. Nolan recognised that the conceptual image of the black square had been part of modern art since World War I. Nolan just placed a pair of eyes into Kelly's helmet which animates its formal shape; as in most of the series, Kelly's steel head guard dominates the composition. Nolan concentrates on the Australian outback and shows a different landscape in nearly every painting. Nolan's paintings give the audience an insight into the history of Australia but show others from the world how beautiful Australia is; the intensity of the colours of the land and bush along wit
Sir Jacob Epstein was an American-British sculptor who helped pioneer modern sculpture. He was born in the United States, moved to Europe in 1902, becoming a British subject in 1911, he produced controversial works which challenged ideas on what was appropriate subject matter for public artworks. He made paintings and drawings, exhibited his work. Epstein's parents and Mary Epstein, were Polish Jewish refugees, living on New York's Lower East Side, his family was middle-class, he was the third of five children. His interest in drawing came from long periods of illness, he studied art in his native New York as a teenager, sketching the city, joined the Art Students League of New York in 1900. For his livelihood, he worked in a bronze foundry by day, studying drawing and sculptural modelling at night. Epstein's first major commission was to illustrate Hutchins Hapgood's 1902 book Spirit of the Ghetto. Epstein used the money from the commission to move to Paris. Moving to Europe in 1902, he studied in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts.
He settled in London in 1905 and married Margaret Dunlop in 1906. Epstein became a British subject on 4 January 1911. Many of Epstein's works were sculpted at his two cottages in Loughton, where he lived first at number 49 50, Baldwin's Hill, he served in the 38th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers, known as the Jewish Legion during World War I. In London, Epstein involved himself with artistic crowd. Revolting against ornate, pretty art, he made bold harsh and massive forms of bronze or stone, his sculpture is distinguished by its vigorous rough-hewn realism. Avant-garde in concept and style, his works shocked his audience; this was not only a result of their sexual content, but because they deliberately abandoned the conventions of classical Greek sculpture favoured by European Academic sculptors to experiment instead with the aesthetics of art traditions as diverse as those of India, West Africa, the Pacific Islands. People in Liverpool, nicknamed his nude male sculpture over the door of Lewis's department store "Dickie Lewis".
Such factors may have focused disproportionate attention on certain aspects of Epstein's long and productive career, throughout which he aroused hostility challenging taboos surrounding the depiction of sexuality. London was not ready for Epstein's first major commission – 18 large nude sculptures made in 1908 for the façade of Charles Holden's building for the British Medical Association on The Strand were considered shocking to Edwardian sensibilities, again due to the perception that they were sexually over-explicit. In art-historical terms, the Strand sculptures were controversial for quite a different reason: they represented Epstein's first thoroughgoing attempt to break away from traditional European iconography in favour of elements derived from an alternative sculptural milieu – that of classical India; the female figures in particular may be seen deliberately to incorporate the posture and hand gestures of Buddhist and Hindu art from the subcontinent in no uncertain terms. The current, mutilated condition of many of the sculptures is not connected with prudish censorship.
One of the most famous of Epstein's early commissions is Oscar Wilde's tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, "which was condemned as indecent and at one point was covered in tarpaulin by the French police." Between 1913 and 1915, Epstein was associated with the short-lived Vorticism movement and produced one of his best known sculptures The Rock Drill. In 1915, John Quinn, wealthy American collector and patron to the modernists, bought some Epstein sculptures to add to his private collection. In 1916, Epstein was commissioned by Viscount Tredegar to produce a bronze head of Newport poet W. H. Davies; the bronze, regarded by many as the most accurate artistic impression of Davies and a copy of which Davies owned himself, may be found at Newport Museum and Art GalleryIn 1928, Epstein sculpted the head of the popular singer and film star Paul Robeson. A commission from Holden for the new headquarters building of the London Electric Railway generated another controversy in 1929, his nude sculptures Day and Night above the entrances of 55 Broadway were again considered indecent and a debate raged for some time regarding demands to remove the offending statues, carved in-situ.
A compromise was reached to modify the smaller of the two figures represented on Day. But the controversy affected his commissions for public work which dried up until World War II. Between the late 1930s and the mid-1950s, numerous works by Epstein were exhibited in Blackpool. Adam, Consummatum Est and the Angel and Genesis, other works, were displayed in an old drapery shop surrounded by red velvet curtains; the crowds were ushered in at the cost of a shilling by a barker on the street. After a small tour of American fun fairs, the works were returned to Blackpool and were exhibited in the anatomical curiosities section of Louis Tussaud's waxworks; the works were displayed alongside dancing marionettes, diseased body parts and conjoined twin babies in jars. Placing Epstein within the context of freakish curiosity added to Epstein's decision not to create further large-scale direct carvings. Bronze portrait sculpture formed one of Epstein's staple products, the best kno
Harley J. Earl was an American automotive designer and business executive, he was the initial designated head of design at General Motors becoming vice president, the first top executive appointed in design of a major corporation in American history. He was a pioneer of modern transportation design. A coachbuilder by trade, Earl pioneered the use of freeform sketching and hand sculpted clay models as automotive design techniques, he subsequently introduced the "concept car" as both a tool for the design process and a clever marketing device. Earl's Buick Y-Job was the first concept car, he started "Project Opel", which became the Chevrolet Corvette, he authorized the introduction of the tailfin to automotive styling. During World War II, he was an active contributor to the Allies' research and development program in advancing the effectiveness of camouflage. Harley Earl was born in California, his father, J. W. Earl, began work as a coachbuilder in 1889; the senior Earl changed his practice from horse-drawn vehicles to custom bodies and customized parts and accessories for automobiles, founding Earl Automobile Works in 1908.
Earl began studies at Stanford University, but left prematurely to work with, learn from, his father at Earl Automotive Works. By this time, the shop was building custom bodies for Hollywood movie stars, including Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and Tom Mix. Earl Automotive Works was bought by Cadillac dealer Don Lee, who kept Harley Earl as director of its custom body shop. Lawrence P. Fisher, general manager of the Cadillac division, was visiting Cadillac dealers and distributors around the country, including Lee. Fisher observed him at work. Fisher, whose automotive career began with coachbuilder Fisher Body, was impressed with Earl's designs and methods, including the use of modeling clay to develop the forms of his designs. Fisher commissioned Earl to design the 1927 LaSalle for Cadillac's companion marque; the success of the LaSalle convinced General Motors president Alfred P. Sloan to create the Art and Color Section of General Motors, to name Earl as its first director. Prior to the establishment of the Art and Color Section, American automobile manufacturers did not assign any great importance to the appearance of automobile bodies.
Volume manufacturers built bodies designed by engineers, guided only by cost. Many luxury-car manufacturers, including GM, did not make bodies at all, opting instead to ship chassis assemblies to a coachbuilder of the buyer's choice; the executives at General Motors at the time, including engineers, division heads, sales executives, viewed Earl's conceptual ideas as flamboyant and unfounded. Earl struggled to legitimize his design approach against the tradition- and production-oriented executives; as head of the newly formed Art and Color Section in 1927, he was referred to as one of the "pretty picture boys", his design studio as being the "Beauty Parlor". In 1937, the Art and Color Section was renamed the Styling Section. Sloan promoted Earl to vice president, making him, to Sloan's knowledge, the first styling person to be a VP at a large corporation. Harley Earl and Sloan implemented "Dynamic Obsolescence" and the "Annual Model Change", tying model identity to a specific year, to further position design as a driver for the company's product success.
These ideas are taken for granted today, but were unusual at the time. In 1939, the Styling Division, under Earl's instruction and built the Buick Y-Job, the motor industry's first concept car. While many one-off custom automobiles had been made before, the Y-job was the first car built by a mass manufacturer for the sole purpose of determining the public's reaction to new design ideas. After being shown to the public, the Y-job became Earl's daily driver, it was succeeded by the 1951 General Motors Le Sabre concept car. In 1942, during World War II, Earl established a camouflage research and training division at General Motors, one consequence of, a 22-page document called Camouflage Manual for General Motors Camouflage. A decade before, two former World War I camouflage artists, Harold Ledyard Towle and McClelland Barclay had worked as designers at General Motors. Among Earl's apprentices was English designer David Jones, who worked at its British division at Vauxhall Motors and served in the camouflage section of the Royal Engineers during World War II.
Harley Earl authorized the Frank Hershey design for the 1948 Cadillac, which incorporated the first automotive tailfin. Inspiration for the fins came from the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, but it extended beyond the war, during the age when space rockets captured the popular imagination in the 1950s and 1960s; the style caught on throughout Detroit and led to competition between Harley Earl and his counterpart at Chrysler, Virgil Exner, over the size and complexity of tailfins, culminating with those on the 1959 Cadillac models. Influenced by the English and European sports cars being raced on road racing circuits after World War II, Earl decided that General Motors needed to make a sports car. Design work on "Project Opel" began as a secret project, he first offered the project to Chevrolet general manager Ed Cole. Cole accepted the project without hesitation, the car was offered to the public in 1953 as the Chevrolet Corvette. Harley Earl retired from General Motors in 1958 after overseeing the design of 1960–1962 models.
He was succeeded as vice-president with responsibility for the Design and Styling Department by Bill
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role filled by Paris. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky. Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic, or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst, David Alfaro Siqueiros; the newer research tends to put the exile-surrealist Wolfgang Paalen in the position of the artist and theoretician who fostered the theory of the viewer-dependent possibility space through his paintings and his magazine DYN.
Paalen considered ideas of quantum mechanics, as well as idiosyncratic interpretations of the totemic vision and the spatial structure of native-Indian painting from British Columbia and prepared the ground for the new spatial vision of the young American abstracts. His long essay Totem Art had considerable influence on such artists as Martha Graham, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman. Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain America's newest art movement and included a list of "the men in the new movement." Paalen is mentioned twice. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey his "white writing" canvases, though not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings; the movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, Synthetic Cubism.
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working in New York who had quite different styles, to work, neither abstract nor expressionist. California abstract expressionist Jay Meuser, who painted in the non-objective style, wrote about his painting Mare Nostrum, "It is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples." Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning's figurative paintings and the rectangles of color in Mark Rothko's Color Field paintings. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists' works, most of these paintings involved careful planning since their large size demanded it.
With artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, on Rothko, Barnett Newman, Agnes Martin, abstract art implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious, the mind. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s, it had been influenced not only by the Great Depression, but by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York such as The Art of This Century Gallery; the McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were abstract it would be seen as apolitical, therefore safe. Or if the art was political, the message was for the insiders. While the movement is associated with painting, painters such as Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, Clyfford Still, Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, others, collagist Anne Ryan and certain sculptors in particular were integral to abstract expressionism.
David Smith, his wife Dorothy Dehner, Herbert Ferber, Isamu Noguchi, Ibram Lassaw, Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, Mary Callery, Richard Stankiewicz, Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, James Rosati, Mark di Suvero, sculptors Richard Lippold, Raoul Hague, George Rickey, Reuben Nakian, Tony Smith, Seymour Lipton, Joseph Cornell, several others were integral parts of the abstract expressionist movement. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show, a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the New York School of abstract expressionism generated a number of supportive poets, including Frank O'Hara and photographers such as Aaron Siskind and Fred McDarrah, (
Anne Redpath was a Scottish artist whose vivid domestic still lifes are among her best-known works. Redpath's father was a tweed designer in the Scottish Borders, she saw a connection between his use of her own. "I do with a spot of red or yellow in a harmony of grey, what my father did in his tweed." The Redpaths moved from Galashiels to Hawick. After Hawick High School, she went to Edinburgh College of Art in 1913. Post-graduate study led to a scholarship which allowed her to travel on the Continent in 1919, visiting Bruges, Paris and Siena; the following year, 1920, she married James Michie, an architect, they went to live in Pas-de-Calais where her first two sons were born. In 1924, they moved to the South of France, in 1928, had a third son: now David Michie the artist. In 1934, she returned to Hawick. Redpath was soon exhibiting in Edinburgh, was president of the Scottish Society of Women Artists from 1944 to 1947; the Royal Scottish Academy admitted her as an associate in 1947, in 1952, she became the first woman Academician.
In 1955, she was made an OBE for her work as "Artist" and "Member of the Board of Management of the Edinburgh College of Art". With her children grown up, an active involvement in Edinburgh art circles, she moved to live in town at the end of the 1940s. In the 1950s and early 1960s, she travelled in Europe, painting in Spain, the Canary Islands, Brittany and elsewhere. There is a commemorative plaque on the house where she lived and entertained at 7 London Street, Edinburgh. Redpath is best known for her still lifes where familiar household objects - a chair, a cup - are made into a "two-dimensional" design, she used textiles - a spotted scarf - to add pattern within the pattern. The Indian Rug known as Red Shoes, is a good example of this group of paintings. Matisse's influence is clear in these flat-surfaced interior arrangements. Critics see another influence in the tabletops tilted to suit the design, not conventional perspective: that of the medieval Sienese paintings which impressed her on her first trip abroad.
At this time she first discovered the richness of Catholic imagery, a theme explored in her work. She and a group of her contemporaries are sometimes called The Edinburgh School, they may be seen as the "heirs" of the Scottish Colourists: Redpath's The Orange Chair, for example, suggests the Colourist heritage. During her years in France, Redpath's painting was limited by family commitments, but she produced enough for exhibitions in 1921 and 1928, she decorated furniture with bright flower and bird patterns. There would be many paintings of flowers: in vases, or growing abundant in the wild. Redpath became influenced by the likes of Matisse and Bonnard. On her return to Scotland in 1934, she started to sketch the countryside round Hawick, painted landscapes with a more muted look than much of her work: Frosty Morning, Trow Mill, for example. In the early 1940s The Indian Rug showed that she was developing the freer, individual approach described above. Other works representing this style include The Mantelpiece and Still Life with Table.
Her circa 1943 self-portrait was solicited by Ruth Borchard, who created a collection of 100 self-portraits of modern British artists. Redpath sent Borchard the painting in 1964, taking care to mark the date as 1943 because she did not want people to think she had painted herself as 20 years younger. A friend who traveled to Spain with Redpath in 1951 described her appearance: "Anne looked like Queen Victoria; the formal severity of the portrait is mitigated by touches of colour in the same way as her father had introduced threads of vivid colour in his otherwise sober tweeds. Window in Menton, painted in 1948, a favourite of Redpath's, is a richly-textured surface with familiar elements - flowers, printed wallpaper - but here a seated woman looks towards an open full-length window; the view is of a hillside patterned with trees. Redpath painted more hillsides, like Les Tourettes, as she travelled in the years of her life, but her interest was still interior, her Courtyard in Venice is another view from inside looking outwards.
Some works reflect religious influences paintings of altars in The Chapel of St Jean - Treboul andVenetian Altar. These are regarded by commentators who admire her mature work more than the pieces from the 1940s. Portland Gallery held a large exhibition of works by Redpath in July 2008. Bourne, Patrick Anne Redpath 1895–1965: her life and work Bruce, George Anne Redpath Exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh Long, Philip Anne Redpath, 1895-1965 Jones, Ruth Anne Redpath in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 107 paintings by or after Anne Redpath at the Art UK site Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections Altar in Pigna National Galleries of Scotland Portland Gallery Tate Gallery Redpath paintings for sale at Portland Gallery The Indian Rug
Asger Oluf Jorn was a Danish painter, ceramic artist, author. He was a founding member of the Situationist International, he was born in Vejrum, in the northwest corner of Jutland and baptized Asger Oluf Jørgensen. The largest collection of Asger Jorn's works—including his major work Stalingrad—can be seen in the Museum Jorn, Denmark. Asger Jorn willed his property and the works of art located inside to the Municipality of Albissola Marina, so that the italian museum called "Casa Museo Jorn" was created for displaying his works, he was the second oldest of an elder brother to Jørgen Nash. Both of his parents were teachers, his father, Lars Peter Jørgensen, a fundamentalist Christian, died in a car crash when Asger was 12 years old. His mother, Maren, née Nielsen, was more liberal but a committed Christian; this early heavy Christian influence had a negative effect on Asger who began progressively to inwardly rebel against it, more against other forms of authority. In 1929, aged 15, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, although he made a recovery from it after spending three months on the west coast of Jutland.
By the age of 16 he was influenced by N. F. S. Grundtvig, although he had started to paint, Asger enrolled in the Vinthers Seminarium, a teacher-training college in Silkeborg where he paid particular attention to a course in 19th century Scandinavian thought. At about this time Jorn became the subject of a number of oil paintings by the painter Martin Kaalund-Jørgensen, which encouraged Jorn to try his hand in this medium; when he graduated from college in 1935, the principal wrote a reference for him which said that he had attained'an extraordinary rich personal development and maturity' – because of his wide reading in areas outside the topics required for his studies. While at college he joined the small Silkeborg branch of the Communist Party of Denmark and came under the direct influence of the syndicalist Christian Christensen, with whom he became close friends and who, Jorn was to write, was to become a second father to him. In 1936 he traveled to Paris to become a student of Kandinsky.
However, when he discovered that Kandinsky was having economic difficulties able to sell his own paintings, Jorn decided to join Fernand Léger's Académie Contemporaine. In 1937 he joined Le Corbusier in working on the Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux at the 1937 Paris Exhibition, he returned again to Denmark in the summer of 1937. He again traveled to Paris in the summer of 1938, before returning to Denmark, traveling to Løkken and Copenhagen. Asger Jorn was a good friend of the Danish art dealer Børge Birch, owner of Galerie Birch, who sold his art as early as the 1930s. On Jorn held many group exhibitions and solo exhibitions in different galleries. From 1937 to 1942, he studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen; the occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany was a time of deep crisis for Jorn, inculcated with pacifism. The occupation sank him into deep depression, he subsequently became active in the communist resistance movement. During the war he co-founded with the architect Robert Dahlmann Olsen the underground art group, Helhesten or "hell-horse," and was a contributor to its journal.
In 1939, he wrote the key theoretical essay, "Intimate Banalities," published in Helhesten, which claimed that the future of art was kitsch and praised amateur landscape paintings as "the best art today." He was the first person to translate Franz Kafka into Danish. After the war, he complained that opportunities for critical thinking within the context of the communist arena had been curtailed by what he characterised as a centralised bourgeois political control. Finding this unacceptable, he broke with the Communist Party of Denmark, although he did not hand in his membership until the mid-1960s and remained committed philosophically to a revision of the Marxist analysis of capitalism from the point of view of the artist, he traveled again to France where he, together with Christian Dotremont and Constant, founded COBRA, edited monographs of the Bibliothèque Cobra. He returned and ill with tuberculosis, to Silkeborg in 1951 and resumed work in the ceramics field in 1953; the following year he traveled to Albissola Marina in Italy where he became involved with an offshoot of COBRA, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus.
In 1954 he met Guy Debord, to become a close friend. The two men collaborated on two artist's books, Fin de Copenhagen and Mémoires, along with prints, forewords to each other's work, he participated in the conference that led to the merger of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, the Lettriste Internationale, London Psychogeographical Association to form the Situationist International in 1957. Here he applied his scientific and mathematical knowledge drawn from Henri Poincaré and Niels Bohr to develop his situlogical technique. Jorn never believed in a conception of the Situationist ideas as artistic and separated from political involvement, he was at the root and at the core of the Situationist International project sharing the revolutionary intentions with Debord. The Situationist general principles were an attack on the capitalist exploitation and degradation of the life of people, solution of alternative life experiences, construction of situations, unitary urbanism, with the union of play and criti
Corneille Guillaume Beverloo
Corneille – Guillaume Cornelis van Beverloo, better known under his pseudonym Corneille, was a Dutch artist. Corneille was born in Liege, although his parents were Dutch and moved back to the Netherlands when he was 12, he studied art at the Academy of Art in the Netherlands. He was one of the founders of the REFLEX movement in 1948 and in 1949 he was one of the founders of the COBRA movement, which has had great influence on Scandinavian art, he was active within the group from the beginning, not only painting but publishing poetry in the Cobra magazine. He was a cofounder of the Experimentele Groep in Holland; the poetic Corneille was influenced by Miró and Klee. After the group dissolved in 1951 he began collecting African art; these artifacts became evident in his works, which began to take on a more imaginative style, like landscapes seen from a bird's eye view, exotic birds and stylised forms. His work is in the collection of the Centre Georges Pompidou; until his death Corneille lived and worked in Paris, made visits to Israel where he worked with the Jaffa Atalier.
On 24 September 2003 an exhibition of his prints opened at the Ramat-Gan Museum of Israel. He died at France. Estampe.fr Obituary in The Independent by Marcus Williamson Art Signature Dictionary – See Guillaume Cornelis van Beverloo's signature, although the police seizure of counterfeit Sculptures & Graphic edition by Corneille produced in Israel 2000–2010