A Racing Suit or Racing Overalls referred to as a Fire Suit due to its fire retardant properties, is the clothing worn in various forms of auto racing by racing drivers, crew members who work on the vehicles during races, track safety workers or marshals, in some series commentators at the event. In the early days of racing, most racing series had no mandated uniforms. Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, specialized racing suits were designed to optimize driver temperature via heat transfer, to protect drivers from fire. By 1967, the majority of competitors in Formula One, NASCAR, the National Hot Rod Association, USAC Champ Car began wearing specialized fire suits. Most modern suits utilize Nomex, a material developed in the 1960s around the time fire suits emerged; the suits are known for prominently displaying driver sponsors. A racing suit is designed to cover the entire body of a driver, crew member, or marshall, including long sleeves and long pant legs. Typical driver suits are one-piece overalls, similar in appearance to a boilersuit.
Other fire suits are two piece, consisting of pants. The suits consist of a multiple layers of fire-retardant material; the suits have special epaulettes or yokes on the shoulder area that act as "handles" in order to lift a driver strapped to a racing seat out of a vehicle. This feature is mandated under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile safety standards. Most suits utilize fabric made of Nomex, a synthetic material produced by DuPont which retains its fire-retardant properties over time and usage. Other suits consist of cotton treated with Proban, a chemical manufactured by Rhodia, or other substances; these suits can lose their fire-resistant properties over time after washing. Other suits are made of Kevlar, polybenzimidazole fiber, or carbon fibers, but are less used due to lack of comfort and color variety. Newer suits, such as those produced by Sparco, have inner liners treated with menthol to create a cooling sensation and fight odor. Additional accessories, including fire-resistant long underwear, gloves and balaclava-like face masks or "head socks" are worn.
When Nomex material is exposed to flame, instead of burning or melting it develops a carbon char. The char thickens the section of fiber exposed to the flame, preventing the spread of the fire to the rest of the suit and inhibiting the transfer of heat to the wearer of the garment. CarbonX is a different fabric for fire suits made of oxidized polyacrylonitrile, it is created by heating material until it oxidizes and chars, with the finished product able to last for two minutes exposed to fire. It is used for racing undergarments and gloves. Using multiple layers of the material, quilting of the fabric, create pockets of air which further insulate the wearer from heat; the suits are not fireproof, but rather fire retardant for a period of time, allowing an individual to escape an incident or be rescued with minimal injury. Bill Simpson, an innovator in racing safety, estimated in 1993 that a person has "20 to 30 seconds" before a fire suit begins to burn; the mandated minimum level of protection for uniforms in different racing series varies, as does the minimum standard for drivers, crew members, officials.
In the National Hot Rod Association drag racing series, for example, suits are designed to last 30 to 40 seconds before the wearer suffers second degree burns. This is a higher benchmark than that of most other series, due to the high risk of fire from nitromethane and alcohol-fueled cars. SFI Foundation, Inc. part of SEMA, dictates the suit fire protection standards for numerous sanctioning bodies in the United States, including NASCAR, IndyCar, the NHRA, the Sports Car Club of America, the United States Auto Club. The FIA determines the standards for most of its series such as Formula One and the FIA World Endurance Championship, excluding the standards of its drag racing competition which are determined by SFI. SFI and FIA standards are used by other organizations outside their jurisdiction, such as the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport. Both SFI and the FIA use the Thermal Protective Performance test to measure the effectiveness of fire-retardant clothing; this test, created by DuPont in the 1970s, measures the amount of time in seconds before the wearer of a garment suffers second degree burns.
For example, a garment that lasts three seconds before second degree burns occur receives a TPP value of 6. Under SFI standards, this would receive a rating of the lowest possible SFI rating. Suits in several other classes of racing are similar in appearance to fire suits, but are not designed to be fire resistant. Suits used for kart racing are not fire retardant, but rather are made to be abrasion resistant using leather, nylon or cordura. Suits used for motorcycle racing, called motorcycle leathers, are designed to be abrasion resistant, they consist with nylon and spandex fabrics prohibited. Fire-resistant undergarments are optional to provide fire protection; the Commission Internationale de Karting and FIA regulate specifications for karting suits. The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme regulates suits for numerous racing series such as MotoGP and the AMA Supercross Championship. Since the 1980s, racing suits have been customized to prominently feature the sponsors of drivers and teams, leading to designs similar to those of the race cars.
For fire suits, the material used to make the sponsor patches must be fire proof, adding additional weight to the suit. Many modern suits, use printed logos in order to redu
1951 Formula One season
The 1951 Formula One season was the fifth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1951 World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 27 May 1951 and ended on 28 October after eight races; the season included 14 races that were open to Formula One cars but did not count towards the championship standings. Ferrari's newer, unsupercharged 4.5 litre cars offered a real challenge to the Alfas, which were nearing the end of their development potential. The Ferraris were able to capitalize on the inefficiency of the Alfa's thirsty engines at Silverstone. Although Alfas won four races, with Fangio taking the championship, Ferrari's three victories spelled the end for the Alfas. BRM made their only championship appearance with the V16 at Silverstone, the old, slow Talbots were outclassed. Points were given to top 5 finishers. 1 point was given for fastest lap. Only the best four of eight scores counted towards the world championship. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps.
Although the official championship season would start in late May in Switzerland, there were a handful of non-championship events to be run. The first was the first Syracuse Grand Prix near the ancient city of Syracuse on the southern island of Sicily; this race was won by Italian Luigi Villoresi driving the new 4 1/2 liter Ferrari 375 on the 3.4 mile public road circuit. Villoresi would triumph again 2 weeks at Pau in southwest France over homeland hero Louis Rosier and Nino Farina, driving a Maserati for this race. On the same day Thai driver Prince Bira would triumph at the Richmond Trophy race at Goodwood in southern England in his Maserati. 3 weeks after the Goodwood and Pau races it was the San Remo Grand Prix in western Italy not far from Monaco, Alberto Ascari made his first appearance of the season and promptly won in a Ferrari 375 on this twisty and demanding 2.1 mile street circuit, ahead of his countryman Dorino Serafini and Swiss Rudi Fischer, both in Ferraris. A week was the Bordeaux Grand Prix in western France and it was won by Rosier in a Talbot, ahead of Fischer and Briton Peter Whitehead in a Ferrari.
Other than Farina this race did not feature any Italians in it because they were competing in the Mille Miglia. A week was the BRDC International Trophy race at Silverstone, with the Alfa Romeos making their first appearance in 1951. Of the first two heats, Fangio won the first. Two weeks after this was the Paris Grand Prix in the Bois de Boulogne Park in the French capital city, won by Farina in a Maserati. A week after the BRDC International Trophy race the Formula One Championship season started in Switzerland at the dangerous and tree-lined Bremgarten public road circuit near Bern around the time the Monaco Grand Prix would have been held, but that historic race was not held this year. Alfa Romeo, the dominant team in 1950 with its supercharged 159 Alfetta, took the first 5 places on the grid, with the exception of 3rd, taken by Luigi Villoresi in a Ferrari. Argentine Juan Manuel Fangio was on pole position, with his Italian teammate Giuseppe "Nino" Farina alongside him; the race started while it was raining, with its overhanging trees lining the road, this circuit was more dangerous in the wet.
But Fangio made no mistake and won the race from Piero Taruffi in a Ferrari and Farina, whose decision to run the race without changing tires proved to be the wrong decision. The Indianapolis 500 in the United States was run 3 days after the Swiss Grand Prix on a Wednesday, was the only non-European championship round and the only round not run to FIA Grand Prix regulations. Lee Wallard won this demanding race in his Kurtis Kraft-Offenhauser. Farina had won again at Ulster Trophy held at the dangerous and fast Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland in an Alfa, the next championship Grand Prix was in Belgium at the fastest circuit of the year: the spectacular and rural 8.7 mi Spa-Francorchamps circuit. With Fangio and Farina once again 1–2 with the Ferraris of Villoresi and Alberto Ascari taking 3rd and 4th, the Alfas and Ferraris dueled around this circuit, with only 13 entries – small grids in all kinds of motorsports in Europe were commonplace at Spa, because of the fear most drivers had of the circuit.
Farina on a high after winning at Dundrod won by 3 minutes over Ascari and Villoresi, with Fangio finishing 4 laps down in 9th after one of his Alfa's wheels jammed on its hub. The French Grand Prix, given the honorary designation of the European Grand Prix this year was held at the fast 4.8 mile Reims-Gueux circuit deep in northern French champagne country played the host for an exciting race. Fangio, on pole again, was beaten off the line by 3rd placed qualifier Ascari, with 2nd placed qualifier Farina making a terrible start and dropping to 11th. On this triangular public road circuit, made up of long straights, slight kinks and slow, angular corners saw Ascari retire his car with a broken gearbox and Fangio nursing a sick car. Farina pushed hard and took the lead. Argentine Jose Froilan Gonzalez was 2nd in a Ferrari, 53-year old pre-war great Luigi Fagioli in an Alfa was 3rd in a one-off appearance for this year. Gonzalez was chasing Farina hard. However, during both the leader's pitstops, as was commonplace in Grand Prix racing up until 1957, when it was banned – Gonzalez handed his car over to Ascari, Fagioli exchanged his healthy car with Fang
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion, most accomplished by means of friction. Most brakes use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for use. Other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert kinetic energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail, converted into heat. Still other braking methods transform kinetic energy into different forms, for example by transferring the energy to a rotating flywheel. Brakes are applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid.
Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms, such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute, or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing. Since kinetic energy increases quadratically with velocity, an object moving at 10 m/s has 100 times as much energy as one of the same mass moving at 1 m/s, the theoretical braking distance, when braking at the traction limit, is 100 times as long. In practice, fast vehicles have significant air drag, energy lost to air drag rises with speed. All wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp. Most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage; some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight. Notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era; these allow the aircraft to maintain a safe speed in a steep descent.
The Saab B 17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake. Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually; when traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake. When the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down.. Brakes electromagnetics. One brake may use several principles: for example, a pump may pass fluid through an orifice to create friction: Frictional brakes are most common and can be divided broadly into "shoe" or "pad" brakes, using an explicit wear surface, hydrodynamic brakes, such as parachutes, which use friction in a working fluid and do not explicitly wear; the term "friction brake" is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes though hydrodynamic brakes use friction.
Friction brakes are rotating devices with a stationary pad and a rotating wear surface. Common configurations include shoes that contract to rub on the outside of a rotating drum, such as a band brake. Other brake configurations are less often. For example, PCC trolley brakes include a flat shoe, clamped to the rail with an electromagnet. A drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum; the drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub. Drum brakes can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles. Compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat; the disc brake is a device for stopping the rotation of a road wheel. A brake disc made of cast iron or ceramic, is connected to the wheel or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads is forced mechanically, pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc.
Friction attached wheel to slow or stop. Pumping brakes are used where a pump is part of the machinery. For example, an internal-combustion piston motor can have the fuel supply stopped, internal pumping losses of the engine create some braking; some engines use a valve override called a Jake brake to increase pumping losses. Pumping brakes can dump energy as heat, or can be regenerative brakes that recharge a pressure reservoir called a hydraulic accumulator. Electromagnetic brakes are often used where an electric motor is part of the machinery. For example, many hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles use the electric motor as a generator to charge electric batteries and as a regenerative brak
Reading is a city in and the county seat of Berks County, United States. With a population of 87,575, it is the fifth-largest city in Pennsylvania. Located in the southeastern part of the state, it is the principal city of the Greater Reading Area, is furthermore included in the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area; the city, halfway between the state's most populous city and the state capital, Harrisburg is strategically situated along a major transportation route from Central to Eastern Pennsylvania, lent its name to the now-defunct Reading Railroad, which transported anthracite coal from the Pennsylvania Coal Region to the eastern United States via the Port of Philadelphia. Reading Railroad is one of the four railroad properties in the classic United States version of the Monopoly board game. Reading was one of the first localities, it has been known as "The Pretzel City", because of numerous local pretzel bakeries. Bachman, Tom Sturgis, Unique Pretzel bakeries call the Reading area home.
According to the 2010 census, Reading has the highest share of citizens living in poverty in the nation. In recent years, the Reading area has become a destination for cyclists. With more than 125 miles of trails in five major preserves, it is an International Mountain Bicycling Association Ride Center and held the Reading Radsport Festival on September 8–9, 2017. In April 2017, it was announced that an indoor velodrome, or cycling track, will be built in Reading as the first of its kind on the East Coast and only the second in the entire country. Albright College and the World Cycling League formally announced plans April 6, 2017, to build the $20 million, 2,500-seat facility, which will be called the National Velodrome and Events Center at Albright College, it will serve as the Cycling League's world headquarters. Lenni Lenape people known as "Delaware Indians", were the original inhabitants of the Reading area; the Colony of Pennsylvania was a 1680 land grant from King Charles II of England to William Penn.
Comprising more than 45,000 square miles, it was named for Sir William Penn.. In 1743, Richard and Thomas Penn mapped out the town of Reading with Conrad Weiser. Taking its name from Reading, England, the town was established in 1748. Upon the creation of Berks County in 1752, Reading became the county seat; the region was settled by emigrants from southern and western Germany, who bought land from the Penns. The first Amish community in the New World was established in Berks County; the Pennsylvanian German dialect was spoken in the area later. During the French and Indian War, Reading was a military base for a chain of forts along the Blue Mountain. By the time of the American Revolution, the area's iron industry had a total production exceeding England's; that output helped supply George Washington's troops with cannons and ammunition in the Revolutionary War. During the early period of the conflict, Reading was again a depot for military supply. Hessian prisoners from the Battle of Trenton were detained here.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was the capital of the United States at the time of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793. President Washington traveled to Reading, considered making it the emergency national capital, but chose Germantown instead. Susanna Cox was tried and convicted for infanticide in Reading in 1809, her case attracted tremendous sympathy. Census data showed that, from 1810 to 1950, Reading was among the nation's top one hundred largest urban places; the Schuylkill Canal, a north-south canal completed in 1825, paralleled the Schuylkill River and connected Reading with Philadelphia and the Delaware River. The Union Canal, an east-west canal completed in 1828, connected the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Rivers, ran from Reading to Middletown, Pennsylvania, a few miles south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Railroads forced the abandonment of the canals by the 1880s; the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was incorporated in 1833. During the Long Depression following the Panic of 1873, a statewide railroad strike in 1877 over delayed wages led to a violent protest and clash with the National Guard in which six Reading men were killed.
Following more than a century of prosperity, the Reading Company was forced to file for bankruptcy protection in 1971. The bankruptcy was a result of dwindling coal shipping revenues and strict government regulations that denied railroads the ability to set competitive prices, required high taxes, forced the railroads to continue to operate money-losing passenger service lines. On April 1, 1976, the Reading Company sold its current railroad interests to the newly formed Consolidated Railroad Corporation; the Charles Evans Cemetery is the non-sectarian cemetery where many of the city's prominent business and community leaders have been buried since the cemetery's opening in the 1840s. Established through the donation of land by Reading attorney and philanthropist Charles Evans and a subsequent financial endowment upon his death in 1847, which provided for future improvements to the grounds, the cemetery became a primary gathering point for annual Memorial Day activities from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries due to the presence of the Grand Army of the Republic monument, dedicated there in 1887.
Early in the 20th century, the city participated in the burgeoning automobile and motorcycle industry as home to the pioneer "Brass Era" companies, Daniels Motor Comp
A fire retardant is a substance, used to slow or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity. This is accomplished by chemical reactions that reduce the flammability of fuels or delay their combustion. Fire retardants may cool the fuel through physical action or endothermic chemical reactions. Fire retardants are available as powder, to be mixed with water, as fire-fighting foams and fire-retardant gels. Fire retardants are available as coatings or sprays to be applied to an object. Fire retardants are used in fire fighting, where they may be applied aerially or from the ground. In general, fire retardants reduce the flammability of materials by either blocking the fire physically or by initiating a chemical reaction that stops the fire. There are several ways in which the combustion process can be retarded by physical action: By cooling: Some chemical reactions cool the material down. By forming a protective layer that prevents the underlying material from igniting. By dilution: Some carbon dioxide while burning.
This may dilute the radicals in the flame enough. Used fire retardant additives include mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite, aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide; when heated, aluminium hydroxide dehydrates to form aluminum oxide, releasing water vapor in the process. This reaction absorbs a great deal of heat. Additionally, the residue of alumina forms a protective layer on the material's surface. Mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite work in a similar manner, they endothermically decompose releasing both water and carbon dioxide, giving fire retardant properties to the materials in which they are incorporated. Reactions in the gas phase: chemical reactions in the flame can be interrupted by fire retardants; these retardants are organic halides such as Halon and PhostrEx. The chemicals used in these types of retardants are toxic. Reaction in the solid phase: some retardants break down polymers so they melt and flow away from the flame. Although this allows some materials to pass certain flammability tests, it is not known whether fire safety is improved by the production of flammable plastic droplets.
Char Formation: For carbon-based fuels, solid phase flame retardants cause a layer of carbonaceous char to form on the fuel surface. This char layer prevents further burning. Intumescents: These types of retardant materials incorporate chemicals which cause swelling behind the protective char layer, providing much better insulation, they are available as plastic additives, as paints for protecting wooden buildings or steel structures. Class A foam is used as a fire retardant in 2.5 gallon and extinguishers to contain incipient brush fires and grass fires by creating a fire break. Other chemical retardants are capable of rendering class A material and Class B fuels non-flammable and extinguishing class A, class B, some class D fires. Fire retardant slurries dropped from aircraft are applied ahead of a wildfire to prevent ignition, while fire suppression agents are used to extinguish fires. Objects may be coated with fire retardants. For example, Christmas trees are sprayed with retardants; as a tree dries out it becomes flammable and a fire-hazard.
Steel structures have a fire retardant coating around columns and beams to prevent structural elements from weakening during a fire. Dormitories in the US are considering using these products. Since 2000, 109 people have died in fires in dormitories or off-campus student housing across the nation, according to Campus Firewatch, an online newsletter. Campus Firewatch's publisher, Ed Comeau, said a January 2000 fire at Seton Hall University in New Jersey drew attention to the perils of fire on campus. A common area in a Seton Hall dorm caught fire after two students ignited a banner from a bulletin board; the fire spread to furniture and killed three students and injured 58 others. Early fire retardants were mixtures of water and thickening agents, included borates and ammonium phosphates. Fire retardants are dropped from aircraft or applied by ground crews around a wildfire's edges in an effort to contain its spread; this allows ground crews time to work to extinguish the fire. However, when needed, retardant can be dropped directly onto flames to cool the fire and reduce flame length.
Aerial firefighting is a method to combat wildfires using aircraft. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are classified as aerial firefighters, being delivered by parachute from a variety of fixed-wing aircraft, or rappelling from helicopters. Chemicals used to fight fires may include water, water enhancers, or specially-formulated fire retardants. Fire retardants applied to wildfires are a mixture of water and chemicals designed to wet the area as well as chemically retard a fire's progression through vegetation, it is colored so that the application area can be seen from the air. New gel-based retardants which meet NFPA Standard 1150 are being introduced into use; these are dyed other colors to differentiate them from the traditional red retardant. The gels and their dyes are designed to biodegrade naturally. Phos-Chek is a brand of long-term retardant approved for wildland fire use. Forest fire retardants that are used are considered non-toxic, but less-toxic compounds carry some risk when organisms are exposed to large amounts.
Fire retardants used in firefighting can be toxic to fish and wildlife as well as firefighters by releasing dioxins and furans when halogenated fire retardants are burned during
Borax known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve in water. A number of related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content are referred to as borax, but the word is used to refer to the octahydrate. Commercially sold borax is dehydrated. Borax is a component of many detergents and enamel glazes, it is used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of fiberglass, as a flux in metallurgy, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, as a precursor for other boron compounds, along with its inverse, boric acid, is useful as an insecticide. In artisanal gold mining, borax is sometimes used as part of a process meant to eliminate the need for toxic mercury in the gold extraction process, although it cannot directly replace mercury.
Borax was used by gold miners in parts of the Philippines in the 1900s. Borax was first discovered in dry lake beds in Tibet and was imported via the Silk Road to the Arabian Peninsula in the 8th century AD. Borax first came into common use in the late 19th century when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company began to market and popularize a large variety of applications under the 20 Mule Team Borax trademark, named for the method by which borax was hauled out of the California and Nevada deserts; the term borax is used for a number of related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content: anhydrous sodium tetraborate, Na2B4O7 sodium tetraborate pentahydrate, Na2B4O7·5H2O sodium tetraborate decahydrate, Na2B4O7·10H2O or equivalently the octahydrate, Na2B4O54·8H2OFrom the chemical perspective, borax contains the 2− ion. In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron centers and two three-coordinate boron centers. Borax is easily converted to boric acid and other borates, which have many applications.
Its reaction with hydrochloric acid to form boric acid is: Na2B4O7·10H2O + 2 HCl → 4 B3 + 2 NaCl + 5 H2OThe "decahydrate" is sufficiently stable to find use as a primary standard for acid base titrimetry. When borax is added to a flame, it produces a yellow green color. Borax is not used for this purpose in fireworks due to the overwhelming yellow color of sodium. Boric acid is used to color methanol flames a transparent green. Borax is soluble in ethylene glycol, moderately soluble in diethylene glycol and methanol soluble in acetone, it is poorly soluble in cold water, but its solubility increases with temperature. The English word borax is Latinized: the Middle English form was boras, from Old French boras, bourras; that may have been from medieval Latin baurach, borax, along with Spanish borrax and Italian borrace, in the 9th century. Another name for borax is tincal, from Sanskrit; the word tincal "tinkle", or tincar "tinker", refers to crude borax, before it is purified, as mined from lake deposits in Tibet and other parts of Asia.
The word was adopted in the 17th century from Malay tingkal and from Urdu/Persian/Arabic تنکار tinkār/tankār. These all appear to be related to the Sanskrit टांकण ṭānkaṇa. Borax occurs in evaporite deposits produced by the repeated evaporation of seasonal lakes; the most commercially important deposits are found in: Turkey. Borax has been found at many other locations in the Southwestern United States, the Atacama desert in Chile, newly discovered deposits in Bolivia, in Tibet and Romania. Borax can be produced synthetically from other boron compounds. Occurring borax is refined by a process of recrystallization. Borax is used in various household laundry and cleaning products, including the "20 Mule Team Borax" laundry booster, "Boraxo" powdered hand soap, some tooth bleaching formulas. Borate ions are used in biochemical and chemical laboratories to make buffers, e.g. for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA, such as TBE buffer or the newer SB buffer or BBS buffer in coating procedures.
Borate buffers are used as preferential equilibration solution in dimethyl pimelimidate based crosslinking reactions. Borax as a source of borate has been used to take advantage of the co-complexing ability of borate with other agents in water to form complex ions with various substances. Borate and a suitable polymer bed are used to chromatograph non-glycosylated hemoglobin differentially from glycosylated hemoglobin, an indicator of long term hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Borax alone does not have a high affinity for the hardness cations, although it has been used for water-softening, its chemical equation for water-softening is given below: Ca2+ + Na2B4O7 → CaB4O7 ↓ + 2 Na+ Mg2+ + Na2B4O7 → MgB4O7 ↓ + 2 Na+ The sodium ions introduced do not make water ‘hard’. This method is suitable for removing both permanent types of hardness. A mixture of borax and ammonium chloride is used as a flux when welding steel, it lowers the melting point of the unwanted iron oxide. Borax is used mixed with water as a flux when soldering jewelry metals such as gold or silver, where it allows the molten solder to wet the metal and flow evenly int
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι. In architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to raise people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown an increasing use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in events such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used. Traditionally, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a somewhat lower platform for the silver medalist, to the left of the gold medalist is an lower platform for the bronze medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver and Bronze were equal in elevation. In many sports, results in the top three of a competition are referred to as "podiums" or "podium finishes". In some individual sports, "podiums" is an official statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career.
The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, "to podium", meaning to attain a podium place. Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles and the 1932 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid; the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Present are the dignitaries selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a race stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. In an international series, the national anthem of the winning driver, the winning team or constructor may be played over a public address system and the flags of the drivers' countries are hoisted above them; the recordings are short versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a slow lap in Formula One, that driver is transported to the pit lane via road car by the Formula One Administration security officer.
Following the presentation of the trophies, the drivers will spray Champagne over each other and their team members watching below, a tradition started by Dan Gurney following the 1967 24 Hours of Le Mans race. The drivers will refrain from spraying champagne if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. In countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, for example rose water; the term has become common parlance in the media, where a driver may be said to "be heading for a podium finish" or "just missing out on a podium" when he is heading for, or just misses out on a top three finish. The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics. Instead, the winning team celebrates in victory lane, top-five and top-ten finishes are recognized statistically; those finishing second to fifth are required to stop in a media bullpen located on pit lane for interviews.
The INDYCAR Verizon IndyCar Series does not use a podium at either the Indianapolis 500 or at Texas Motor Speedway. The Indy 500 has a long tradition of the winning driver and team celebrating in victory lane, while Texas Motor Speedway president Eddie Gossage has stated that victory lane should be reserved for the winner of the race. However, the series does use a podium at all other races road course events. Architectural podiums are consist of a projecting base or pedestal at ground level, they have been used since ancient times. Sometimes only meters tall, architectural podiums have become more prominent in buildings over time, as illustrated in the gallery. Lectern