The 1960s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1960, ended on 31 December 1969. The term "1960s" refers to an era more called the Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends around the globe; this "cultural decade" is more loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around 1963 with the John F. Kennedy assassination and ending around 1974 with the Watergate scandal."The Sixties", as they are known in both scholarship and popular culture, is a term used by historians and other academics to describe the counterculture and revolution in social norms about clothing, drugs, sexuality and schooling. The decade was labeled the Swinging Sixties because of the fall or relaxation of social taboos that occurred during this time, but because of the emergence of a wide range of music. Norms of all kinds were broken down in regards to civil rights and expectations the men would go off to meaningless wars. Commentator Christopher Booker described this era as a classical Jungian nightmare cycle, where a rigid culture, unable to contain the demands for greater individual freedom, broke free of the social constraints of the previous age through extreme deviation from the norm.

He charts the rise, fall/nightmare and explosion in the London scene of the 1960s. Several Western nations such as the United States, United Kingdom and West Germany turned to the political left in the early and mid-1960s. By the end of the 1950s, war-ravaged Europe had finished reconstruction and began a tremendous economic boom. World War II had brought about a huge leveling of social classes in which the remnants of the old feudal gentry disappeared. There was a major expansion of the middle class in western European countries and by the 1960s, many working-class people in Western Europe could afford a radio, television and motor vehicle. Meanwhile, the East such as the Soviet union and other Warsaw Pact countries were improving after rebuilding from WWII. Real GDP growth averaged 6% a year during the second half of the decade. Thus, the overall worldwide economic trend in the 1960s was one of prosperity, expansion of the middle class, the proliferation of new domestic technology; the confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union dominated geopolitics during the'60s, with the struggle expanding into developing nations in Latin America and Asia as the Soviet Union moved from being a regional to a global superpower and began vying for influence in the developing world.

After President Kennedy's assassination, direct tensions between the US and Soviet Union cooled and the superpower confrontation moved into a contest for control of the Third World, a battle characterized by proxy wars, funding of insurgencies, puppet governments. In response to nonviolent direct action campaigns from groups like the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, U. S. President John F. Kennedy, a Keynesian and staunch anti-communist, pushed for social reforms. Kennedy's assassination in 1963 was a shock. Liberal reforms were passed under Lyndon B. Johnson including civil rights for African Americans and healthcare for the elderly and the poor. Despite his large-scale Great Society programs, Johnson was reviled by the New Left at home and abroad; the heavy-handed American role in the Vietnam War outraged student protestors around the globe. The assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. upon working with underpaid Tennessee garbage collectors and the anti-Vietnam War movement, the police response towards protesters of the 1968 Democratic National Convention, defined politics of violence in the United States.

In Western Europe and Japan, organizations such as those present at May 1968, the Red Army Faction, the Zengakuren tested liberal democracy's ability to satisfy its marginalized or alienated citizenry amidst post-industrial age hybrid capitalist economies. In Britain, the Labour Party gained power in 1964. In France, the protests of 1968 led to President Charles de Gaulle temporarily fleeing the country. For some, May 1968 meant the end of traditional collective action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated by the so-called new social movements. Italy formed its first left-of-center government in March 1962 with a coalition of Christian Democrats, Social Democrats, moderate Republicans. Socialists joined the ruling block in December 1963. In Brazil, João Goulart became president. In Africa the 1960s was a period of radical political change as 32 countries gained independence from their European colonial rulers; the Cold War The Vietnam War 1961 – Substantial American advisory forces first arrive in Vietnam.

1962 – By mid-1962, the number of U. S. military advisers in South Vietnam had risen from 900 to 12,000. 1963 – By the time of U. S. President John F. Kennedy's death there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from Eisenhower's 900 advisors to cope with rising guerrilla activity in Vietnam. 1964 – In direct response to the minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident which occurred on 2 August 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, a joint resolution of the U. S. Congress, was passed on 10 August 1964; the resolution gave U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in

John Q. Kelly

John Quinlan Kelly is a New York City attorney specializing in high-profile wrongful death cases, whose clients are at the center of some of the biggest news stories in history. He is the personal injury department chair at Ivey, Barnum, & O'Mara, LLC. Kelly started out as a trial assistant in the Queens District Attorney’s Office, prosecuting homicides and major narcotics cases; as a criminal defense attorney, he represented at trial a number of high-profile clients charged with major crimes. Kelly turned his attention to civil litigation, his focus for the past 20 years. Lead attorney for the Estate of Nicole Brown Simpson, et al. v. O. J. Simpson in the wrongful death action resulting from the homicides of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman. After what was described as a near flawless performance, the jury returned a verdict finding O. J. Simpson responsible for her death and awarding punitive damages to the Estate of Nicole Brown Simpson. Attorney for Beth Holloway relating to the disappearance of her daughter, Natalee Holloway, while on spring break on the island of Aruba.

It was Mr. Kelly's planning, personal interactions with suspect Joran van der Sloot that directly led to van der Sloot, being indicted in the U. S. on federal extortion and wire fraud counts. Attorney for Kathleen Caronna, who suffered a severe traumatic brain injury during the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade when the Cat in the Hat balloon struck and broke a lamp post, which struck Ms. Caronna on the head. Attorney for the Estate of Kathleen Savio, third wife of former Bollingbrook police officer Drew Peterson. A coroner's inquest ruled Ms. Savio had accidentally drowned in her bathtub, but a subsequent inquest ruled the death a homicide, paving the way for a wrongful death claim by the Estate against Drew Peterson. Attorney for the Estates of Mike Bastardi Sr. and Guy Bastardi, killed in an automobile accident by a woman going the wrong way on the Taconic Parkway in her van with several children inside. Attorney for Concetta Russo-Carriero, murdered at lunchtime on a week day while walking to her car parked in a parking garage adjacent to the Galleria Mall and operated to the City of White Plains.

The jury returned a verdict against the City of White Plains, finding that the City failed to keep the premises in a reasonably safe condition. Attorney for the Estates of several victims of the Antelope Canyon flash flood disaster. A group of French teenage girls drowned while on a guided Trek America tour through a slot canyon in Arizona when a flash flood roared through it. American attorney for Raffaele Sollecito, who along with Amanda Knox, is charged with the murder of British student Meredith Kercher in Perugia, Italy. Mr. Kelly was present in court in Florence, Italy when Mr. Sollecito appeared at the appeals trial to give his statement to the court. Attorney for Joe Pepitone, former New York Yankees great, charged with possessing a large amount of cocaine, a loaded weapon and drug transaction records, he faced a mandatory life sentence. Mr. Pepitone was acquitted by a jury of all felony counts after trial. Others clients Kelly has represented/represents include the estate of heiress Anne Scripps Douglas, estate of Zachary Hartwell, estate of Wu and, estate of Rachelle Curry.

Kelly is a media fixture both as a legal commentator. Kelly has been profiled in New York Post, New York Daily News, New York Law Journal, Lawyers Weekly, New York Magazine, Worth Magazine and Greenwich Magazine. Published in "Vital Speeches of the Day" and was a guest speaker at the 24th Annual Masters of Trial Advocacy Retreat in 2012. Kelly grew up in the eighth of nine children, of a school teacher mother and lawyer father. After graduating from Georgetown University, he travelled through Europe and the Middle East for two years before returning to earn his J. D. from Suffolk University Law School, where he was selected to represent his school in the national moot court competition and served as editor of the law journal. Kelly is married with four children, resides in Westchester County, New York

Danger Hiptop

The Danger Hiptop re-branded as the T-Mobile Sidekick and Sharp Jump is a GPRS/EDGE/UMTS smartphone, produced by Danger, Inc. from 2002 to 2010. The Hiptop software was designed by Danger, Inc., located in Palo Alto and purchased by Microsoft for $500 million in 2008. Danger provided back-end services for the device; this included a catalog of downloadable software applications, email hosting, instant messaging, web proxies and a cloud service for the entire personal data on the device. The original Hiptop hardware was manufactured by Flextronics; the Hiptop II, 3, Sidekick iD, Sidekick 2008 and Sidekick LX are all manufactured by Sharp Corporation in Japan and designed by Danger and Danger in partnership with Sharp. All versions of the Hiptop were developed in close partnership with T-Mobile, although carrier-specific features were either removed or added for each carrier, such as the addition of MMS for SunCom and Telstra Hiptop 2 users, where the feature was not available on T-Mobile USA devices until the Sidekick LX in 2007.

The Hiptop/Sidekick became popular in the U. S. and has been considered to be iconic in the mobile devices market. Screens on all Sidekick devices slide vertically to reveal the qwerty keyboard. There are two buttons on the left side of the device and two on the right. On all Hiptops except the original, the left side houses a directional pad and on the right, a track ball The Hiptop 2 and Slide's directional pad contains internal multicolored LEDs used in ringers and notifications, while the 3, 2008, LX, 2009 track ball contains internal multicolored LEDs that provide the same function; the right side has two phone buttons: send call and end call. The top of the unit has two application-specific shoulder buttons; the bottom has a power button. The Hiptop line is designed to be held horizontally with both hands, allowing typing with two thumbs, similar to a Game Boy Advance or a console video game controller. Released on October 1, 2002, the original Hiptop was unique compared to all other hardware versions.

All the units, from the beginning, have featured "Menu", "Back", "Jump" and other keys accessible when the unit was closed. The Hiptop featured a speaker, used for device sounds but not telephone. Along the top edge of the phone bezel is an infrared transceiver; the headset jack serves a dual purpose, as it is used for the accessory camera. A revision of the Hiptop upgraded its screen from a monochrome LCD to a color LCD viewable with or without the backlight on, it is bigger than any Hiptop. The Hiptop was sold by T-Mobile in the United States, United Kingdom and Austria. SunCom and Edge Wireless used to sell the device in some parts of the United States, Fido was the exclusive Hiptop carrier in Canada until sales were discontinued after Fido was bought by Rogers Communications, at the end of the Hiptop 2's life; the discontinuation was because the Hiptop is a competitor to Rogers' BlackBerry business. In Germany, the Hiptop service was offered from 2003 by E-Plus which included a flat rate tariff.

The Hiptop was sold in Singapore by Starhub in 2004. Released in 2004, the Hiptop2 was introduced with Danger moving the D-Pad to the left side of the Hiptop, along with top-left and top-right shoulder dials, volume up/down and power on bottom of phone; the Hiptop2 features a VGA camera, the addition of page-up/page-down buttons on the top and bottom of its scroll wheel. The line-by-line scrolling feature is notable to the Hiptop brand of products and is not a feature of most other multi-function cell phones; the line-by-line scrolling feature is consistent in all applications, as are the "Jump" and all other hardware buttons. The Hiptop2 has two speakers; the microphone is located near the end-call button. Another important feature of the Hiptop2 is the ability to view the screen without a backlight. All units until the LX model had this feature. Most other manufacturers utilized an LCD screen, not visible without backlight. Hiptop and Palm Treo units utilized a transflective liquid crystal display that worked with and without the backlight, making the IM, all other messages readable in bright sunlight, without picking the unit up.

The dimensions of the Hiptop2 are 133 mm x 64 mm x 21 mm. On October 9, 2006, the Australian Hiptop2 was released through Telstra; the Australian version is the same as the Sidekick II in the USA but re-constructed for the Australian audience – it has MSN Messenger built-in as the default messenger and Yahoo! Messenger, downloadable from the catalog. There are two limited edition variants of the T-Mobile USA Sidekick II: Juicy Couture Edition and Mister Cartoon Edition; these are different case colors with operating systems. Released July 10, 2006, the Hiptop3 manufactured by Sharp was smaller than previous versions, measuring 130 mm wide x 59 mm high x 22 mm thick. All features, including the line-by-line scr