1860 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1860 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 6, 1860, as part of the 1860 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose twelve representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by the Senator John Bell, running with the 15th Governor of Massachusetts Edward Everett, with 47.72% of the popular vote, against the 14th Vice President of the United States John Breckenridge, running with Senator Joseph Lane, with 44.55% of the popular vote and Senator Stephen A. Douglas, running with 41st Governor of Georgia Herschel V. Johnson, with 7.72% of the popular vote. Republican Party candidate Abraham Lincoln was not on the ballot in Tennessee, the only one of ten such states to be carried by a candidate other than Breckinridge
Curtis Emerson LeMay was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election. LeMay is credited with designing and implementing an effective, but controversial, systematic strategic bombing campaign in the Pacific theater of World War II, he served as Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from 1961 to 1965. LeMay joined the United States Army Air Corps while studying civil engineering at Ohio State University, he had risen to the rank of major by the time of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. He commanded the 305th Operations Group from October 1942 until September 1943, the 3d Air Division in the European theatre of World War II until August 1944, when he was transferred to the China Burma India Theater, he was placed in command of strategic bombing operations against Japan and executing a massive fire bombing campaign against Japanese cities and Operation Starvation, a crippling minelaying campaign in Japan's internal waterways.
After the war, he was coordinated the Berlin airlift. He served as commander of the Strategic Air Command from 1948 to 1957, where he presided over the transition to an all-jet aircraft force that focused on the deployment of nuclear weapons; as Chief of Staff of the Air Force, he called for the bombing of Cuban missile sites during the Cuban Missile Crisis and sought a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. After retiring from the Air Force in 1965, LeMay agreed to serve as pro-segregation Democrat Governor George Wallace's running mate in the 1968 United States presidential election; the ticket won 13.5% of the popular vote, a strong tally for a third party campaign, but the Wallace campaign came to see LeMay as a liability. After the election, LeMay retired to his Newport Beach, California and died in 1990. LeMay was born in Columbus, Ohio, on November 15, 1906. LeMay was of distant French Huguenot heritage, his father, Erving Edwin LeMay, was at times an ironworker and general handyman, but he never held a job longer than a few months.
His mother, Arizona Dove LeMay, did her best to hold her family together. With limited income, his family moved around the country as his father looked for work, going as far as Montana and California, they returned to his native city of Columbus. LeMay attended Columbus public schools, graduating from Columbus South High School, studied civil engineering at The Ohio State University. Working his way through college, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering. While at Ohio State he was a member of the National Society of Pershing Rifles and the Professional Engineering Fraternity Theta Tau, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Air Corps Reserve in October 1929. He received a regular commission in the United States Army Air Corps in January 1930. While finishing at Ohio State, he took flight training at Norton Field in Columbus, in 1931–32. On June 9, 1934, he married Helen Maitland. LeMay became a pursuit pilot and, while stationed in Hawaii, became one of the first members of the Air Corps to receive specialized training in aerial navigation.
In August 1937, as navigator under pilot and commander Caleb V. Haynes on a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, he helped locate the battleship Utah despite being given the wrong coordinates by Navy personnel, in exercises held in misty conditions off California, after which the group of B-17s bombed it with water bombs. For Haynes again, in May 1938 he navigated three B-17s over 610 miles of the Atlantic Ocean to intercept the Italian liner Rex to illustrate the ability of land-based airpower to defend the American coasts. In 1940 he was navigator for Haynes on the prototype Boeing XB-15 heavy bomber, flying a survey from Panama over the Galapagos islands. War brought increased responsibility; when his crews were not flying missions, they were subjected to relentless training, as LeMay believed that training was the key to saving their lives. "You train as you fight" was one of his cardinal rules. It expressed his belief that, in the chaos and confusion of combat, troops or airmen would perform only if their individual acts were second-nature, performed nearly instinctively due to repetitive training.
Throughout his career, LeMay was and fondly known among his troops as "Old Iron Pants", the "Big Cigar". When the U. S. entered World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, LeMay was a major in the United States Army Air Forces, the commander of a newly created B-17 Flying Fortress unit, the 305th Bomb Group. He took this unit to England in October 1942 as part of the Eighth Air Force, led it in combat until May 1943, notably helping to develop the combat box formation. In September 1943, he became the first commander of the newly formed 3rd Air Division, he led several dangerous missions, including the Regensburg section of the Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission of August 17, 1943. In that mission, he led 146 B-17s to Regensburg, beyond the range of escorting fighters, after bombing, continued on to bases in North Africa, losing 24 bombers in the process; the heavy losses in veteran crews on this and subsequent deep penetration missions in the autumn of 1943 led the Eighth Air Force to limit missions to targets within escort range.
With the deployment in the European theater of the P-51 Mustang in January 1944, the Eighth Air Force gained an escort fighter with range to match the bombers. In a discussion of a report into high abort rates in bomber missions duri
1908 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1908 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 3, 1908. All contemporary 46 states were part of the 1908 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. Tennessee was won by the Democratic nominees, former Representative William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska and his running mate John W. Kern of Indiana
1968 United States presidential election
The 1968 United States presidential election was the 46th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968; the Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Analysts have argued the election of 1968 was a major realigning election as it permanently disrupted the New Deal Coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years. Incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson had been the early front-runner for his party's nomination, but he announced his withdrawal from the race after anti–Vietnam War candidate Eugene McCarthy finished second in the New Hampshire primary. McCarthy, former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Vice President Humphrey emerged as the three major candidates in the Democratic primaries until Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. Humphrey won the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which saw numerous anti-war protests.
Nixon entered the 1968 Republican primaries as the front-runner, he defeated Nelson Rockefeller, Ronald Reagan, other candidates at the 1968 Republican National Convention to win his party's nomination. Governor George Wallace of Alabama ran on the American Independent Party ticket, campaigning in favor of racial segregation; the election year was tumultuous. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation's cities and provide new leadership in the Vietnam War. A year he would popularize the term "silent majority" to describe those he viewed as being his target voters, he pursued a "Southern strategy" designed to win conservative Southern white voters who had traditionally supported the Democratic Party. Humphrey promised to support the Civil Rights Movement. Humphrey trailed badly in polls taken in late August but narrowed Nixon's lead after Wallace's candidacy collapsed and Johnson suspended bombing in the Vietnam War. Nixon won a plurality of the popular vote by a narrow margin, but won by a large margin in the Electoral College, carrying most states outside of the Northeast.
Wallace won five states in the Deep South and ran well in some ethnic enclave industrial districts in the North. This was the first presidential election after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had led to mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country in the South. Nixon's victory marked the start of a period of Republican dominance in presidential elections, as Republicans won seven of the next ten elections. In the election of 1964, incumbent Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won the largest popular vote landslide in U. S. Presidential election history over Republican Barry Goldwater. During the presidential term that followed, Johnson was able to achieve many political successes, including the passage of the Great Society domestic programs, landmark civil rights legislation, the continued exploration of space. Despite making significant achievements, his popular support would be short-lived. At the same time, the country endured large-scale race riots in the streets of its larger cities, along with a generational revolt of young people and violent debates over foreign policy.
The emergence of the hippie counterculture, the rise of New Left activism, the emergence of the Black Power movement exacerbated social and cultural clashes between classes and races. Adding to the national crisis, on April 4, 1968, civil rights leader Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, igniting further mass rioting and chaos, including Washington, D. C. where there was rioting within just a few blocks of the White House and machine guns were stationed on the Capitol steps to protect it. The most important reason for the precipitous decline of President Johnson's popularity was the Vietnam War, which he escalated during his time in office. By late 1967, over 500,000 American soldiers were fighting in Vietnam. Draftees made up 42 percent of the military in Vietnam, but suffered 58% of the casualties as nearly 1000 Americans a month were killed and many more were injured. Johnson's position was damaged when the national news media began to focus on the high costs and ambiguous results of escalation, despite his repeated efforts to downplay the seriousness of the situation.
In early January 1968, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara stated that the war would be winding down as the North Vietnamese were losing their will to fight, but shortly thereafter, they launched the Tet Offensive, in which the North Vietnamese and Communist Vietcong forces launched simultaneous attacks on all government strongholds in South Vietnam. Though a U. S. military victory, Tet led many Americans to ponder whether the war was worth it. In addition, voters felt they could not trust their government's assessment and reporting of the war effort; the Pentagon called for sending several hundred thousand more soldiers to Vietnam. Johnson's approval ratings fell below 35%, the Secret Service refused to let the president make public appearances on the campuses of American colleges and universities, due to his extreme unpopularity among college students; the Secret Service prevented Johnson from appearing at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, because it could not guarantee his safety from assassination.
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1964 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1964 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 3, 1964, as part of the 1964 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, with 55.50% of the popular vote, against Senator Barry Goldwater, with 44.49% of the popular vote
Edmund Sixtus Muskie was an American politician who served as the 58th United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter, a United States Senator from Maine from 1959 to 1980, the 64th Governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959, a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1946 to 1951, the Democratic Party's candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1968 election. Born in Rumford, Maine, he worked as a lawyer for two years before serving in the United States Naval Reserve from 1942 to 1945 during World War II. Upon his return, Muskie served in the Maine State Legislature from 1946 to 1951, unsuccessfully ran for the mayor of Waterville. Muskie was elected the 64th Governor of Maine in 1954 under a reform platform as the first Maine Democratic Party governor in 100 years. Muskie instated environmental provisions. Muskie was elected to the Senate in 1959; as an environmentalist, he helped pass the Clean Air Act of 1970, introduced the Clean Water Act of 1972. Muskie supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the creation of Martin Luther King Jr. Day.
Muskie supported New Federalism in opposition to Richard Nixon. Muskie ran alongside Hubert Humphrey against Nixon in the 1968 presidential election, losing by 0.7 percentage points, one of the narrowest margins in U. S. history. As a candidate for the 1972 presidential election, the release of the "Canuck letter" derailed his campaign during the primary; as Senator, he gave the 1976 State of the Union Response. Muskie served as first chairman of the new Senate Budget Committee from 1975 to 1980 where he established the United States budget process. Upon his retirement from the Senate, President Jimmy Carter nominated him as the 58th U. S. Secretary of State. While Secretary of State, Muskie negotiated the release of 52 Americans, concluding the Iran hostage crisis. Edmund Sixtus Muskie was born on March 28, 1914 in Rumford, Maine, he was born after their first child and before his brother Eugene and three sisters, Lucy and Frances. His father, Stephen Marciszewski and raised in Jasionowka, Russian Poland and worked as an estate manager for minor Russian nobility.
He immigrated to America in 1903 and changed his name to Muskie from "Marciszewski" in 1914. He worked as a master tailor and Muskie's mother, Josephine worked as a housewife, she was born to a Polish-American family in New York. Muskie's parents married in 1911, Josephine moved to Rumford soon after. Muskie's first language was Polish, he began learning English soon after and lost fluency in his mother language. In his youth he was an avid fisherman and swimmer, he felt. Muskie maintained a sizable amount of friends. Muskie attended Stephens High School, where he played baseball, participated in the performing arts, was elected student body president in his senior year, he would go on to graduate in 1932 at the top of his class as valedictorian. A 1931 edition of the school's newspaper noted him with the following: "when you see a head and shoulders towering over you in the halls of Stephen's, you should know that your eyes are feasting on the future President of the United States."Influenced by the political excitement of Franklin D. Roosevelt's election to the White House, he attended Bates College in Lewiston, Maine.
While at college, Muskie was a successful member of the debating team, participated in several sports, was elected to student government. Although he received a small scholarship and New Deal subsidies, he had to work during the summers as a dishwasher and bellhop at a hotel in Kennebunk to finance his time at Bates, he would record in his diaries occasional feelings of insecurity to his more wealthier Bates peers. His situation would improve and he went on to graduate in 1936 as class president and a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Intending to major in mathematics he switched to a double major in history and government. Upon his graduation, he was given a partial merit-based scholarship to Cornell Law School. After his second semester there, his scholarship ran out; as he was preparing to drop out, he heard of an "eccentric millionaire" named William Bingham II who had a habit of randomly and sporadically paying the university costs, car loans, other expenses of those who wrote to him. After Muskie wrote to him about his immigrant origins he secured $900 from the man allowing him to finance his final years at Cornell.
While in law school he was elected to Phi Alpha Delta and went on to graduate cum laude, in 1939. Upon graduating from Cornell, Muskie was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1939, he worked as a high school substitute teacher while he was studying for the Maine Bar examination. Muskie moved to Waterville and purchased a small law practice–renamed "Muskie & Glover"–for $2,000 in March 1940. Jane Frances Grey was born February 1927 in Waterville to Myrtie and Millage Guy Gray. Growing up she was voted "prettiest in school" in high school and at age 15, started her first job in a dress shop earning $3.49 a week. At age 18, she was hired to be a bookkeeper and saleswoman in an exclusive haute couture boutique in Waterville. While there a mutual friend tried to introduce her to Muskie while he was working the city as a lawyer, she had Grey model the dresses. Muskie invited her to a gala event. At the time s
2004 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 2004 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 2, 2004, was part of the 2004 United States presidential election. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by incumbent President George W. Bush by a 14.3% margin of victory. Prior to the election, all 12 news organizations considered this a state Bush would win, or otherwise considered as a safe red state. In the past 14 presidential elections, the Republican nominee won 10 of them; the state trended more Republican by 10.4 points from Bush's performance in 2000. Bush won most of congressional districts in the state. Third party and independent candidates made up just 0.7% of the vote. The 2004 Tennessee primary took place on February 10, 2004, as part of the 2004 United States Democratic presidential primaries; the delegate allocation is Proportional. The candidates are awarded delegates in proportion to the percentage of votes received and is open to anyone.
A total of 69 delegates are awarded proportionally. A 15 percent threshold is required to receive delegates. Frontrunner John Kerry won the primary with Senator John Edwards and former general Wesley Clark both obtaining over 20% and receiving delegates. Kerry won most of all the congressional districts. Although, Kerry didn't do well in the middle of the state, winning the 4th, 5th, 6th CDs with less than 40% of the vote. Edwards won 4 counties in the state. In Sullivan County, Tennessee Edwards obtained 42% of the vote but lost to Kerry with a small margin. Clark gained over 30% of the vote in just 2 counties, including his best performance in Montgomery County, TN; the largest turnout came from Davidson county. There were 12 news organizations. Here are their last predictions before election day. D. C. Political Report: Slight Republican Associated Press: Leans Bush CNN: Bush Cook Political Report: Lean Republican Newsweek: Solid Bush New York Times: Solid Bush Rasmussen Reports: Bush Research 2000: Solid Bush Washington Post: Bush Washington Times: Solid Bush Zogby International: Bush Washington Dispatch: Bush Bush won every single pre-election poll, won each with at least 49%.
The final 3 polls averaged Bush leading 56% to 40%. Bush raised $4,636,916. Kerry raised $1,187,742. Neither campaign visited this state during the fall election. While the Republicans control more than half of the state, Democrats have strong support in the cities of Memphis and Nashville and in parts of Middle Tennessee and in West Tennessee north and east of Memphis The latter area includes a large rural African-American population. In the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore, a former U. S. Senator from Tennessee, couldn't carry his home state; the majority of voters support for Republican George W. Bush increased in 2004, with his margin of victory in the state increasing from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004. Southern Democratic nominees fare better in Tennessee among split-ticket voters outside the metropolitan areas; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Trousdale County, Humphreys County, Grundy County, Lake County, Benton County, Overton County, Smith County, Lauderdale County, Van Buren County, Stewart County, Perry County, Clay County voted for the Democratic candidate.
Bush won 7 of 9 congressional districts. Technically the voters of Tennessee cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. Tennessee is allocated 11 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 11 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 11 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 13, 2004, to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols.
The following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All 9 were pledged to Bush/Cheney: Susan Anderson Betty Cannon Winfield Dunn Geneva Williams Harrison Brock Hill Bruce Montgomery Claude Ramsey Bob Rial John Ryder Mark Tipps Sally Wall