Airey Middleton Sheffield Neave, was a British soldier and Member of Parliament. During World War II he was the first British prisoner-of-war to succeed in escaping from Oflag IV-C at Colditz Castle, worked for MI9. After the war he served with the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials, he became Tory Member of Parliament for Abingdon. Neave was assassinated in 1979 in a car bomb attack at the House of Commons; the Irish National Liberation Army claimed responsibility. Neave was the son of Sheffield Airey Neave CMG, OBE, an entomologist, who lived at Ingatestone and his wife Dorothy, the daughter of Arthur Thomson Middleton, his father was the grandson of the third son of Sir Thomas Neave, 2nd Baronet. The family came to prominence as merchants in the West Indies during the 18th century and were raised to the baronetage during the life of Richard Neave, Governor of the Bank of England. Neave spent his early years in Knightsbridge in London. Neave was sent to St. Ronan's School and from there, in 1929, he went to Eton College.
He went on to study jurisprudence at Oxford. While at Eton, Neave composed a prize-winning essay in 1933 that examined the consequences of Adolf Hitler's rise to supreme power in Germany, Neave predicted that another widespread war would break out in Europe in the near future. Neave had earlier been on a visit to Germany, he witnessed the Nazi German methods of grasping political and military power in their hands. At Eton, Neave served in the school cadet corps as a cadet lance corporal, received a territorial commission as a second lieutenant in the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry on 11 December 1935; when Neave went to Oxford University, he purchased and read the entire written works of the writer Carl von Clausewitz. When Neave was asked why, he answered: "since war coming, it only sensible to learn as much as possible about the art of waging it". During 1938, Neave completed his third-class degree in the study of jurisprudence. By his own admission, while at Oxford University, Neave did only the minimal amount of academic work, required of him by his tutors.
Neave transferred his territorial commission to the Royal Engineers on 2 May 1938 and following the outbreak of war he was mobilised. Sent to France in February 1940 with 1st Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, he was wounded and captured by the Germans at Calais on 23 May 1940, he was imprisoned at Oflag IX-A/H near Spangenberg and in February 1941 moved to Stalag XX-A near Thorn in German-occupied western Poland. Meanwhile, Neave's commission was transferred to the Royal Artillery on 1 August 1940. In April 1941 he escaped from Thorn with Norman Forbes, they were captured near Ilow while trying to enter Soviet-controlled Poland and were in the hands of the Gestapo. In May, they were both sent to Oflag IV-C. Neave made his first attempt to escape from Colditz on 28 August 1941 disguised as a German NCO, he did not get out of the castle as his hastily contrived German uniform was rendered bright green under the prison searchlights. Together with Dutch officer Anthony Luteyn he made a second attempt on 5 January 1942, again in disguise.
Better uniforms and escape route got them out of the prison and by train and on foot they travelled to Leipzig and Ulm and reached the border to Switzerland near Singen. Via France and Gibraltar, Neave returned to England in April 1942. Neave was the first British officer to escape from Colditz Castle. On 12 May 1942, shortly after his return to England, he was decorated with the Military Cross, he was subsequently promoted to war substantive captain and to the permanent rank of captain on 11 April 1945. A temporary major at the war's end, he was appointed an MBE on 30 August 1945, awarded the DSO on 18 October; as a result, the earlier award of the MBE was cancelled on 25 October. He was recruited as an intelligence agent for MI9. While at MI9, he was the immediate superior of Michael Bentine, he served with the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials, investigating Krupp. As a well-known war hero – as well as a qualified lawyer who spoke fluent German – he was honoured with the role of reading the indictments to the Nazi leaders on trial.
He wrote several books about his war experiences including an account of the Trials. A temporary lieutenant-colonel by 1947, he was appointed an OBE in that year's Birthday Honours, he was awarded the Bronze Star by the US government on 23 July 1948, was promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 1 April 1950, At the same time, his promotion to acting major was gazetted, with retroactive effect from 16 April 1948. He entered the reserves on 21 September 1951. Neave stood for the Conservative Party at the 1950 election in Thurrock and at Ealing North in 1951, he was elected for Abingdon in a by-election in June 1953, but his career was held back by a heart attack he suffered in 1959. He was a Governor of Imperial College between 1963 and 1971 and was a member of the House of Commons select committee on Science and Technology between 1965 and 1970, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1953-1979. Edward Heath, when Chief Whip, was alleged to have told Neave that after he suffered his heart attack his career was finished but in his 1998 autobiography, Heath denied making such a remark.
He admitted that in December 1974 Neave had told him to stand down for
Tariff Reform League
The Tariff Reform League was a protectionist British pressure group formed in 1903 to protest against what they considered to be unfair foreign imports and to advocate Imperial Preference to protect British industry from foreign competition. It was well funded and included politicians and businessmen, was popular with the grassroots of the Conservative Party, it was internally opposed by the Unionist Free Food League but that had disappeared as a viable force by 1910. By 1914 the Tariff Reform League had 250,000 members, it is associated with the national campaign of Joseph Chamberlain, the most outspoken and charismatic supporter of Tariff Reform. The historian Bruce Murray has claimed that the TRL "possessed fewer prejudices against large-scale government expenditure than any other political group in Edwardian Britain"; the League wanted to see the British Empire transformed into a single trading bloc, to compete with Germany and the United States. It favoured imposing duties on imports—as did Germany and the US—and the channelling of the money raised from these duties into social reforms.
High import duties, would make increasing other taxes unnecessary. However opponents claimed that protection would mean dearer food bread. Sir Cyril Arthur Pearson was its chairman and, with Sir Harry Brittain, a founding member. Sir Henry Page Croft was chairman of its organisation committee. Pearson was succeeded as chairman of the League by Viscount Ridley. In December 1903 Joseph Chamberlain announced the establishment of the Tariff Commission under the auspices of the Tariff Reform League. William Hewins the economist and first director of the London School of Economics from 1895 to 1903, was Secretary and Sir Robert Herbert, the first Premier of Queensland,Australia, was Chairman; the Commission consisted of 59 business men whose brief was to construct a "Scientific Tariff" which would achieve tariff reform objectives. Tariff Reform split the MPs of the Conservative Party and their government coalition allies in the Liberal Unionist Party and was the major factor in its landslide defeat in 1906 to the Liberals who advocated Free Trade.
The Conservative Party under Bonar Law downplayed Tariff Reform as official policy, abandoning Balfour's pledge that it would be put to the public in a referendum. Some wartime tariffs were introduced by the Liberal Chancellor Reginald McKenna in 1915. Shortly after the First World War the TRL was disbanded, although other organisations promoting the same cause were still active in the 1920s. One such organisation was the Fair Trade Union created by Joseph Chamberlain's son and the Conservative MP Leo Amery; the British Commonwealth Union, led by Patrick Hannon, was another. Tariff Reform became official Conservative policy under Stanley Baldwin and was the major issue in the 1923 general election; the party lost its majority in the Tariff Reform was again dropped until the 1930s. Protectionism was introduced by the Ottawa Agreements in 1932 and dismantled at US insistence in the 1940s
The Carlton Club is a London private members' club which describes itself as "the original home of the Conservative Party before the days of Conservative Central Office". Membership of the club is by election only; the club was founded in 1832, by Tory peers, MPs and gentlemen, as a place to coordinate party activity after the party's defeat over the First Reform Act. It played a major role in the transformation of the Tory party into its modern form as the Conservative Party; the club lost its role as a central party office with the widening of the franchise after the Reform Act 1867, but remained the principal venue for key political discussions between Conservative ministers, MPs and party managers. The club was formed at the Thatched House Tavern in 1832 and its first premises were in Carlton Terrace, from which it drew its name; these premises were found too small. The second club house was situated near to the Reform Club at 94 Pall Mall and was purpose-built in 1835, it was replaced by a third club house on the same site in 1856.
The Caen stone used on the façade of the third building proved unsuitable in the London atmosphere and had to be replaced in 1923–24. The club is most famous for the Carlton Club meeting of 19 October 1922, in which backbench Conservative MPs decided to overthrow their leader Austen Chamberlain and withdraw from the David Lloyd George – led coalition government. MPs voted 187 to 87 in favour of discontinuing the coalition, after speeches from Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin, with Baldwin saying that the fact Lloyd George was a'dynamic force' was a danger to the stability of the Conservative party; the club suffered a direct hit during the Blitz on 14 October 1940, No-one was killed in the explosion, but the building was destroyed. The Carlton moved to its current premises, at 69 St James's Street, London the premises of Arthur's Club – one of the premier Gentlemen's clubs, which had closed the same year, after 150 years of operations; the current Georgian clubhouse is architecturally important and includes two elegant dining rooms, together with a collection of political portraits and paintings dating back to the 18th century, imported from ruins of the old club house and the former Junior Carlton Club.
The current Carlton has not retained any of the furnishings belonging to the building when it was Arthur's club, apart from the war memorial plaque in the entrance. There is a marble Arthur's Club World War I War Memorial to be found on the wall by the stairs in the main vestibule of St James's Church Piccadilly; the walls of the Disraeli and Macmillan rooms and their windows at the back of the club were part of the fabric of the original White's Club building. The Junior Carlton Club, separate from the Carlton itself, was established in 1864 and occupied a large purpose-built club house, completed in 1869, at 30 Pall Mall opposite the Carlton; this was sold early in the 1960s and part of the proceeds used to buy the site of the former Carlton Club building at 94 Pall Mall. The erection of the new clubhouse on this site in a modern 1960s prototype'club of the future' led to mass resignations from that club. In December 1977 it formally merged with the Carlton Club, with negotiations conducted by Harold Macmillan.
At 8:39 p.m. on 25 June 1990, the Carlton Club was bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army, injuring more than 20 people. Lord Kaberry died of his injuries received in the attack. Many Conservative politicians have been members; the leader of the Conservative Party is invited to become an honorary member. Iain Duncan Smith refused membership. Traditionally, only men could become full members after being proposed and seconded by a number of current members. From the 1970s onwards, women were allowed to become associate members, meaning they were unable to vote. On becoming Conservative leader in 1975, Margaret Thatcher was made an honorary member of the club and, as such, until 2008 was the only female member entitled to full membership. David Cameron accepted honorary membership of the club as of 22 May 2008. Thatcher was elected as the club's second president in May 2009. An separate, unrelated Ladies' Carlton Club was established after the First World War as a social and political centre for women Conservatives.
It closed in 1958. The current chairman is 2nd Baron Strathclyde. A full history of the club was published to mark its 175th anniversary in 2007. List of London's gentlemen's clubs Escott, T. H. S.. Club Makers and Club Members. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Lejeune, Anthony; the Gentlemen's Clubs of London. London: Wh Smith Pub. ISBN 0-8317-3800-6. Lejeune, Anthony; the Gentlemen's Clubs of London. London: Stacey International. ISBN 978-1-906768-20-1. Phelps, Barry. Power and the Party: A History of the Carlton Club, 1832-1982. Reading: Wembley Press. Petrie, Charles; the Carlton Club. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. Petrie, Charles; the Carlton Club, 1832-2007. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. Thévoz, Seth Alexander. Club Government: How the Early Victorian World was Ruled from London Clubs. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78453-818-7. Official website Architectural description and plans – from the Survey of London online
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, it is owned by David and Frederick Barclay who own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture, its editorial outlook is supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine contains arts pages on books, music and film and TV reviews. Editorship of The Spectator has been a step on the ladder to high office in the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom. Past editors include Boris Johnson and other former cabinet members Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, Nigel Lawson. In late 2008, Spectator Australia was launched; this offers 12 pages of "Unique Australian Content" in addition to the full UK contents. Readership of The Spectator Australia was revealed through a court case as being 3,000; the Spectator's founding editor, the Dundonian reformer Robert Stephen Rintoul, launched the paper in July 1828 with a first issue for the "week ending Saturday July 5, 1828".
He revived the title from the 1711 publication by Addison & Steele. As he had long been determined "to edit a perfect newspaper", Rintoul insisted on "absolute power" over content, commencing a long-lasting tradition of the paper's editor and proprietor being one and the same person; the Spectator’s political outlook in its first thirty years reflected Rintoul’s liberal-radical agenda. Despite its political stance it was regarded and respected for its non-partisanship. Under Rintoul The Spectator came out for the Great Reform Act of 1832, coining the well-known phrase, "The Bill, the whole Bill and nothing but the Bill", in its support, it objected to the appointment of the Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister, condemning him as "a Field Marshal whose political career proves him to be utterly destitute of political principle – whose military career affords ample evidence of his stern and remorseless temperament."The magazine was vocal in its opposition to the First Opium War, commenting: "all the alleged aims of the expedition against China are vague and incapable of explanation, save only that of making the Chinese pay the opium-smugglers." and "There does not appear to be much glory gained in a contest so unequal that hundreds are killed on one side and none on the other.
What honour is there in going to shoot men, certain that they cannot hurt you? The cause of the war, be it remembered, is as disreputable as the strength of the parties is unequal; the war is undertaken in support of a co-partnery of opium-smugglers, in which the Anglo-Indian Government may be considered as the principal partner."In 1853 it published an anonymous and unfavourable review of Charles Dickens’ Bleak House revealed to be by George Brimley, typical of the paper's enduring contempt for him as a "popular" writer "amusing the idle hours of the greatest number of readers. Thereafter, it went into an accelerated period of decline. Records are scarce but it appears that it was owned by a Mr Scott and bought for £4200 in December 1858 by two London-based Americans, James McHenry and Benjamin Moran. McHenry was a businessman and Moran was an Assistant Secretary to the ambassador, George M. Dallas; the editor was Thornton Hunt, a friend of Moran who had worked for Rintoul. Hunt was nominally the purchaser, having been given the necessary monies in an attempt by McHenry and Moran to disguise the American ownership.
Circulation declined with this loss of independence and inspirational leadership, the views of James Buchanan, the president of the US, came to the fore. Within weeks, the editorial line followed Buchanan's pronouncements in being "...neither pro-slavery nor pro-abolitionist. To unsympathetic observers Buchanan's policy seemed to apportion blame for the impasse on the slavery question on pro-slavery and abolitionist factions – and rather than work out a solution to argue that a solution would take time; the Spectator now would publicly support that'policy.'". This set it at odds with most of the British press but gained it the sympathy of ex-patriate Americans in the country. Richard Fulton notes that from until 1861, "... the Spectator's commentary on American affairs read like a Buchanan administration propaganda sheet." And that this represented a volte-face. On 19 January 1861, The Spectator was bought by a journalist, Meredith Townsend, for £2000; the need to promote the Buchanan position in Britain had been reduced as British papers such as The Times and The Saturday Review turned in his favour, fearing the potential effects of a split in the Union.
Abraham Lincoln had replaced the vacillating Buchanan and Moran's position in London was in doubt now that Dallas had been removed as ambassador. In addition, the owners had been pumping money into a loss-making publication and were reluctant to continue the practice. From the outset, Townsend took up an anti-Buchanan, anti-slavery position, arguing that his unwillingness to act decisively had been a weakness and a contributor to the problems apparent in the US, he soon went into partnership with Richard Holt Hutton, a theologian whose friend William Gladstone called him "the first critic of the nineteenth century". Townsend's wri
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)
The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party. To date, two of the leaders have been women: Theresa May; the post is held by May, who succeeded David Cameron on 11 July 2016. There are five living former party leaders. From oldest to youngest: Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party; the Duke of Wellington: 1834–1846 The Lord Stanley: 9 March 1846 – 27 February 1868*, elected at a party meeting The Earl of Malmesbury: 1868–1869, appointed by Prime Minister Disraeli The Lord Cairns: 1869–1870, elected at a party meeting The Duke of Richmond: 1870 – 21 August 1876, elected at a party meeting The Earl of Beaconsfield: 21 August 1876 – 19 April 1881*, became Leader on elevation to the peerage The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury: 9 May 1881 – 1902, elected at a party meeting The Duke of Devonshire: 1902–1903, appointed by Prime Minister Balfour The Marquess of Lansdowne: 1903–1916, appointed by Prime Minister Balfour The Earl Curzon of Kedleston: 1916–1925, appointed Leader of the House by Prime Minister Lloyd George The 4th Marquess of Salisbury: 1925–1931, appointed by Prime Minister Baldwin The 1st Viscount Hailsham: 1931–1935, took over post "at the request of Mr Baldwin" The Marquess of Londonderry: 1935 The Viscount Halifax: 1935–1938 The Earl Stanhope: 1938–1940 The Viscount Caldecote: 1940 The Viscount Halifax: 1940 The Lord Lloyd: 1940–1941 The Lord Moyne: 1941–1942 Viscount Cranborne: 1942–1957 The Earl of Home: 1957–1960 The 2nd Viscount Hailsham: 1960–1963 The Lord Carrington: 1963–1970 The Earl Jellicoe: 1970–1973 The Lord Windlesham: 1973–1974 The Lord Carrington: 1974–1979 The Lord Soames: 1979–1981 The Baroness Young: 1981–1983 The Viscount Whitelaw: 1983–1988 The Lord Belstead: 1988–1990 The Lord Waddington: 1990–1992 The Lord Wakeham: 1992–1994 Viscount Cranborne: 1994–1998 The Lord Strathclyde: 1998–2013 The Lord Hill of Oareford: 2013–2014 The Baroness Stowell of Beeston: 2014–2016 The Baroness Evans of Bowes Park: 2016–present Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party.
Sir Robert Peel: 18 December 1834 – 1846* Lord George Bentinck: 1846–1847 The Marquess of Granby: 9 February 1848 – 4 March 1848, elected at a party meeting None: 1848–1849 Jointly Benjamin Disraeli, the Marquess of Granby, John Charles Herries: 1849–1852, elected at a party meeting Benjamin Disraeli: 1852 – 21 August 1876 Sir Stafford Northcote: 21 August 1876 – 24 June 1885, appointed by Prime Minister Beaconsfield Sir Michael Hicks Beach: 24 June 1885 – 3 August 1886, appointed by Prime Minister Salisbury Lord Randolph Churchill: 3 August 1886 – 14 January 1887, appointed by Prime Minister Salisbury William Henry Smith: 17 January 1887 – 6 October 1891, appointed by Prime Minister Salisbury Arthur Balfour: 1891 – 13 January 1906, appointed by Prime Minister Salisbury Joseph Chamberlain: 1906 Arthur Balfour: 1906 – 13 November 1911* Bonar Law: 13 November 1911 – 21 March 1921, elected at a party meeting Austen Chamberlain: 21 March 1921 – 23 October 1922, elected at a party meeting 1922 Committee Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party Leader of the Labour Party Leader of the Liberal Democrats
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
The Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in the British Parliamentary system is the member of the Shadow Cabinet, responsible for shadowing the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The title is informal; the Shadow Chancellor has no constitutional role. The name for the position has a mixed history, it is used to designate the lead economic spokesman for the Opposition, although some Shadow Cabinets have not used the term. The term has been used interchangeably with "economic spokesperson" by the Liberal Democrats as well as the main opposition party; this was a source of humour for one time Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown, who in 2005 played the two off against one another in Parliament, saying, "I, have a great deal of time for the shadow Chancellor who resides in Twickenham, rather than the shadow Chancellor for the Conservative Party."The position of Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer is held by John McDonnell. Lewis Baston Reggie: The Life of Reginald Maudling. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2924-3