1980 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1980 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 4, 1980. All 50 states and The District of Columbia were part of the 1980 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose 10 electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Tennessee was won by former California Governor Ronald Reagan by a slim margin of 0.29 points because of President Jimmy Carter's southern roots. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Tipton County voted for the Democratic candidate
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
1988 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 1988 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 8, 1988. All 50 states and the District of Columbia were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose 11 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. Tennessee was won by incumbent United States Vice President George H. W. Bush of Texas, running against Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle as Vice President, Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen. Tennessee weighed in for this election as 8% more Republican than the national average; as of the 2016 presidential election, this was the last time the Republican candidate carried Davidson County and Shelby County, both of which have become Democratic strongholds into the 21st century. The presidential election of 1988 was a partisan election for Tennessee, with more than 99% of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or Republican parties, though 10 candidates did appear on the ballot.
Most counties in Tennessee turned out for Bush, including the populated Shelby County and Davidson County, by narrow margins. Those two counties have never voted Republican since this election. Tennessee was the only state that Bush improved on Ronald Reagan’s 1984 vote share, although only by 0.07 percent. He became only the second Republican after Richard Nixon in 1972 to carry Lincoln County and Hardeman County, which were two of only seven counties in the nation to switch from Mondale to Bush. Bush won the election in Tennessee with a solid 16 point landslide; the election results in Tennessee are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some controversial economic programs, spearheaded by President Ronald Reagan, the mid-to-late 1980's saw a period of economic growth and stability; the hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, tax cuts for the wealthy.
Dukakis ran his campaign on a liberal platform, advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas. Additionally, while the economic programs passed under Reagan, furthered under Bush and Clinton, may have boosted the economy for a brief period, they are criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession. Gulf War Presidency of George H. W. Bush
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, politician. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988 and served as a shadow U. S. Senator for the District of Columbia from 1991 to 1997, he is the founder of the organizations that merged to form Rainbow/PUSH. Former U. S. Representative Jesse Jackson Jr. is his eldest son. Jackson was the host of Both Sides with Jesse Jackson on CNN from 1992 to 2000. Jackson was born in Greenville, South Carolina, to Helen Burns, a 16-year-old high school student, her 33-year-old married neighbor, Noah Louis Robinson; the family has some Cherokee roots. Robinson was a former professional boxer, an employee of a textile brokerage and a well-known figure in the black community. One year after Jesse's birth, his mother married Charles Henry Jackson, a post office maintenance worker who adopted the boy. Jesse was given his stepfather's name in the adoption, but as he grew up, he maintained a close relationship with Robinson.
He considered both men to be his father. As a young child, Jackson was taunted by the other children regarding his out-of-wedlock birth, has said these experiences helped motivate him to succeed. Living under Jim Crow segregation laws, Jackson was taught to go to the back of the bus and use separate water fountains – practices he accepted until the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955, he attended the racially segregated Sterling High School in Greenville, where he was elected student class president, finished tenth in his class, earned letters in baseball and basketball. Upon graduating from high school in 1959, he rejected a contract from a minor league professional baseball team so that he could attend the University of Illinois on a football scholarship. Following his second semester at the predominantly white University of Illinois, Jackson transferred to the North Carolina A&T, an black university located in Greensboro, North Carolina. There are differing accounts of the reasons behind this transfer.
Jackson has claimed that he changed schools because racial prejudice prevented him from playing quarterback and limited his participation on a competitive public-speaking team. Writing on ESPN.com in 2002, sociologist Harry Edwards noted that the University of Illinois had had a black quarterback, but noted that black athletes attending traditionally white colleges during the 1950s and 1960s encountered a "combination of culture shock and discrimination". Edwards suggested that Jackson had left the University of Illinois in 1960 because he had been placed on academic probation. However, the president of the University of Illinois reported in 1987 that Jackson's 1960 freshman year transcript was clean, said he would have been eligible to re-enroll at any time. While attending A&T, Jackson was elected student body president, he became active in local civil rights protests against segregated libraries and restaurants. He graduated with a B. S. in sociology in 1964 attended the Chicago Theological Seminary on a scholarship.
He dropped out in 1966, three classes short of earning his master's degree, to focus full-time on the Civil Rights Movement. He was ordained a minister in 1968, in 2000, was awarded his Master of Divinity Degree based on his previous credits earned, plus his life experience and subsequent work. While home from college, Jackson joined seven other African Americans on July 16, 1960 to participate in a sit-in at the Greenville Public Library in Greenville, South Carolina, which only allowed white people; the group was arrested for "disorderly conduct". Jackson's pastor paid their bond, the Greenville News said. DeeDee Wright, another member of the group said they wanted to be arrested "so it could be a test case.” The Greenville City Council closed both the branch black people used. The possibility of a lawsuit led to the reopening of both libraries September 19 the day after the News printed a letter written by Wright. Jackson has been known for commanding public attention since he first started working for Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1965, Jackson participated in the Selma to Montgomery marches organized by James Bevel and other civil rights leaders in Alabama. Impressed by Jackson's drive and organizational abilities, King soon began giving Jackson a role in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, though he was concerned about Jackson's apparent ambition and attention-seeking; when Jackson returned from Selma, he was charged with establishing a frontline office for the SCLC in Chicago. In 1966, King and Bevel selected Jackson to head the Chicago branch of the SCLC's economic arm, Operation Breadbasket and he was promoted to national director in 1967. Operation Breadbasket had been started by the Atlanta leadership of the SCLC as a job placement agency for blacks. Under Jackson's leadership, a key goal was to encourage massive boycotts by black consumers as a means to pressure white-owned businesses to hire blacks and to purchase goods and services from black-owned firms. T. R. M. Howard, a 1950s proponent of the consumer boycott tactic, soon became a major supporter of Jackson's efforts – donating and raising funds, introducing Jackson to prominent members of the black business community in Chicago.
Under Jackson's direction, Operation Breadbasket held popular weekly workshops on Chicago's South Side featuring white and black political and economic leaders, religious services complete with a jazz band and choir. Jackson became involved in SCLC leadership disputes following the assassination of King on April 4, 1968; when King was shot, Jackson was in the parking lot one floor below. Jackson told reporters he was the last p
Geraldine Anne "Gerry" Ferraro was an American attorney and Democratic Party politician who served in the United States House of Representatives. In 1984, she was the first female vice presidential candidate representing a major American political party. Ferraro worked as a public school teacher before training as a lawyer, she joined the Queens County District Attorney's Office in 1974, heading the new Special Victims Bureau that dealt with sex crimes, child abuse, domestic violence. In 1978 she was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, where she rose in the party hierarchy while focusing on legislation to bring equity for women in the areas of wages and retirement plans. In 1984, former vice president and presidential candidate Walter Mondale, seen as an underdog, selected Ferraro to be his running mate in the upcoming election. Ferraro became the only Italian American to be a major-party national nominee in addition to being the first woman; the positive polling the Mondale-Ferraro ticket received when she joined soon faded, as damaging questions arose about her and her businessman husband's finances and wealth and her Congressional disclosure statements.
In the general election and Ferraro were defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush. Ferraro ran campaigns for a seat in the United States Senate from New York in 1992 and 1998, both times starting as the front-runner for her party's nomination before losing in the primary election, she served as a United States Ambassador to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1993 until 1996 during the presidential administration of Bill Clinton. She continued her career as a journalist and businesswoman, served in the 2008 presidential campaign of Senator Hillary Clinton. Ferraro died on March 26, 2011, 12 years after being diagnosed. Geraldine Ferraro was born on August 26, 1935 in Newburgh, New York, the daughter of Antonetta L. Ferraro, a first-generation Italian American seamstress, Dominick Ferraro, an Italian immigrant and owner of two restaurants, she had three brothers born before her. Ferraro attended, her father died of a heart attack in May 1944.
Ferraro's mother soon invested and lost the remainder of the family's money, forcing the family to move to a low-income area in the South Bronx while Ferraro's mother worked in the garment industry to support them. Ferraro stayed on at Mount Saint Mary's as a boarder for a while briefly attended a parochial school in the South Bronx. Beginning in 1947, she attended and lived at the parochial Marymount Academy in Tarrytown, New York, using income from a family rental property in Italy and skipping seventh grade. At Marymount Ferraro was a member of the honor society, active in several clubs and sports, voted most to succeed, graduated in 1952, her mother was adamant that she get a full education, despite an uncle in the family saying, "Why bother? She's pretty. She's a girl. She'll get married." Ferraro attended Marymount Manhattan College with a scholarship while sometimes holding two or three jobs at the same time. During her senior year she began dating John Zaccaro of Forest Hills, who had graduated from Iona College with a commission in the U.
S. Marine Corps. Ferraro received a Bachelor of Arts in English in 1956, she passed the city exam to become a licensed school teacher. Ferraro began working as an elementary school teacher in public schools in Astoria, Queens, "because that's what women were supposed to do." Unsatisfied, she decided to attend law school. You're taking a man's place, you know." She earned a Juris Doctor degree with honors from Fordham University School of Law in 1960, going to classes at night while continuing to work as a second-grade teacher at schools such as P. S. 57 during the day. Ferraro was one of only two women in her graduating class of 179, she was admitted to the bar of New York State in March 1961. Ferraro became engaged to Zaccaro in August 1959 and married him on July 16, 1960, he became a businessman. She kept her birth name professionally, as a way to honor her mother for having supported the family after her father's death, but used his name in parts of her private life; the couple had three children, John Jr. and Laura.
They lived in Forest Hills Gardens, in 1971, added a vacation house in Saltaire on Fire Island. They would buy a condominium in Saint Croix in the U. S. Virgin Islands in 1983. While raising the children, Ferraro worked part-time as a civil lawyer in her husband's real estate firm for 13 years, she occasionally worked for other clients and did some pro bono work for women in family court. She spent time at local Democratic clubs, which allowed her to maintain contacts within the legal profession and become involved in local politics and campaigns. While organizing community opposition to a proposed building, Ferraro met lawyer and Democratic figure Mario Cuomo, who became a political mentor. In 1970, she was elected president of the Queens County Women's Bar Association. Ferraro's first full-time political job came in January 1974, when she was appointed Assistant District Attorney for Queens County, New York, by her cousin, District Attorney Nicholas Ferraro. At the time, women prosecutors in the city were uncommon.
Grumblings that she was the beneficiary of nepotism were countered by her being rated as qualified by
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (