1999 İzmit earthquake
The 1999 İzmit earthquake occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.6 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. The event lasted for 37 seconds, killing around 17,000 people and left half a million people homeless; the nearby city of İzmit was damaged. The earthquake occurred along the western portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone; the Anatolian Plate, which consists of Turkey, is being pushed west about 2–2.5 cm a year, as it is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the Arabian Plate to the south. Major earthquakes in Turkey result from slip along the NAFZ or the East Anatolian Fault; the Izmit earthquake had a rupture length of 150 kilometers extending from the city of Düzce all the way into the Sea of Marmara along the Gulf of İzmit. Offsets along the rupture were as large as 5.7 meters. From the timing of P-wave and S-wave arrivals at seismometers there is strong evidence that the rupture propagated eastwards from the epicentre at speeds in excess of the S-wave velocity, making this a supershear earthquake.
Destruction in Istanbul was concentrated in the Avcılar district to the west of the city. Avcılar was built on weak ground composed of poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, which makes this district vulnerable to any earthquake; the earthquake was felt in this industrialized and densely populated urban area of the country, including oil refineries, several automotive plants, the Turkish navy headquarters and arsenal in Gölcük, increasing the severity of the loss of life and property. The earthquake caused considerable damage in Istanbul, about 70 kilometres away from the earthquake's epicenter. An official Turkish estimate of October 19, 1999, placed the toll at 17,127 killed and 43,959 injured, but many sources suggest the actual figure may have been closer to 45,000 dead and a similar number injured. Reports from September 1999 show that 120,000 poorly engineered houses were damaged beyond repair, 30,000 houses were damaged, 2,000 other buildings collapsed and 4,000 other buildings were damaged.
300,000 people were left homeless after the earthquake. There was extensive damage to several bridges and other structures on the Trans-European Motorway, including 20 viaducts, 5 tunnels, some overpasses. Damage ranged from spalling concrete to total deck collapse; the earthquake sparked a disastrous fire at the Tüpraş petroleum refinery. The fire began at a state-owned tank farm and was initiated by naphtha that had sloshed out of a holding tank. Breakage in water pipelines, results of the quake, nullified attempts at extinguishing the fire. Aircraft were called in to douse the flames with foam; the fire spread over the next few days, warranting the evacuation of the area within three miles of the refinery. The fire was declared under control five days after claiming at least seventeen tanks and untold amounts of complex piping; the earthquake caused a tsunami in the Sea of Marmara, about 2.5 meters high. The tsunami caused the deaths of 155 people. A massive international response was mounted to assist in digging for survivors and assisting the wounded and homeless.
Rescue teams were dispatched within 24–48 hours of the disaster, the assistance to the survivors was channeled through NGOs and the Red Crescent and local search and rescue organizations. The following table shows the breakdown of rescue teams by country in the affected locations: Search and Rescue Effort as of August 19, 1999. Source: USAIDIn total, rescue teams from twelve countries assisted in the rescue effort. Oil Spill Response Limited were activated by BP to deploy from the United Kingdom to the Tupras Refinery where their responders contained the uncontrolled discharge of oil from the site into the sea; the U. K announced an immediate grant of £50,000 to help the Turkish Red Crescent, while the International Red Cross and Red Crescent pledged £4.5 million to help victims. Blankets, medical supplies and food were flown from Stansted airport. Engineers from Thames Water went to help restore water supplies. India assisted by providing 32,000 tents and 2 million rupees to help in the reconstruction process.
US President Bill Clinton and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Istanbul and İzmit to examine the level of destruction and meet with the survivors. List of earthquakes in 1999 List of earthquakes in Turkey Yalova Earthquake Monument M7.6 - western Turkey – United States Geological Survey 17 August 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake – The European Association for Earthquake Engineering Initial Geotechnical Observations of the August 17, 1999, Izmit Earthquake – National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event. ReliefWeb's main page for this event
Surface rupture is the visible offset of the ground surface when an earthquake rupture along a fault affects the Earth's surface. Surface rupture is opposed by buried rupture; this is a major risk to any structure, built across a fault zone that may be active, in addition to any risk from ground shaking. Surface rupture entails vertical or horizontal movement, on either side of a fault which has ruptured. Surface rupture can affect large areas of land. Not every earthquake results in surface rupture for smaller and deeper earthquakes.. In some cases, the lack of surface effects is because the fault that moved does not reach the surface. For example, the 1994 Northridge earthquake had a moment magnitude of 6.7, caused major damage in the Los Angeles area, occurred at 18.2 km below the Earth's surface, but did not cause surface rupture, because it was a blind thrust earthquake. Surface ruptures occur on pre-existing faults. Only are earthquakes associated with faulting on new fault structures. There is shallow hypocenter, large fracture energy on the asperities, the asperity shallower than 5 kilometres.
Examples of such earthquakes are San Fernando earthquake, Tabas earthquake, Chi-Chi earthquake. In surface rupture earthquakes, the large slips of land are concentrated in the shallow parts of the fault. And, permanent ground displacements which are measureable can be produced by shallow earthquakes, of magnitude M5 and greater; the form that surface rupturing takes depends on two things: the nature of the material at the surface and the type of fault movement. Where there are thick superficial deposits overlying the trace of the faults the resulting surface effects are more discontinuous. Where there is little or no superficial deposits the surface rupture is continuous, except where the earthquake rupture affects more than one fault, which can lead to complex patterns of surface faulting, such as in the 1992 Landers earthquake. Surface ruptures associated with normal faults are simple fault scarps. Where there are significant superficial deposits, sections with more oblique faulting may from sets of en-echelon scarp segments.
Antithetic faults may develop giving rise to surface grabens. Reverse faulting is associated with more complex surface rupture patterns as the protruding unsupported part of the hanging-wall of the fault is liable to collapse. In addition there may be back-thrust development. Strike-slip faults are associated with dominantly horizontal movement, leading to simple linear zones of surface rupture where the fault is a simple planar structure. However, many strike-slip faults are formed of overlapping segments, leading to complex zones of normal or reverse faulting depending on the nature of the overlap. Additionally, where there are thick superficial deposits, the rupture appears as a set of en-echelon faults. To retrofit a house to survive surface rupture requires engineered design by geotechnical, structural or civil engineers; this can be quite expensive. 1983 Borah Peak earthquake M6.9 in Idaho, normal faulting - 34 km 1992 Landers earthquake M7.3 in San Bernardino County, strike-slip faulting - 80 km, 1999 İzmit earthquake M7.6 in Turkey, strike-slip faulting - 150 kilometres, 1999 Jiji earthquake M7.6 in Taiwan, thrust faulting - 100 km 2001 Kunlun earthquake M7.8 in Tibet, strike-slip faulting - 400 km 2002 Denali earthquake M7.9 in Alaska, strike-slip faulting - 340 km Aseismic creep A large article about surface rupture
A seismometer is an instrument that responds to ground motions, such as caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, explosions. Seismometers are combined with a timing device and a recording device to form a seismograph; the output of such a device — recorded on paper or film, now recorded and processed digitally — is a seismogram. Such data is used to locate and characterize earthquakes, to study the earth's internal structure. A simple seismometer, sensitive to up-down motions of the Earth, is like a weight hanging from a spring, both suspended from a frame that moves along with any motion detected; the relative motion between the weight and the frame provides a measurement of the vertical ground motion. A rotating drum is attached to the frame and a pen is attached to the weight, thus recording any ground motion in a seismogram. Any movement of the ground moves the frame; the mass tends not to move because of its inertia, by measuring the movement between the frame and the mass, the motion of the ground can be determined.
Early seismometers used optical levers or mechanical linkages to amplify the small motions involved, recording on soot-covered paper or photographic paper. Modern instruments use electronics. In some systems, the mass is held nearly motionless relative to the frame by an electronic negative feedback loop; the motion of the mass relative to the frame is measured, the feedback loop applies a magnetic or electrostatic force to keep the mass nearly motionless. The voltage needed to produce this force is the output of the seismometer, recorded digitally. In other systems the weight is allowed to move, its motion produces an electrical charge in a coil attached to the mass which voltage moves through the magnetic field of a magnet attached to the frame; this design is used in a geophone, used in exploration for oil and gas. Seismic observatories have instruments measuring three axes: north-south, east-west, vertical. If only one axis is measured, it is the vertical because it is less noisy and gives better records of some seismic waves.
The foundation of a seismic station is critical. A professional station is sometimes mounted on bedrock; the best mountings may be in deep boreholes, which avoid thermal effects, ground noise and tilting from weather and tides. Other instruments are mounted in insulated enclosures on small buried piers of unreinforced concrete. Reinforcing rods and aggregates would distort the pier as the temperature changes. A site is always surveyed for ground noise with a temporary installation before pouring the pier and laying conduit. European seismographs were placed in a particular area after a destructive earthquake. Today, they are concentrated in high-risk regions; the word derives from the Greek σεισμός, seismós, a shaking or quake, from the verb σείω, seíō, to shake. Seismograph is another Greek term from γράφω, gráphō, to draw, it is used to mean seismometer, though it is more applicable to the older instruments in which the measuring and recording of ground motion were combined, than to modern systems, in which these functions are separated.
Both types provide a continuous record of ground motion. The technical discipline concerning such devices is called seismometry, a branch of seismology; the concept of measuring the "shaking" of something means that the word "seismograph" might be used in a more general sense. For example, a monitoring station that tracks changes in electromagnetic noise affecting amateur radio waves presents an rf seismograph, and Helioseismology studies the "quakes" on the Sun. The first seismometer was made in China during the 2nd Century; the first Western description of the device comes from the French physicist and priest Jean de Hautefeuille in 1703. The modern seismometer was developed in the 19th century. In December 2018, a seismometer was deployed on the planet Mars by the InSight lander, the first time a seismometer was placed onto the surface of another planet. In AD 132, Zhang Heng of China's Han dynasty invented the first seismoscope, called Houfeng Didong Yi; the description we have, from the History of the Later Han Dynasty, says that it was a large bronze vessel, about 2 meters in diameter.
When there was an earthquake, one of the dragons' mouths would open and drop its ball into a bronze toad at the base, making a sound and showing the direction of the earthquake. On at least one occasion at the time of a large earthquake in Gansu in AD 143, the seismoscope indicated an earthquake though one was not felt; the available text says that inside the vessel was a central column that could move along eight tracks. The first earthquake recorded by this seismoscope was "somewhere in the east". Days a rider from the east reported this earthquake. By the 13th century, seismographic devices existed in the Maragheh observatory in Persia. French physicist and priest Jean de Hautefeuille built one in 1703. After 1880, most seismometers were descend
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
North Anatolian Fault
The North Anatolian Fault is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in northern Anatolia which runs along the transform boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate. The fault extends westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea for a length of 1500 kilometers, it runs about 20 km south of Istanbul. The North Anatolian Fault is similar in many ways to the San Andreas Fault in California. Both are continental; the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is an extensional basin similar to the Salton Trough in California, where a releasing bend in the strike-slip system creates a pull-apart basin. Since the disastrous 1939 Erzincan earthquake, there have been seven earthquakes measuring over 7.0 in magnitude, each happening at a point progressively further west. Seismologists studying this pattern believe. By analyzing the stresses along the fault caused by each large earthquake, they were able to predict the shock that hit the town of İzmit with devastating effect in August 1999.
It is thought that the chain is not complete, that an earthquake will soon strike further west along the fault – near the populated city of Istanbul. Latest seismicity In Turkey
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari