The 1st Rhode Island Regiment was a regiment in the Continental Army raised in Rhode Island during the American Revolutionary War. It was one of the few units in the Continental Army to serve through the entire war from the siege of Boston to the disbanding of the Continental Army on November 3, 1783; the unit went through several reorganizations and name changes, like most regiments of the Continental Army. It became known as the "Black Regiment", it is regarded by some as the first African-American military unit, despite the fact that its ranks were not black. The 1st Rhode Island was formed by the Colonial government before being taken into the Continental army; the revolutionary Rhode Island Assembly authorized the regiment on 6 May 1775 as part of the Rhode Island Army of Observation. The regiment was organized on 8 May 1775 under Colonel James Mitchell Varnum, was therefore known as "Varnum's Regiment." It consisted of eight companies of volunteers from Kent and Kings counties. Varnum marched the regiment to Roxbury, Massachusetts in June 1775, where it took part in the siege of Boston as part of the Army of Observation.
It was adopted into the Continental Army by act of Congress on 14 June 1775. It was expanded to ten companies on 28 June, was assigned to General Nathanael Greene's Brigade in General George Washington's Main Army on 28 July. General Washington took command of the Continental Army upon his arrival in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 3 July 1775; the soldiers of Varnum's Regiment had enlisted until the end of 1775, like all others in the Continental Army, the Regiment was discharged on December 31, along with the remainder of the Army. The Continental Army was reorganized at the beginning of 1776, with many regiments receiving new names and others being disbanded. Enlistments were for one year. Varnum's Regiment was reorganized with eight companies on 1 January 1776 and re-designated as the 9th Continental Regiment. Under Colonel Varnum, the regiment remained near Boston until the British evacuated the city in March, it was ordered to Long Island and took part in the disastrous New York and New Jersey campaign, including the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of Harlem Heights, retreating from New York with the Main Army.
The Continental Army was reorganized at the end of the year, as was the case in 1775, but soldiers were now given the option of enlisting for "three years or the war", unlike the previous practice of enlisting only until the end of the year. The Continental Army was reorganized once again in 1777, the 9th Continental Regiment was re-designated as the 1st Rhode Island Regiment. Colonel Varnum was promoted to brigadier general on February 27, 1777 and was succeeded by Colonel Christopher Greene, a distant cousin of General Nathanael Greene. Under Colonel Greene, the regiment defended Fort Mercer at the Battle of Red Bank on 22 October 1777 against an assault by 2,000 Hessians. Blacks had been barred from military service in the Continental Army from November 12, 1775 until February 23, 1778. Rhode Island was having difficulties recruiting enough white men to meet the troop quotas set by the Continental Congress in 1778, so the Rhode Island Assembly decided to pursue a suggestion made by General Varnum to enlist slaves in the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
Varnum had raised the idea in a letter to George Washington, who forwarded it to the governor of Rhode Island without explicitly approving or disapproving of the plan. On 14 February 1778, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted to allow the enlistment of "every able-bodied negro, mulatto, or Indian man slave" who chose to do so, voted that "every slave so enlisting shall, upon his passing muster before Colonel Christopher Greene, be discharged from the service of his master or mistress, be free." The owners of slaves who enlisted were to be compensated by the Assembly in an amount equal to their market value. A total of 88 slaves enlisted in the regiment over the next four months, as well as some free black men; the regiment totaled about 225 men. The 1st Rhode Island became the only regiment of the Continental Army to have segregated companies of black soldiers; the enlistment of slaves had been controversial, no more non-white men were enlisted after June 1778. The unit continued to be known as the "Black Regiment" though only white men were recruited to replace losses, a process which made it an integrated unit.
The regiment fought in the Battle of Rhode Island in August 1778 under the command of Major Samuel Ward, Jr. as Colonel Greene had been assigned as a brigade commander for the campaign. It played a minor—but praised—role in the battle, where it defended a key redoubt on West Main Road where it repelled three charges by the Hessians. Repeated attacks from British regulars and Hessian forces failed to break the line of the Patriot forces and allowed the successful retreat of Sullivan's army. Historian Sidney Rider notes that the Hessians were repulsed each time. According to Rider, the Hessian Colonel “applied to exchange his command and go to New York, because he dared not lead his regiment” into battle again, “lest his men should shoot him for having caused them so much loss.” The First Rhode Island suffered three killed, nine wounded, eleven missing. After a
Maulvi Faqir Mohammed is a member of the Mamund tribe in Bajaur Agency and, until March 2012, a deputy leader of the Pakistani Taliban umbrella group Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. He was reported as killed on 5 March 2010 during a helicopter gunship attack on militants by the Pakistani military although he denied the reports as false. In July 2011, he resurfaced on the air broadcasting radio shows out of Afghanistan, he was captured in Afghanistan on 17 February 2013. He was born in Chopatra, in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan; until the age of 20, he was a student unknown for any militancy. He began his education studying in a local madrassa under Maulana Abdus Salam, his first mentor was Maulana Sufi Mohammad, to whom he was introduced in 1993 at the age of 22. Sufi Mohammad is the founder of Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi, or Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Laws, he has one wife in a tribal society. Mohammed was a staunch activist of TNSM, he and his two sons were captured in Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban in late 2001, were held in Dera Ismail Khan jail in southern Pakistan.
However, he fled back to Pakistan, where his knowledge of the territory has been useful to Al-Qaeda operatives. His house was raided by Pakistani security agencies hunting a "high-value" al-Qaeda target in 2005. Public sympathy raised him into a position of leadership in the Bajaur Agency, his house was raided again on 22 January 2006, three of his relatives were arrested. He is a wanted man due to suspected contacts with Al-Qaeda militants. Faqir has publicly stated. For his part, Faqir Mohammed denies any presence of al-Qaeda or Taliban leadership in the area and says, "According to Pashtun tradition we will exact revenge on America. Ayman al-Zawahiri never came here but if he wanted to come, we will welcome him, it will be a great pleasure for us to be his host". President Pervez Musharraf, however, is insistent that "al-Qaeda fighters were killed in a suspected CIA air strike that killed 18 civilians in Bajaur Agency earlier this month...now that we have started investigating the reality on the ground, yes we have found that there are foreigners there, for sure.".
He commented on the Chenagai airstrike which occurred in October 2006. Though not a tribal chief or elder, he has 15-20 followers. Faqir and his entourage travel in the Bajaur region with impunity. However, his house was burnt down by tribal elders, he was warned in January 2006 that failure to surrender to authorities would result in his house being burnt down again. He is third in command of the Pakistani Taliban umbrella group Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, formed in December 2007 under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud and prefers the title Commander Faqir. On 23 February 2009 Faqir Mohammed declared in a 30-minute radio broadcast that his followers would begin a unilateral ceasefire; the speech came only a few hours after the Pakistani military announced a halt to operations in the nearby Swat valley, where it had been battling the Swati division of the TTP under the leadership of Maulana Fazlullah. After Baituallah Mehsud's reported death in August 2009, Maulana Faqir Mohammed announced to the BBC that he would assume temporary leadership of the TTP and that Muslim Khan would serve as primary spokesperson.
He maintained that Baitullah had not been killed but rather was in ill health. Faqir further elaborated that decisions over leadership of the umbrella group would only be made in consultation and consensus with other TTP leaders. "The congregation of Taliban leaders has 32 members and no important decision can be taken without their consultation," he told the BBC. He reported to the AFP that both Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman had approved his appointment as temporary leader of the militant group. Neither militant had publicly confirmed Faqir's statement, analysts cited by Dawn News believed the assumption of leadership indicated a power struggle. Two days Faqir Mohammed retracted his claims of temporary leadership and said that Hakimullah Mehsud had been selected leader of the TTP. After the alleged death of Hakimullah Mehsud in mid-January, 2010, Faqir Mohammed was one of the highest level leaders. Malik Noor Jamal alias Maulana Toofan was reported to have been appointed as head of the TTP after Mehsud's death but his leadership may not have been accepted as there were reports of deadly clashes between Toofan's men and those of a TTP leader in Kurram.
Pakistan launched an air attack on a building where it was thought that Faqir Mohammed was having a meeting with Taliban figures Fateh Mohammad and Qari Ziaur Rehman. Fateh Mohammed was confirmed as dead but the death of the other two was not known immediately. Within days, Faqir Mohammed gave a telephone interview and claimed that he was not present at the attack and that all senior officials had survived. Faqir Mohammed launched attacks on Pakistani border posts from Afghanistan's eastern Kunar province, across the border with Pakistan's Bajaur Agency, was hosted by Qari Zia-ur-Rahman. Mohammed claimed responsibility for a 4 July 2011, attack on a paramilitary checkpoint and for similar attacks in June 2011 on several border villages in Bajaur. During a radio broadcast Mohammed stated, "Our fighters carried out these two attacks from Afghanistan, we will launch more such attacks inside Afghanistan and in Pakistan." In early March 2012 the TTP announced that Faqir had been demoted from his role as naib amir and would be "considered a common fighter."
The main TTP spokesman, Ehsanullah Ehsan, reported that Faqir Mohammed had
Freedom of religion in Slovenia refers to the extent to which people in Slovenia are able to practice their religious beliefs, taking into account both government policies and societal attitudes toward religious groups. Slovenia's laws guarantee the freedom of religion and establish a separation between church and state, as well as prohibiting religious discrimination and religious hatred. Religious groups may register with the government in order to receive some privileges consisting of various forms of monetary compensation. Slovenia's laws prohibit circumcision for nonmedical reasons and animal slaughtering practices that are necessary for meat to be considered kosher or halal. Members of the Jewish and Muslim communities observe these practices outside of the country without obstruction from Slovenia's government. During the medieval and early modern periods, modern Slovenia was part of the Holy Roman and Austro-Hungarian empires, thus had a strict state religion of Catholicism. Religious laws were liberalized starting in the late 18th century, although a formal separation of church and state was not implemented until the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946.
The Yugoslavian government promoted atheism and expropriated the Catholic Church, but otherwise engaged in minimal religious repression in Slovenia. Following the collapse of Yugoslavia and the establishment of an independent Slovenia, Slovenia continues to use religious freedom laws adapted from previous Yugoslavian legislation. According to the 2002 census, as of 2017 the most recent available, 57.8 percent of the population is Roman Catholic, 2.4 percent Muslim, 2.3 percent Serbian Orthodox, 0.9 percent “other Christian,” and 10.1 percent atheist. In addition, 23 percent identified as “other” or did not declare a religion, 3.5 percent declared themselves “unaffiliated,” and 10.1 percent selected no religion. The Jewish community estimates its size at 300 individuals; the Orthodox and Muslim communities include a large number of immigrants from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, respectively. Prior to the 20th century, the territories corresponding to modern Slovenia were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
As such, their state religion was Roman Catholicism for this period. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Jews were expelled from many Slovene territories. Jews were invited back into Inner Austria in 1709. Beginning in the late 18th century, Austria-Hungary adopted reforms that granted some religious freedom, first to Orthodox and Protestant Christians, to Jews as well; the 19th century saw a slow liberalization of religious laws, with Christian minority denominations inching towards equal footing with the Catholic Church, althought Catholicism remained the state religion. This state of affairs was preserved in Slovenia upon its accession to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, although Jews and minority Christian denominations gained recognition from the state following this transition. Atheists, were considered second class citizens, the Catholic Church played a significant role in circumscribing intellectual life in Slovenia. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied by various Axis powers and the entirety of its Jewish population was killed or fled.
For much of the second half of the 20th century, Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia, which established a secular state, did not engage in anti-religious campaigns to the extent of other countries in the Eastern Bloc. As compared to other republics within Yugoslavia, Slovenians enjoyed relative religious freedom; the Roman Catholic Church had much of its property confiscated and many priests were persecuted by the Yugoslavian government, although this was due to the Church's collaboration with Axis forces during World War II. Religious instruction was removed from school curricula in 1952, atheism was promoted. Beginning in the 1960s, Yugoslavia's attitudes toward religion thawed further, although religious belief was considered incompatible with membership in the League of Communists of Yugoslavia until the 1980s. According to surveys conducted in the 1990s, only 11% of Slovenes felt that they had been discriminated against due to their religiosity at any point in their lives. Unlike the other regions of Yugoslavia, Slovenia was much more ethnically and religiously homogeneous, avoided being affected by sectarian civil war following the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
The constitution guarantees the freedom of religion and the right of individuals to express their beliefs in public and private. It declares that all religious communities shall have equal rights and provides for the separation of religion and state; the constitution prohibits the incitement of religious discrimination and inflammation of religious hatred and intolerance. The constitution recognizes the right of conscientious objection to military service for religious reasons; the penal code's definition of hate crimes includes publicly provoking religious hatred and diminishing the significance of the Holocaust. Punishment for these offenses is imprisonment of up to two years, or, if the crime involves coercion or endangerment of security – defined as a serious threat to life and limb, desecration, or damage to property – imprisonment for up to five years. If an official abusing the power of his or her position commits these offenses, he or she may be subject to imprisonment of up to five years.
Members of groups that engage in these activities in an organized and premeditated f
The management of hair loss known as alopecia or baldness, may include medications and surgery. Treatments for the various forms of hair loss have only moderate success. Three medications have evidence to support their use in male pattern hair loss: finasteride and minoxidil, they work better to prevent further hair loss than to regrow lost hair. They may be used together when hair loss is progressive or further regrowth is desired after 12 months. Other medications include ketoconazole, in female androgenic alopecia spironolactone and flutamide. Combinations of finasteride and ketoconazole are more effective than individual use. Minoxidil, applied topically, is used for the treatment of hair loss, it may be effective in helping promote hair growth in both women with androgenic alopecia. About 40% of men experience hair regrowth after 3–6 months, it is the only topical product, FDA approved in America for androgenic hair loss. However, increased hair loss has been reported. Finasteride is used to treat male pattern hair loss.
Treatment provides about 30% improvement in hair loss after six months of treatment, effectiveness only persists as long as the drug is taken. There is no good evidence for its use in women, it may cause erectile dysfunction and depression. Dutasteride is used off label for male pattern hair loss. There is tentative support for spironolactone in women. Due to its feminising side effects and risk of infertility it is not used by men, it can cause low blood pressure, high blood potassium, abnormal heart rhythms. Women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant cannot use the medication as it is a teratogen, can cause ambiguous genitalia in newborn children. There is tentative evidence for flutamide in women. Like spironolactone, it is only used by women. Ketoconazole may help in women. Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that moves individual hair follicles from a part of the body called the donor site to bald or balding part of the body known as the recipient site, it is used to treat male pattern baldness.
In this condition, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding are transplanted to bald scalp. It is used to restore eyelashes, beard hair, chest hair, pubic hair and to fill in scars caused by accidents or surgery such as face-lifts and previous hair transplants. Hair transplantation differs from skin grafting in that grafts contain all of the epidermis and dermis surrounding the hair follicle, many tiny grafts are transplanted rather than a single strip of skin. Since hair grows in follicles in groups of 1 to 4 hairs, transplantation takes advantage of these occurring follicular units; this achieves a more natural appearance by matching hair for hair through Follicular unit transplantation. Donor hair can be harvested in two different ways. Small grafts of naturally-occurring units of one to four hairs, called follicular units, can be moved to balding areas of the hair restoration; these follicular units are surgically implanted in the scalp in close proximity to one another and in large numbers.
The grafts are obtained in one or both of the two primary methods of surgical extraction, follicular unit transplantation, colloquially referred to as "strip harvesting", or Follicular Unit Extraction, in which follicles are transplanted individually. In FUT, a strip of skin containing many follicular units is extracted from the patient and dissected under a stereoscopic microscope; the site of the strip removal is stitched closed. Once divided into follicular unit grafts, each unit is individually inserted into small recipient sites made by an incision in the bald scalp. In the newer technique, roots are extracted from the donor area and divided into strips for transplantation; the strip, two to three millimeters thick, is transplanted to the bald scalp. After surgery, a bandage is worn for two days to protect the stitched strip during healing. A small strip scar remains after healing. Scalp reduction is a surgical procedure in which the hairless region of the scalp of a bald man is reduced; this procedure can reduce the area of the scalp without hair.
Radiation induces hair loss through damage to hair follicle stem cell progenitors and alteration of keratin expression. Radiation therapy has been associated with increased mucin production in hair follicles. Studies have suggested electromagnetic radiation as a therapeutic growth stimulant in alopecia. Certain hair shampoos and ointments visually thicken existing hair, without affecting the growth cycle. There have been developments in the fashion industry with wig design; the fashion accessory has been shown to be a source of psychological support for women undergoing chemotherapy, with cancer survivors in one study describing their wig as a "constant companion". Other studies in women have demonstrated a more mixed psychosocial impact of hairpiece use. Specialized tattoos known as scalp micropigmentation, can mimic the appearance of a short buzzed haircut. Many people use unproven treatments, but there is little evidence of the effectiveness of vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements regrowing hair or retaining hair.
2008 and 2012 reviews found little evidence to support the use of special lights or lasers to treat hair loss. Both laser and lights appear to be safe. A 2014 and 2016 review found tentative evidence of benefit for lasers. While another 2014 review concluded that the results are mixed, have a high risk of bias, that its effectiveness is unclear. Dietary supplements are not recommended
Campus El Segundo Athletic Fields is an outdoor athletic field in El Segundo, California. The park was opened in 2007, by English International footballer David Beckham and French International footballer Zinedine Zidane; the facility can be accessed by the Metro Green Line Mariposa/Nash Station the fields are just walking distance from the station. Located near Campus El Segundo is Toyota Sports Center a practice facility for the Los Angeles Kings, Los Angeles Sparks, the Los Angeles Lakers, it contains a NHL sized ice rink, basketball courts. Part of Campus El Segundo The Edge at Campus El Segundo is a 220,000 square foot high-quality business park with 15 two-story buildings and 20,000 SF of support retail it is being developed by Mar Ventures, Inc. and AMB Property Corporation. Located in El Segundo, 801 Parkview Drive North has convenient access to the beach communities from Palos Verdes to Santa Monica, a direct on-ramp to the 105 Freeway with the San Diego 405 Freeway one mile away and proximity to both LAX and the Metro Greenline Rail.
The building size and number of window openings, filled with high-performance glass, coupled with aluminum composite panels and canopies make the buildings aesthetically pleasing. Many observers have noted they find it hard to believe; the prime usage of the field is soccer. Many teams use Campus as their training ground. Many recreational lacrosse players use Campus El Segundo to play. Many football players play games at Campus El Segundo. No food or drink on the fields. Food/drink is allowed on cement areas. No seeds or shelled snacks on the fields. No chewing gum on the fields. No glass on the fields No smoking or tobacco products on the fields. No alcohol on the facility. No animals on the fields. No metal spiked cleats on the fields All footwear on the fields must be free of mud, etc. No items that might puncture the turf allowed on the fields. No painting the fields without approval from the City of El Segundo. No hanging or climbing on the field goals or netting. No items such as tables, etc. allowed on the fields without approval from the City of El Segundo.
No fire, barbecues on the facility without approval from the City of El Segundo. No motorized vehicles on the facility without approval from the City of El Segundo. No riding skateboards, roller blades, bikes, no golf allowed. No littering Notes Campus El Segundo Athletic fields Information Official Facebook Page Official Four Square
The major municipal areas which are a part of the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority or KMDA Kolkata conurbation are: Kalyani Municipality Gayespur Municipality Kanchrapara Municipality Halisahar Municipality Naihati Municipality Bhatpara Municipality Garulia Municipality North Barrackpur Municipality Barrackpore Municipality Titagarh Municipality Khardaha Municipality Panihati Municipality New Barrackpore Municipality Barasat Municipality Madhyamgram Municipality North Dumdum Municipality Dum Dum Municipality South Dumdum Municipality Kamarhati Municipality Baranagar Municipality Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation Maheshtala Municipality Budge Budge Municipality Pujali Municipality Rajpur Sonarpur Municipality Baruipur Municipality Jaynagar Majilpur Municipality Kolkata Municipal Corporation Chandannagar Municipal Corporation Bhadreswar Municipality Champdany Municipality Hooghly Chinsurah Municipality Bansberia Municipality Baidyabati Municipality Serampore Municipality Rishra Municipality Konnagar Municipality Uttarpara Kotrung Municipality Dankuni Municipality Howrah Municipal Corporation Uluberia Municipality Kolkata Municipal CorporationMany towns in Greater Kolkata are being incorporated within the Kolkata postal area, with their postal PIN codes being changed so that these areas can be identified with the larger metropolitan area