SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

2-8-0

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-8-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle in a leading truck, eight powered and coupled driving wheels on four axles, no trailing wheels. In the United States and elsewhere, this wheel arrangement is known as a Consolidation, after the Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad’s Consolidation, the name of the first 2-8-0; the Consolidation represented a notable advance in locomotive power. After 1875, it became "the most popular type of freight locomotive in the United States and was built in greater quantities than any other single wheel arrangement." Of all the locomotive types that were created and experimented with in the 19th century, the 2-8-0 was a relative latecomer. The first locomotive of this wheel arrangement was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Like the first 2-6-0s, this first 2-8-0 had a leading axle, rigidly attached to the locomotive's frame, rather than on a separate truck or bogie. To create this 2-8-0, PRR master mechanic John P. Laird modified an existing 0-8-0, the Bedford, between 1864 and 1865.

The 2-6-0 Mogul type, first created in the early 1860s, is considered as the logical forerunner to the 2-8-0. However, a claim is made that the first true 2-8-0 engine evolved from the 0-8-0 and was ordered by the United States' Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad, which named all its engines; the name given to the new locomotive was Consolidation, the name, almost globally adopted for the type. According to this viewpoint, the first 2-8-0 order by Lehigh dates to 1866 and antedates the adoption of the type by other railways and coal and mountain freight haulers. From its introduction in 1866 and well into the early 20th century, the 2-8-0 design was considered to be the ultimate heavy-freight locomotive; the 2-8-0's forte was starting and moving "impressive loads at unimpressive speeds" and its versatility gave the type its longevity. The practical limit of the design was reached in 1915, when it was realised that no further development was possible with a locomotive of this wheel arrangement; as in the United States, the 2-8-0 was a popular type in Europe, again as a freight hauler.

The type was used in Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa. The 2-8-0 locomotive was used extensively throughout Australia, it served on the 5 ft 3 in broad gauge, 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge and 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge and was employed as a freight locomotive, although it was also employed in passenger service in Victoria. The first Australian locomotive class with this wheel arrangement consisted of 20 standard-gauge New South Wales Government Railways J Class engines, which arrived from Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1891; the Js remained in service in New South Wales until 1915. Wartime shortages between 1916 and 1920 had six engines re-entering service after being shopped and fitted with superheaters; the last engine of this class was withdrawn in 1934 and all were scrapped by 1937. The second batch of 2-8-0 locomotives to appear in Australia, between 1896 and 1916, was the NSWGR T class engines; the class was delivered from one local and several overseas builders, 151 locomotives from Beyer and Company, 84 from North British Locomotive Company, 10 from Neilson and Company, 30 from Clyde Engineering in Australia, five from Dübs and Company.

During World War II, 14 of these locomotives were equipped with superheaters, which raised their tractive effort from 28,777 lbf to 33,557 lbf. From 1899, the Victorian Railways used a range of broad-gauge 2-8-0 locomotives; the first of these locomotives were the Baldwin-built Victorian Railways V class. These engines were built at Phoenix Foundry in Victoria. By 1930, they had disappeared from the VR; the VR's next type was the 26 C class engines, which saw passenger service. In 1922, a smaller and lighter 2-8-0, the K class, was introduced for branchline freight and also passenger services; the VR introduced sixty light 2-8-0 J class engines in 1954. These worked both freight and passenger services; the first 2-8-0 engines in private service on the Midland Railway of Western Australia arrived in 1912. These were 3 ft 6 in gauge locomotives; the five in the class operated until 1958. All were gone by 1963. In 1912, some of the NSWGR T class types were purchased by the private East Greta Railway to become the South Maitland Railway, but these were converted to 2-8-2 tank locomotives.

The class proved to be successful throughout its long service life, until being retired from government revenue service in 1973. During 1916, several of these same T class engines were purchased from NBL by the Commonwealth Railways for the Trans-Australian Railway. In 1924, a private coal company, J&A Brown in NSW, obtained three ex-British military Railway Operating Division ROD 2-8-0 locomotives. Brown ordered another 10 of these locomotives, but only nine of that order arrived in Australia; the last was withdrawn in 1973. To compensate for wartime losses, Belgian railways acquired 300 2-8-0 locomotives in 1946, they were built in North America, 160 by Montreal Locomotive Works in Canada, 60 by the Canadian Locomotive Company, 80 by the American Locomotive Company in the United States. These machines proved to be reliable and were used for mixed traffic until the end of the steam era, when number 29.013 hauled the last scheduled steam passenger train from Ath to Denderleeuw on 20 December 1966.

This locomotive is used on special excursions. On 16 December 2006, number 29.013 re-enacted the last 1966 run on the same route. The Canadian Pacific Railway N-2-a, b, c

Municipality of Lidcombe

The Municipality of Lidcombe was a local government area in the Western region of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The municipality was proclaimed as the Borough of Rookwood on 8 December 1891 and was renamed to the Municipality of Lidcombe, a portmanteau of two mayor's names, in order to differentiate itself from the expanding necropolis, from 15 October 1913, it included the modern suburbs of Rookwood, Homebush Bay and parts of Newington, Homebush West and Regents Park. From 1 January 1949, the council was amalgamated into the Municipality of Auburn, with the passing of the Local Government Act 1948; the area was first incorporated on 8 December 1891, when the Governor of New South Wales, The Earl of Jersey, proclaimed the "Borough of Rookwood". The first council was elected on 16 February 1892, with nine aldermen elected at-large; the Council first met on 24 February 1892, at Gormley's Hall, with Richard Slee having been elected the first mayor, William de Burgh Hocter, former Town Clerk of The Glebe, appointed first Town Clerk in March 1892.

On 28 November 1896, the foundation stone for the new Town Hall, on Church Street, was laid by the Mayoress, Mrs Lidbury. Designed by J. B. Alderson and built by William Peter Noller of Parramatta, the Town Hall was completed in 1897. From 28 December 1906, following the passing of the Local Government Act, 1906, the council was renamed as the "Municipality of Rookwood". With the continuing growth of the necropolis in the council area, opinion within the council and ratepayers that the "Rookwood" name was now too associated with the cemetery was growing. Several names were suggested, but council did not settle on a choice until in July 1913 when Henry R. Hoebey wrote to council suggesting the name "Lidcombe", a portmanteau of two mayor's names, Frederick Lidbury and Henry Larcombe, noting: "The decision to accept such a name would be an act of grace on the part of the authorities, would perpetuate the memory of those gentlemen who have rendered great services to the ratepayers of the municipality and on the ground of euphony it is much to be admired."

This name change was accepted by the NSW Department of Public Works and gazetted on 22 October 1913. With the name change, the council wrote to the state government advising them that the usage of "Necropolis" to refer to the cemetery was now undesirable, favouring "Rookwood" for the cemetery now only. With the passing of the "Rookwood" name the Evening News observed: "The aldermen are pleased that they have succeeded in sinking into oblivion what has been termed the "unsavory title of Rookwood", it is held that the move will at once make the locality a more popular one." By the end of the Second World War, the NSW Government had realised that its ideas of infrastructure expansion could not be effected by the present system of the patchwork of small municipal councils across Sydney and the Minister for Local Government, Joseph Cahill, following the recommendations of the 1945–46 Clancy Royal Commission on Local Government Boundaries, passed a bill in 1948 that abolished a significant number of those councils.

Under the Local Government Act 1948, Lidcombe Municipal Council merged with the Municipality of Auburn, which covered the border to the west. Wayland, S. C. Council and its development as an industrial centre, Council of the Municipality of Lidcombe Municipality of Auburn, Liberty Plains, A history of Auburn N. S. W, Council of the Municipality of Auburn, ISBN 978-0-9592628-0-3

Clone Church

Clone Church is a Romanesque medieval church and National Monument in County Wexford, Ireland. Clone Church is located 2.6 km south on the south side of the River Bann. Clone Church is built on the site of an earlier monastic foundation by Máedóc of Ferns, it was built in the 13th century in Romanesque style. The sundial was moved to Tintern Abbey in 2001. A Romanesque window from this church was incorporated into St. Peter's, the Church of Ireland parish church of Ferns. Face corbels from the church were incorporated into the wellhouse built over St Mogue's Well; the church ruins consist of the west part of the south wall. The west door jambs have chevron carvings on the architrave moulding. Five carved heads, a greyhound and a stone with dog-tooth decoration are over the door; the graveyard contains two bullaun stones. An stone sundial was in the graveyard of Clone Church, a remnant of the old monastery where a clock was needed so that the Liturgy of the Hours could be recited at the correct times.

There are twelve hour-lines and a hole for the gnomon, another hole above it of unknown purpose