Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing. CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base, located on Cape Canaveral in Brevard County, Florida, CCAFS; the station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range with three launch pads active. Popularly known as "Cape Kennedy" from 1963 to 1973, as "Cape Canaveral" from 1949 to 1963 and from 1973 to the present, the facility is south-southeast of NASA's Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, with the two linked by bridges and causeways; the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Skid Strip provides a 10,000-foot runway close to the launch complexes for military airlift aircraft delivering heavy and outsized payloads to the Cape. A number of American space exploration pioneers were launched from CCAFS, including the first U. S. Earth satellite in 1958, first U. S. astronaut, first U. S. astronaut in orbit, first two-man U. S. spacecraft, first U. S. unmanned lunar landing, first three-man U.
S. spacecraft. It was the launch site for all of the first spacecraft to fly past each of the planets in the Solar System, the first spacecraft to orbit Mars and roam its surface, the first American spacecraft to orbit and land on Venus, the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn, to orbit Mercury, the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System. Portions of the base have been designated a National Historic Landmark for their association with the early years of the American space program; the CCAFS area had been used by the United States government to test missiles since 1949, when President Harry S. Truman established the Joint Long Range Proving Ground at Cape Canaveral; the location was among the best in the continental United States for this purpose, as it allowed for launches out over the Atlantic Ocean, is closer to the equator than most other parts of the United States, allowing rockets to get a boost from the Earth's rotation. On June 1, 1948, the United States Navy transferred the former Banana River Naval Air Station to the United States Air Force, with the Air Force renaming the facility the Joint Long Range Proving Ground Base on June 10, 1949.
On October 1, 1949, the Joint Long Range Proving Ground Base was transferred from the Air Materiel Command to the Air Force Division of the Joint Long Range Proving Ground. On May 17, 1950, the base was renamed the Long Range Proving Ground Base, but three months was renamed Patrick Air Force Base, in honor of Army Maj. Gen. Mason Patrick. In 1951, the Air Force established the Air Force Missile Test Center. Early American sub-orbital rocket flights were achieved at Cape Canaveral in 1956; these flights occurred shortly after sub-orbital flights launched from White Sands Missile Range, such as the Viking 12 sounding rocket on February 4, 1955. Following the Soviet Union's successful Sputnik 1, the United States attempted its first launch of an artificial satellite from Cape Canaveral on December 6, 1957. However, the rocket carrying Vanguard TV3 exploded on the launch pad. NASA was founded in 1958, Air Force crews launched missiles for NASA from the Cape, known as Cape Canaveral Missile Annex.
Redstone, Pershing 1, Pershing 1a, Pershing II, Thor, Atlas and Minuteman missiles were all tested from the site, the Thor becoming the basis for the expendable launch vehicle Delta rocket, which launched Telstar 1 in July 1962. The row of Titan and Atlas launch pads along the coast came to be known as Missile Row in the 1960s. NASA's first manned spaceflight program was prepared for launch from Canaveral by U. S. Air Force crews. Mercury's objectives were to place a manned spacecraft in Earth orbit, investigate human performance and ability to function in space, safely recover the astronaut and spacecraft. Suborbital flights were launched by derivatives of the Army's Redstone missile from LC-5. Orbital flights were launched by derivatives of the Air Force's larger Atlas D missile from LC-14; the first American in orbit was John Glenn on February 20, 1962. Three more orbital flights followed through May 1963. Flight control for all Mercury missions was provided at the Mercury Control Center located at Canaveral near LC-14.
On November 29, 1963, following the death of President John F. Kennedy, his successor Lyndon B. Johnson issued Executive Order 11129 renaming both NASA's Merrit Island Launch Operations Center and "the facilities of Station No. 1 of the Atlantic Missile Range" as the "John F. Kennedy Space Center", he had convinced Gov. C. Farris Bryant to change the name of Cape Canaveral to Cape Kennedy; this resulted in some confusion in public perception. NASA Administrator James E. Webb clarified this by issuing a directive stating the Kennedy Space Center name applied only to Merrit Island, while the Air Force issued a general order renaming the Air Force Station launch site Cape Kennedy Air Force Station; this name was used through the Gemini and early Apollo programs. However, the geographical name change proved to be unpopular, owing to the historical longevity of Cape Canaveral. In 1973, both the Air Force Base and the geographical Cape names were reverted to Canaveral after the Florida legislature passed a bill changing the name back, signed into law by Florida governor Reubin Askew.
Gamma Ray Spectrometer (2001 Mars Odyssey)
The Gamma Ray Spectrometer is a gamma-ray spectrometer on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, a space probe orbiting the planet Mars since 2001. Part of NASA's Mars Surveyor 2001 program, it returns geological data about Mars's surface such as identifying elements and the location of water, it is maintained by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona in the United States. This instrument has mapped the distribution surface hydrogen, thought to trace water in the surface layer of Martian soil; the Gamma Ray Spectrometer uses 32 watts of power. Along with its cooler, it measures 468 by 534 by 604 millimetres; the detector is a photodiode made of a 1.2-kilogram germanium crystal, reverse biased to about 3 kilovolts, mounted at the end of a 6-metre boom to minimize interferences from the gamma radiation produced by the spacecraft itself. Its spatial resolution is about 300 kilometres; the neutron spectrometer is 173 by 144 by 314 millimetres. The high-energy neutron detector measures 303 by 248 by 242 millimetres.
The instrument's central electronics box is 281 by 243 by 234 millimetres. Mars Odyssey GRS instrument site at the University of Arizona
Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship; the Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos and Deimos and his lover, or sister, Enyo accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him. An association with Ares endows objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality, his value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena depicted in Greek art as holding Nike in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks. Ares plays a limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are alluded to.
When Ares does appear in myths, he faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship; the most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device. The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars, who as a father of the Roman people was given a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion as a guardian deity. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares, thus in the classical tradition of Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures became indistinguishable. The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word ἀρή, the Ionic form of the Doric ἀρά, "bane, curse, imprecation". There may be a connection with the Roman god of war, via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European *M̥rēs.
Walter Burkert notes that "Ares is an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war." R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name; the earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek, a-re, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The adjectival epithet, was appended to the names of other gods when they took on a warrior aspect or became involved in warfare: Zeus Areios, Athena Areia Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad, the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with "battle."Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, continuing into the Classical period, attest to Enyalios as another name for the god of war. Ares was one of the Twelve Olympians in the archaic tradition represented by the Odyssey. Zeus expresses a recurring Greek revulsion toward the god when Ares returns wounded and complaining from the battlefield at Troy: Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:"Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar. To me you are the most hateful of all gods.
Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart and battles.... And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, sinceyou are my child, it was to me that your mother bore you, but were you born of some other god and proved so ruinouslong since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky." This ambivalence is expressed in the Greeks' association of Ares with the Thracians, whom they regarded as a barbarous and warlike people. Thrace was Ares's birthplace, his true home, his refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods. A late-6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares's sway:Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead KroisosWhom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks. In Sparta, Ares was viewed as a model soldier: his resilience, physical strength, military intelligence were unrivaled. An ancient statue, representing the god in chains, suggests that the martial spirit and victory were to be kept in the city of Sparta.
That the Spartans admired him is indicative of the cultural divisions that existed between themselves and other Greeks the Athenians. Ares was worshipped by the inhabitants of Tylos, it is not known if he was worshipped in the form of an Arabian god or if he was worshipped in his Greek form. According to Herodotus' Histories, the Scythians worshipped a god. While ranking beneath Tabiti and Papaios in the divine hierarchy, this god was worshipped differently from other Scythian gods, with statues and complex altars devoted to him; this type of worship is noted to be present among the Alans. Noting how Greek mythological Amazons are devotees of Ares and most based on Scythian warriors, some researchers have considered the possibility that a Scythian warrior women cult of this deity existed. Others have posited that the "Sword of Mars" alludes to the Huns having adopted this deity; the birds of Ares were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons' shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea.
Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, greater than 1 is a hyperbola; the term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette orbit through the galaxy. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit; the eccentricity of this Kepler orbit is a non-negative number. The eccentricity may take the following values: circular orbit: e = 0 elliptic orbit: 0 < e < 1 parabolic trajectory: e = 1 hyperbolic trajectory: e > 1 The eccentricity e is given by e = 1 + 2 E L 2 m red α 2 where E is the total orbital energy, L is the angular momentum, mred is the reduced mass, α the coefficient of the inverse-square law central force such as gravity or electrostatics in classical physics: F = α r 2 or in the case of a gravitational force: e = 1 + 2 ε h 2 μ 2 where ε is the specific orbital energy, μ the standard gravitational parameter based on the total mass, h the specific relative angular momentum.
For values of e from 0 to 1 the orbit's shape is an elongated ellipse. The limit case between an ellipse and a hyperbola, when e equals 1, is parabola. Radial trajectories are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic based on the energy of the orbit, not the eccentricity. Radial orbits hence eccentricity equal to one. Keeping the energy constant and reducing the angular momentum, elliptic and hyperbolic orbits each tend to the corresponding type of radial trajectory while e tends to 1. For a repulsive force only the hyperbolic trajectory, including the radial version, is applicable. For elliptical orbits, a simple proof shows that arcsin yields the projection angle of a perfect circle to an ellipse of eccentricity e. For example, to view the eccentricity of the planet Mercury, one must calculate the inverse sine to find the projection angle of 11.86 degrees. Next, tilt any circular object by that angle and the apparent ellipse projected to your eye will be of that same eccentricity; the word "eccentricity" comes from Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ἔκκεντρος ekkentros "out of the center", from ἐκ- ek-, "out of" + κέντρον kentron "center".
"Eccentric" first appeared in English in 1551, with the definition "a circle in which the earth, sun. Etc. deviates from its center". By five years in 1556, an adjectival form of the word had developed; the eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from the orbital state vectors as the magnitude of the eccentricity vector: e = | e | where: e is the eccentricity vector. For elliptical orbits it can be calculated from the periapsis and apoapsis since rp = a and ra = a, where a is the semimajor axis. E = r a − r p r a + r p = 1 − 2 r a r p + 1 where: ra is the radius at apoapsis. Rp is the radius at periapsis; the eccentricity of an elliptical orbit can be used to obtain the ratio of the periapsis to the apoapsis: r p r a = 1 − e 1 + e For Earth, orbital eccentricity ≈ 0.0167, apoapsis= aphelion and periapsis= perihelion relative to sun. For Earth's annual orbit path, ra/rp ratio = longest_radius / shortest_radius ≈ 1.034 relative to center point of path. The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is about 0.0167.
Thermal Emission Imaging System
The Thermal Emission Imaging System is a camera on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter. It images Mars in the visible and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order to determine the thermal properties of the surface and to refine the distribution of minerals on the surface of Mars as determined by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer. Additionally, it helps scientists to understand how the mineralogy of Mars relates to its landforms, it can be used to search for thermal hotspots in the Martian subsurface. THEMIS is managed from the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University and was built by the Santa Barbara Remote Sensing division of Raytheon; the instrument was named after the Greek goddess of justice. THEMIS detects thermal infrared energy emitted by the Martian surface at nine different wavelengths. Eight of these have wavelengths between 6 and 13 micrometers, an ideal region of the infrared spectrum to determine thermal energy patterns characteristic of silicate minerals.
The ninth band is used to monitor the Martian atmosphere. The shortest infrared wavelength, at 6.78 micrometers, is measured twice in two bands to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. THEMIS is therefore a 10-band instrument; the absorption spectrum measured by THEMIS contains two kinds of information: temperature and emissivity. The temperature contribution to the measurement dominates the spectrum. In effect, a THEMIS infrared image taken during the day will look much like a shaded relief map, with slopes facing the sun being bright and shaded areas being dark. In a THEMIS image taken at night however, thermophysical properties of the surface can be inferred, such as temperature differences due to the materials grain size; the effect of temperature can be removed from THEMIS infrared data by dividing the image by a black body curve. The resulting energy pattern is an emissivity spectrum characteristic of the specific minerals found on the surface; the presence of minerals such as carbonates, hydroxides, amorphous silica and phosphates can be determined from THEMIS measurements.
In particular, this multi-spectral method allows researchers to detect the presence of minerals that form in water and to understand those minerals in their geological context. The THEMIS infrared camera was designed to be used in conjunction with data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, a similar instrument on Mars Global Surveyor. While THEMIS has a high spatial resolution with a low spectral resolution of only 10 bands between 6 and 15 micrometers, TES has a low spatial resolution with high spectral resolution of 143 bands between 5 and 50 micrometers; the instrument's approach provides data on localized deposits associated with volcanoes, hydrothermal processes, the alteration of minerals by surface and/or subsurface water. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, an Earth orbiting instrument on the Terra spacecraft, has used a similar approach to map the distribution of minerals on Earth. Variations in the thermal infrared false-color image are due to differences in the minerals that make up rocks and soil.
THEMIS found a wide range of igneous minerals. Some of the rocks were low-silica basalts, high silica dacite, olivine basalts ultramafic basalts, quartz-bearning granitoid rocks; the olivine basalts were present in a variety of locations, such as on crater floors and in some canyon wall layers. The mineral olivine is important because it is common in more primitive magmas from the mantle and it weathers when mositure is present. So if olivine is present, the climate must have been dry since the time. Quartz-bearing rocks were found in the central uplifts in craters. Rocks in the central uplifts were once buried several kilometers beneath the surface, but raised by the impact process. Rocks of dacite composition show. In this process, some minerals form crystals settle to the bottom of the chamber. Having a variety of rocks increases the chances that some useful/valuable minerals may be found on Mars. THEMIS has a visible imaging camera that acquires data in five spectral bands, takes images with a spatial resolution of 18 m, can resolve objects about the size of a semi-trailer.
This resolution is intermediate between large-scale images from the Viking Orbiters and the high-resolution images from the Mars Orbiter Camera on board Mars Global Surveyor. Visible images from THEMIS are close to 20 km wide; the THEMIS visible camera's stated purpose is to determine the geological record of past liquid and volcanic environments on Mars. Additionally, this dataset can be used in conjunction with the infrared data to identify potential landing sites for future Mars missions; the Thermal Emission Imaging System weighs 11.2 kilograms, is 54.5 x 37 x 28.6 cm and runs on 14 watts of electrical power. Mars Student Imaging Project THEMIS Specifications THEMIS instrument site at Arizona State University Searchable database of THEMIS data, including detailed information on individual observations Public data releases of THEMIS data Free Mars Odyssey THEMIS Image of the Day for iPhone or iPod Maps of Mars images including THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, CTX, HRSC, Viking
Mars Exploration Rover
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission was a robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the launch of the two rovers: MER-A Spirit and MER-B Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology. Both rovers far outlived their planned missions of 90 Martian solar days: MER-A Spirit was active until March 22, 2010, while MER-B Opportunity was active until June 10, 2018 and holds the record for the longest distance driven by any off-Earth wheeled vehicle; the mission's scientific objective was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. The mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, which includes three previous successful landers: the two Viking program landers in 1976 and Mars Pathfinder probe in 1997; the total cost of building, launching and operating the rovers on the surface for the initial 90-sol primary mission was US$820 million. Since the rovers have continued to function beyond their initial 90 sol primary mission, they have each received five mission extensions.
The fifth mission extension was granted in October 2007, ran to the end of 2009. The total cost of the first four mission extensions was $104 million, the fifth mission extension is expected to cost at least $20 million. In July 2007, during the fourth mission extension, Martian dust storms blocked sunlight to the rovers and threatened the ability of the craft to gather energy through their solar panels, causing engineers to fear that one or both of them might be permanently disabled. However, the dust storms lifted. On May 1, 2009, during its fifth mission extension, Spirit became stuck in soft soil on Mars. After nearly nine months of attempts to get the rover back on track, including using test rovers on Earth, NASA announced on January 26, 2010 that Spirit was being retasked as a stationary science platform; this mode would enable Spirit to assist scientists in ways that a mobile platform could not, such as detecting "wobbles" in the planet's rotation that would indicate a liquid core. Jet Propulsion Laboratory lost contact with Spirit after last hearing from the rover on March 22, 2010 and continued attempts to regain communications lasted until May 25, 2011, bringing the elapsed mission time to 6 years 2 months 19 days, or over 25 times the original planned mission duration.
In recognition of the vast amount of scientific information amassed by both rovers, two asteroids have been named in their honor: 37452 Spirit and 39382 Opportunity. The mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which designed, is operating the rovers. On January 24, 2014, NASA reported that current studies by the remaining rover Opportunity as well as by the newer Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments that may have been habitable; the search for evidence of habitability and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective. The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission are to: Search for and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity. In particular, samples sought include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, sedimentary cementation, or hydrothermal activity.
Determine the distribution and composition of minerals and soils surrounding the landing sites. Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry; such processes could include water or wind erosion, hydrothermal mechanisms and cratering. Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments; this will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit. Search for iron-containing minerals, to identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates. Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils to determine the processes that created them. Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present. Assess whether those environments were conducive to life; the MER-A and MER-B probes were launched on July 7, 2003, respectively.
Though both probes launched on Boeing Delta II 7925-9.5 rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17, MER-B was on the heavy version of that launch vehicle, needing the extra energy for Trans-Mars injection. The launch vehicles were integrated onto pads right next to each other, with MER-A on CCAFS SLC-17A and MER-B on CCAFS SLC-17B; the dual pads allowed for working the 15- and 21-day planetary launch periods close together. NASA's Launch Services Program managed the launch of both spacecraft; the probes landed in January 2004 in separated equatorial locations on Mars. On January 21, 2004, the Deep Space Network lost contact with Spirit, for reasons thought to be related to a thunderstorm over Australia; the rover transmitted a message with no data, but that day missed another communications session with the Mars Global Surveyor. The next day, JPL received a beep from the rover. On January 23
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory; as of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, is affiliated with two academic medical centers; the University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the UA's intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men's basketball and softball; the official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew.
The Arizona Territory's "Thieving Thirteenth" Legislature approved the University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory's mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory's only university. Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson's legislators, by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, still in use today.
Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers bachelor's, master's, professional degrees. Grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with "A" worth 4, "B" worth 3, "C" worth 2, "D" worth 1 and "E" worth zero points; the Center for World University Rankings in 2017 ranked Arizona No. 52 in the world and 34 in the U. S; the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 161st in the world and the 2017/18 QS World University Rankings ranked it 230th. The University of Arizona was ranked tied for 77th in the "National Universities" category by U. S. News & World Report for 2018; the James E. Rogers College of Law Graduate School was ranked tied for 41st nationally; the College of Medicine was rated No. 7 among the nation's medical schools for Hispanic students, according to Hispanic Business Magazine. In 2017, the Eller MBA program was ranked 24th among public institutions and 49th nationally by U.
S. News & World Report, which placed the school's Management Information Systems program as 2nd, the Entrepreneurship program as 5th and the Part-time MBA 30th among U. S public schools. U. S. News & World Report rated UA as tied for 33rd for online MBA programs, tied for 49th for best online graduate nursing programs, tied for 33rd for best online graduate engineering programs nationally. UA graduate programs ranked in the top 25 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report for 2017 include Information Science, Geology and Seismology, Speech Pathology, Rehabilitation Counseling, Earth Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic/Molecular/Optical Sciences and Photography; the Council for Aid to Education ranked UA 12th among public universities and 24th overall in financial support and gifts. Campaign Arizona, an effort to raise over $1 billion for the school, exceeded that goal by $200 million a year earlier than projected. In April 2014, the "Arizona Now" campaign launched with a target of $1.5 billion.
As of 31 December 2016, the campaign has raised $1.59 Billion, two years ahead of schedule. In 2015, Design Intelligence ranked the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's undergraduate program in architecture 10th in the nation for all universities and private; the same publication ranked. The School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona is one of the most ranked area studies programs focusing on the Middle East in the United States. In addition to offering language training in Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish, it is collocated with the Middle East Studies Association; the School of Geography and Development is ranked as one of the top geography graduate programs in the US. The UA is considered a "selective" university by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2014-2015 academic year, 68 freshman students were National Merit Scholars. UA students hail from all states in the U. S. While nearly 69% of students are from Arizona, nearly 11% are from California, 8% are international, followed by a significant student presence from Texas, Washington and New York..
Tuition at the University o