The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation. Effective temperature is used as an estimate of a body's surface temperature when the body's emissivity curve is not known; when the star's or planet's net emissivity in the relevant wavelength band is less than unity, the actual temperature of the body will be higher than the effective temperature. The net emissivity may be low due to surface or atmospheric properties, including greenhouse effect; the effective temperature of a star is the temperature of a black body with the same luminosity per surface area as the star and is defined according to the Stefan–Boltzmann law FBol = σTeff4. Notice that the total luminosity of a star is L = 4πR2σTeff4, where R is the stellar radius; the definition of the stellar radius is not straightforward. More rigorously the effective temperature corresponds to the temperature at the radius, defined by a certain value of the Rosseland optical depth within the stellar atmosphere.
The effective temperature and the bolometric luminosity are the two fundamental physical parameters needed to place a star on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. Both effective temperature and bolometric luminosity depend on the chemical composition of a star; the effective temperature of our Sun is around 5780 kelvins. Stars have a decreasing temperature gradient; the "core temperature" of the Sun—the temperature at the centre of the Sun where nuclear reactions take place—is estimated to be 15,000,000 K. The color index of a star indicates its temperature from the cool—by stellar standards—red M stars that radiate in the infrared to the hot blue O stars that radiate in the ultraviolet; the effective temperature of a star indicates the amount of heat that the star radiates per unit of surface area. From the warmest surfaces to the coolest is the sequence of stellar classifications known as O, B, A, F, G, K, M. A red star could be a tiny red dwarf, a star of feeble energy production and a small surface or a bloated giant or supergiant star such as Antares or Betelgeuse, either of which generates far greater energy but passes it through a surface so large that the star radiates little per unit of surface area.
A star near the middle of the spectrum, such as the modest Sun or the giant Capella radiates more energy per unit of surface area than the feeble red dwarf stars or the bloated supergiants, but much less than such a white or blue star as Vega or Rigel. To find the effective temperature of a planet, it can be calculated by equating the power received by the planet to the known power emitted by a blackbody of temperature T. Take the case of a planet at a distance D from the star, of luminosity L. Assuming the star radiates isotropically and that the planet is a long way from the star, the power absorbed by the planet is given by treating the planet as a disc of radius r, which intercepts some of the power, spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D; the calculation assumes the planet reflects some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, an albedo of 0 means all of it is absorbed; the expression for absorbed power is then: P a b s = L r 2 4 D 2 The next assumption we can make is that the entire planet is at the same temperature T, that the planet radiates as a blackbody.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law gives an expression for the power radiated by the planet: P r a d = 4 π r 2 σ T 4 Equating these two expressions and rearranging gives an expression for the effective temperature: T = L 16 π σ D 2 4 Note that the planet's radius has cancelled out of the final expression. The effective temperature for Jupiter from this calculation is 88 K and 51 Pegasi b is 1,258 K. A better estimate of effective temperature for some planets, such as Jupiter, would need to include the internal heating as a power input; the actual temperature depends on atmosphere effects. The actual temperature from spectroscopic analysis for HD 209458 b is 1,130 K, but the effective temperature is 1,359 K; the internal heating within Jupiter raises the effective temperature to about 152 K. The surface temperature of a planet can be estimated by modifying the effective-temperature calculation to account for emissivity and temperature variation; the area of the planet that absorbs the power from the star is Aabs, some fraction of the total surface area Atotal = 4πr2, where r is the radius of the planet.
This area intercepts some of the power, spread over the surface of a sphere of radius D. We allow the planet to reflect some of the incoming radiation by incorporating a parameter a called the albedo. An albedo of 1 means that all the radiation is reflected, an albedo
2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference
The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP20 or CMP10 was held in Lima, from December 1 to 12, 2014. This was the 20th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 10th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol; the conference delegates held negotiations towards a global climate agreement. While this was conference in the annual series, more attention is directed towards the 2015 conference in Paris. A statement made by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon forecast the climate change summit to be held in September 2014, but made no organizational reference to the 2014 conference in Lima or the Paris conference; the overarching goal of the conference was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit the global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above current levels. The EU aims a binding 40% drop in emissions by 2030 against carbon output in 1990 as baseline. Before the Conference of Climate Change, oil producing countries increased the oil production and oil became cheaper than it had been for years.
Post–Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions Politics of global warming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report COP20 website People's Summit COP20
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records. The term was coined by Kerry Emanuel. Examples of proxies include overwash deposits preserved in the sediments of coastal lakes and marshes, microfossils such as foraminifera, diatoms, phytoliths contained in coastal sediments, wave-generated or flood-generated sedimentary structures or deposits in marine or lagoonal sediments, storm wave deposited coral shingle, shell and shell and pure sand shore parallel ridges; the method of using overwash deposits preserved in coastal lake and marsh sediments is adopted from earlier studies of paleotsunami deposits. Both storms and tsunamis leave similar if not identical sedimentary deposits in coastal lakes and marshes and differentiating between the two in a sedimentary record can be difficult; the first studies to examine prehistoric records of tropical cyclones occurred in Australia and the South Pacific during the late 1970s and early 1980s.
These studies examined multiple shore parallel ridges of coral sand and marine shells. As many as 50 ridges can be deposited at a site with each representing a past severe tropical cyclone over the previous 6,000 years. Tsunamis are not known to deposit multiple sedimentary ridges and therefore these features can be more attributed to a past storm at any given site. Coastal sedimentary analyses have been done at the U. S. Gulf coast, the Atlantic coast from South Carolina up to New Jersey and New England, the Caribbean Sea. Studies on pre-historic tropical cyclones hitting Australia have been made. A study covering the South China Sea coast has been published. Rocks contain certain isotopes of elements, known as natural tracers, which describe the conditions under which they formed. By studying the calcium carbonate in coral rock, past sea surface temperature and hurricane information can be revealed. Heavier oxygen isotopes decrease in relation to lighter oxygen isotopes in coral during periods of heavy rainfall.
Since hurricanes are the main source of extreme rainfall in the tropical oceans, past hurricane events can be dated to the days of their impact on the coral by looking at the decreased 18O concentration within the coral. Isotope studies in speleothems and tree rings offers a means by which higher resolution records of long-term tropical cyclone histories can be attained. Unlike the isotope records, the sedimentary records are too coarse in their resolution to register quasi-cyclic activity at decadal to centennial scales; these higher resolution records therefore offer a means for differentiating between the natural variability of tropical cyclone behaviour and the effects of anthropogenically induced global climate change. Recent studies with stalagmites in Belize shows that events can be determined on a week-by-week basis. Before the invention of the telegraph in the early to mid-19th century, news was as fast as the fastest horse or stagecoach or ship. There was no advance warning of a tropical cyclone impact.
However, the situation changed in the 19th century as seafaring people and land-based researchers, such as Father Viñes in Cuba, came up with systematic methods of reading the sky's appearance or the sea state, which could foretell a tropical cyclone's approach up to a couple days in advance. One of the best documented storms is the Royal Charter Storm of 1859 which caused over 800 deaths in the UK alone, it led directly to the formation of the Meteorological Office under Robert Fitzroy. However, wind speed could not be measured at the time, methods only becoming available after the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879. One of the better sources for storms in and around Britain is the shipwreck statistics compiled annually by the Board of Trade, but which have yet to be analysed in detail. Michael Chenoweth used 18th century journals to reconstruct the climate of Jamaica. Together with Dmitry Divine, he created a 318-year record of tropical cyclones in the Lesser Antilles, using newspaper accounts, ships' logbooks, meteorological journals, other document sources.
In China, the abundance of historical documentary records in the form of Fang Zhi offers an extraordinary opportunity for providing a high-resolution historical dataset for the frequency of typhoon strikes. Tropical cyclone Tropical cyclone observation Tropical cyclones and climate change Elsner, James B.. Hurricanes of the North Atlantic: Climate and Society. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 49–51, 378. ISBN 0-19-512508-8. Liu, Kam-biu. "Paleotempestology: Principles and Examples from Gulf Coast Lake Sediments". In Murnane, R. J.. Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past and Future. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. 13–57. ISBN 0-231-12388-4. Liu, Kam-biu. "Paleotempestology". In Elias, Scott A. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Pp. 1978–1986. ISBN 978-0-444-51922-1. Nott, Jonathan. "Palaeotempestology: the study of prehistoric tropical cyclones—a review and implications for hazard assessment". Environment International. 30: 433–447. Doi:10.1016/j.envint.2003.09.010. PMID 14987874.
Revkin, Andrew C.. "Experts Unearth a Stormy Past". New York Times. Paleotempestology Resource Center Shipwrecks, tree rings and hurricanes
2005 United Nations Climate Change Conference
The 2005 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place between November 28 and December 9, 2005, in Montreal, Canada. The conference included the 11th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, was the first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol since their initial meeting in Kyoto in 1997, it was one of the largest intergovernmental conferences on climate change ever. The event marked the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on 16 February 2005. Hosting more than 10,000 delegates, it was one of Canada's largest international events and the largest gathering in Montreal since Expo 67; the Montreal Action Plan was an agreement to "extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol beyond its 2012 expiration date and negotiate deeper cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions" by starting negotiations, without delay on an extension of the protocol. Canada's environment minister, at the time, Stéphane Dion, said the agreement provides a "map for the future"
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference
The 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference was the 18th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 8th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The conference took place from Monday 26 November to Saturday 8 December 2012, at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha; the conference reached an agreement to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol, due to expire at the end of 2012, until 2020, to reify the 2011 Durban Platform, meaning that a successor to the Protocol is set to be developed by 2015 and implemented by 2020. Wording adopted by the conference incorporated for the first time the concept of "loss and damage", an agreement in principle that richer nations could be financially responsible to other nations for their failure to reduce carbon emissions; the United Nations Climate Change Conferences are annual multi-lateral meetings of governments held in different locations around the world under the sponsorship of the United Nations that serve as a forum for countries to discuss climate change matters.
The conferences seek to address the threat of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions like carbon dioxide. Between 2000–2011 carbon dioxide growth in the atmosphere was 20% of the total concentration growth since prehistoric level The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere has reached 391 ppm as of October 2012 versus the pre-industrial concentration was 280 ppm which the consensus of world climate scientists agree is unsustainable; the conferences are attended by dignitaries and sometimes heads of state from most countries and draw significant activity by various environmental advocacy groups. The conferences are well covered by the world media agencies; the 2012 conference is held at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha, with a projected attendance of 17,000 participants it is expected to be the largest conference to have been held in Qatar. The conference is casually called the COP18 /CMP 8 conference but these are technically different but related and sometimes integrated conferences.
In 2012, the UNFCCC conference serves as an umbrella for seven concurrent and interrelated meeting groups collectively called the Doha 2012 UNFCCC conference. The main conference is preceded by several topical pre-sessions. 70th meeting of the Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board Least Developed Countries Preparatory Meetings Small Island Developing States Preparatory Meetings African Group Preparatory Meetings Informal pre-sessional meeting of Parties to exchange further views on the possible recommendations on loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change G7 & China Preparatory Meetings The Doha 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference is an agglomeration of multiple related conferences being conducted in parallel and in a semi-integrated fashion over the two weeks that the conference is in session: Eighteenth session of the Conference of the Parties Eighth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol Thirty-seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation Thirty-seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and TechnologicalAdvice Seventeenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol Fifteenth session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention First session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action The conference focused on five aspects of climate change: Adaptation – social and other changes that must be undertaken to adapt to climate change.
Adaptation might encompass, but is not limited to, changes in urban planning. Finance – how countries will finance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, whether from public or private sources. Mitigation – steps and actions that the countries of the world can take to mitigate the effects of climate change. Technology – the technologies that are needed to adapt or mitigate climate change and ways in which developed countries can support developing countries in adopting them. Loss and damage – first articulated at the 2012 conference and in part based on the agreement, signed at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancun, it introduces the principle that countries vulnerable to the effects of climate change may be financially compensated in future by countries that fail to curb their carbon emissions. The conference is a two-week conference consisting of the following activities: Speeches from UN bureaucrats Speeches from dignitaries and sometimes heads of state Closed working sessions by various working groups Open breakouts and working sessions by various working groups Announcements by countries on a particular position Announcements of agreements by UN bureaucratsThe conference will sometimes see late night working sessions when diplomats cannot agree to the terms and conditions of agreements and sometimes staged walk-outs by some parties is not uncommon.
The last several conferences of this type have suffered from impasses in the first week and a half of talks, followed by a series of rounds of late night discussions, sometimes followed by an extension of the conference which yields a modest progress agreement. Extern