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2009 FIFA Confederations Cup

The 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup was the eighth Confederations Cup, was held in South Africa from 14 June to 28 June 2009, as a prelude to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The draw was held on 22 November 2008 at the Sandton Convention Centre in Johannesburg; the opening match was played at Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg. The tournament was won by Brazil, who retained the trophy they won in 2005 by defeating the United States 3–2 in the final; the draw for the competition was held on 22 November 2008 at the Sandton Convention Centre in Johannesburg. Each team was represented in the draw by its competitor in the Miss World 2008 competition, except for Iraq, represented by Miss World 2007, Zhang Zilin, from China; the teams were divided into two pots: Pot A: South Africa, Italy, Spain Pot B: Egypt, New Zealand, United StatesTeams from the same confederation were not drawn into the same group, therefore Egypt was drawn into Group B. As result and Spain were drawn into different groups; the official match ball for the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup was the Adidas Kopanya.

The name means "join together" in Southern Sesotho, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa. The panel configuration of the ball is the same as that of the Teamgeist and Europass balls that came before it; the ball is white, accentuated with bold black lines and detailed with typical Ndebele designs in red, yellow and blue. Four cities served as the venues for the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. All four venues were used for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Port Elizabeth's Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium was chosen as a venue. On 8 July 2008, Port Elizabeth withdrew as a host city because its stadium was deemed unlikely to meet the 30 March 2009 deadline for completion; the Nelson Mandela Bay stadium was subsequently completed before the Confederations Cup and was opened on 7 June 2009. It acted as a venue for the 2009 Irish Lions tour to South Africa on 16 June. All of these stadia hosted matches during the Lions tour, but a minimum of nine days was allowed for pitch recovery between a rugby match and a Confederations Cup match.

The referees were announced on 5 May. Two referee teams withdrew due to injuries. Replacements from the same confederation, led by Benito Archundia and Pablo Pozo, were selected. Tie-breaking criteriaThe ranking of each team in each group was determined as follows:a) greatest number of points obtained in all group matches. Had two or more teams been equal on the basis of the above three criteria, their rankings would have been determined as follows: d) greatest number of points obtained in the group matches between the teams concerned. Source: FIFA Source: FIFA Luís Fabiano received the Golden Shoe award for scoring five goals. In total, 44 goals were scored with only one of them credited as own goal. 5 goals Luís Fabiano3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goal Andrea Dossena Per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws. 2010 FIFA World Cup FIFA Confederations Cup South Africa 2009, FIFA.com 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup Official Site FIFA Technical Report

Neanderthal genetics

Genetic studies on Neanderthal ancient DNA became possible in the late 1990s. The Neanderthal genome project, established in 2006, presented the first sequenced Neanderthal genome in 2013. Since 2005, evidence for substantial admixture of Neanderthals DNA in modern populations has accumulated; the divergence time between the Neanderthal and modern human lineages is estimated at between 750,000 and 400,000 years ago. The more recent time depth has been suggested by Endicott et Rieux et al.. A deeper time of separation, combined with repeated early admixture events, was calculated by Rogers et al.. In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would sequence the Neanderthal genome over the next two years, it was hoped the comparison would expand understanding of Neanderthals, as well as the evolution of humans and human brains. In 2008 Richard E. Green et al. from Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, published the full sequence of Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA and suggested "Neanderthals had a long-term effective population size smaller than that of modern humans."

In the same publication, it was disclosed by Svante Pääbo that in the previous work at the Max Planck Institute, "Contamination was indeed an issue," and they realised that 11% of their sample was modern human DNA. Since more of the preparation work has been done in clean areas and 4-base pair'tags' have been added to the DNA as soon as it is extracted so the Neanderthal DNA can be identified; the project first sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal in 2013 by extracting it from the phalanx bone of a 50,000-year-old Siberian Neanderthal. Among the genes shown to differ between present-day humans and Neanderthals were RPTN, SPAG17, CAN15, TTF1, PCD16. A visualisation map of the reference modern-human containing the genome regions with high degree of similarity or with novelty according to a Neanderthal of 50 ka has been built by Pratas et al; the question of possible interbreeding between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans had been looked into since the early archaeogenetic studies of the 1990s.

No evidence for interbreeding had been found as of 2006. As of 2009, analysis of about one third of the full genome of the Altai individual was still reported as showing "no sign of admixture"; the variant of microcephalin common outside Africa, suggested to be of Neanderthal origin and responsible for rapid brain growth in humans, was not found in Neanderthals. Nor was the MAPT variant, a old variant found in Europeans. Positive evidence for admixture was first published in May 2010. "The proportion of Neanderthal-inherited genetic material is about 1 to 4 percent and is found in all non-African populations. It is suggested that 20 percent of Neanderthal DNA survived in modern humans, notably expressed in the skin and diseases of modern people. Modern human genes involved in making keratin—the protein found in skin and nails—have high levels of introgression. For example, around 66% of East Asians contain a POUF23L variant introgressed from Neanderthals, while 70% of Europeans possess an introgressed allele on BNC2.

Neanderthal variants affect the risk of several diseases, including lupus, biliary cirrhosis, Crohn's disease, type 2 diabetes. The genetic variant of the MC1R gene, linked to red hair in Neanderthals is not found in Europeans but in Taiwanese Aborigines at 70% frequency and at somewhat high frequencies in East Asians. While interbreeding was viewed as the most parsimonious interpretation of the genetic discoveries, the 2010 study still could not conclusively rule out an alternative scenario, in which the source population of non-African modern humans was more related to Neanderthals than other Africans were, because of ancient genetic divisions within Africa. Research since 2010 has refined the picture of interbreeding between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. Interbreeding appears to have occurred asymmetrically among the ancestors of modern-day humans, that this is a possible rationale for differing frequencies of Neanderthal-specific DNA in the genomes of modern humans. In Vernot and Akey concluded that the greater quantity of Neanderthal-specific DNA in the genomes of individuals of East Asian descent cannot be explained by differences in selection.

They further suggest that "two additional demographic models, involving either a second pulse of Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neandertal lineages in Europeans by admixture with an unknown ancestral population" are parsimonious with their data. Similar conclusions were reached by Kim and Lohmueller: "Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data."Khrameeva et al. A German-Russian-Chinese collaboration, compiled a consensus Neanderthal genome based on the genome of the Altai individual and of three Vindjia individuals.

This was compared to a consensus chimpanzee genome as the outgroup and to the genome of eleven modern populations (thre

Hybridity

Hybridity, in its most basic sense, refers to mixture. The term originates from biology and was subsequently employed in linguistics and in racial theory in the nineteenth century, its contemporary uses are scattered across numerous academic disciplines and is salient in popular culture. Hybridity is used in discourses about race, identity, anti-racism and multiculturalism, globalization, developed from its roots as a biological term. Hybridity is a cross between two separate plants or cultures. A hybrid is something, mixed, hybridity is mixture. Hybridity is not a new historical phenomenon, it has been a feature of all civilizations since time immemorial, from the Sumerians through the Egyptians and Romans to the present. Both ancient and modern civilizations have, through trade and conquests, borrowed foreign ideas and sciences, thus producing hybrid cultures and societies; the term hybridity. It was common among the Romans. In Latin hybrida or ibrida refers to "the offspring of a tame sow and a wild boar," and by extension to the progeny of a Roman man and a non-Roman woman.

The word hybridity was in use in English since the early 17th century and gained popular currency in the 19th century. Charles Darwin used this term in 1837 in reference to his experiments in cross-fertilization in plants; the concept of hybridity was fraught with negative connotations from its incipience. The Greeks and Romans borrowed extensively from other civilizations, the Egyptians and Persians in particular, creating ipso facto hybridized cultures, but regarded unfavourably biological hybridity. Aristotle and Pericles were all opposed to racial mixing between Greeks and "barbarians" and viewed biological hybridity as a source of racial degeneration and social disorder. Within the Roman Empire, considered as one of the most multi-ethnic empires, cultural difference was integrated into the predominant culture, whereas biological hybridity was condemned; the Romans’ attitudes to racial mixing hardened from the 4th century AD when Rome embraced the Christian faith. This is manifest in the Codex Theodosianus which prohibited marriages between Christians and non-Christians, the Jews in particular, inflicted death penalty on those who did not obey this law.

Contempt for biological hybridity did not end with the fall the Roman Empire, but continued throughout the Middle Ages and well into modern times, reaching a peak in the nineteenth century with the rise of Europe into an unrivalled imperial power. Hybridity and fear of racial degeneration caused by the mixing of Europeans and non-Europeans were major concerns in 19th century colonialist discourse prompted by racist pseudo-scientific discourses found in such works as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau's Essai sur l’inégalité des races and Joseph-Ernest Renan's L’Education culturelle et morale; as an explicative term, hybridity became a useful tool in forming a fearful discourse of racial mixing that arose toward the end of the 18th century. Pseudo-scientific models of anatomy and craniometry were used to argue that Africans, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders were racially inferior to Europeans; the fear of miscegenation that followed responds to the concern that the offspring of racial interbreeding would result in the dilution of the European race.

Hybrids were seen as an aberration, worse than a weak and diseased mutation. Hybridity as a concern for racial purity responds to the zeitgeist of colonialism where, despite the backdrop of the humanitarian age of enlightenment, social hierarchy was beyond contention as was the position of Europeans at its summit; the social transformations that followed the ending of colonial mandates, rising immigration, economic liberalization profoundly altered the use and understanding of the term hybridity. Hybrid talk, the rhetoric of hybridity, is fundamentally associated with the emergence of post-colonial discourse and its critiques of cultural imperialism, it is the second stage in the history of hybridity, characterized by literature and theory that study the effects of mixture upon identity and culture. The principal theorists of hybridity are Homi Bhabha, Néstor García Canclini, Stuart Hall, Gayatri Spivak, Paul Gilroy, whose works respond to the multi-cultural awareness that emerged in the early 1990s.

In the theoretic development of hybridity, the key text is The Location of Culture, by Homi Bhabha, wherein the liminality of hybridity is presented as a paradigm of colonial anxiety. The principal proposition is the hybridity of colonial identity, which, as a cultural form, made the colonial masters ambivalent, and, as such, altered the authority of power. Hybridity demonstrates how cultures come to be represented by processes of iteration and translation through which their meanings are vicariously addressed to—through—an Other; this contrasts any "essentialist claims for the inherent authenticity or purity of cultures which, when inscribed in the naturalistic sign of symbolic consciousness become political arguments for the hierarchy and ascendary of powerful cultures." This means that the colonial subject takes place, its subaltern position inscribed in that space of iteration. The colonial subject is located in a place of hybridity, its identity formed in a space of iteration and translation by the colonizer.

Bhabha emphasizes that "the discriminatory effects of the discourse of cultural colonialism, for instance, do not or singly refer to a'person'... or to a discrimination between mother culture and alien culture...the reference of discrimination is always to a process of splitti