Candice Patricia Bergen is an American actress and former fashion model. She won five Emmy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards for her eleven seasons as the title character on the CBS sitcom Murphy Brown, she is known for her role as Shirley Schmidt on the ABC drama Boston Legal. She was nominated for the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for Starting Over, for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Gandhi. Bergen began her career as a fashion model and appeared on the front cover of Vogue before she made her screen debut in the 1966 film The Group, she went on to star in The Sand Pebbles, Soldier Blue, Carnal Knowledge, The Wind and the Lion. She made her Broadway debut in the 1984 play Hurlyburly, went on to star in the revivals of The Best Man and Love Letters. From 2002 to 2004, she appeared in three episodes of the City, her other film roles include Miss Congeniality, Sweet Home Alabama, The Women, Bride Wars, Book Club. Bergen was born in California, her mother, Frances Bergen, was a Powers model, known professionally as Frances Westcott.
Her father, Edgar Bergen, was a famous ventriloquist and actor. Her paternal grandparents were Swedish-born immigrants who anglicized their surname, Berggren; as a child, Candice was irritated at being described as "Charlie McCarthy's little sister". She began appearing on her father's radio program at a young age, in 1958, at age 11, with her father on Groucho Marx's quiz show You Bet Your Life, as Candy Bergen, she said. She attended the University of Pennsylvania, where she was elected both Homecoming Queen and Miss University, but, as Bergen acknowledged, she failed to take her education and after failing two courses in art and opera, she was asked to leave at the end of her sophomore year, she received an honorary doctorate from Penn in May 1992. She worked as a fashion model, she received her acting training at HB Studio in New York City. In 1966, Bergen made her screen debut playing a university student in The Group, directed by Sidney Lumet, who knew Bergen's family; the film delicately touched on the subject of lesbianism.
She did it while studying college and elected not to return, instead playing the role of Shirley Eckert, an assistant school teacher in The Sand Pebbles with Steve McQueen. The movie was a big financial success, it was made for 20th Century Fox. She guest starred on an episode of Coronet Blue, whose director Sam Wanamaker recommended her for a part in The Day the Fish Came Out directed by Michael Cacoyannis, distributed by Fox but a huge flop. Fox signed her to a long-term contract, she did not appear in the film. Bergen went to France to appear in Claude Lelouch's Live for Life opposite Yves Montand, popular in France but not the US. In 1968, she played the leading female role in The Magus, a British mystery film for Fox starring Michael Caine and Anthony Quinn, universally ridiculed on its release and another flop, she was featured in a 1970 political satire, The Adventurers, based on a novel by Harold Robbins, playing a frustrated socialite. Her fee was $200,000. Reviews were terrible but the film made money.
Bergen called it a "movie out of the 1940s."Bergen played the girlfriend of Elliott Gould in Getting Straight, a counter-culture movie, commercially popular. She said it took her career in "a new direction... my first experience with democratic, communal movie making."She starred in the controversial Western Soldier Blue, a worldwide hit but a failure in its homeland because of its unflattering portrayal of the U. S. Cavalry; the film's European success led to Bergen's being voted by British exhibitors as the seventh-most popular star at the British box office in 1971. Bergen received some strong reviews for her support role in Carnal Knowledge, directed by Mike Nichols. Bergen did a Western with Oliver Reed, The Hunting Party had the lead role in a drama T. R. Baskin, she described the latter as the first role "that is sort of a vehicle, where I have to act and not just be a sort of decoration" saying she'd decided "it was time for me to ge serious about acting."Bergen was absent from screens for a number of years.
She returned with a support part in a British heist film, 11 Harrowhouse did a Western with Gene Hackman and James Coburn, Bite the Bullet. In 1975, she replaced Faye Dunaway at the last minute to co-star with Sean Connery in The Wind and the Lion, as a strong-willed American widow kidnapped in the Moroccan desert. Bergen was reunited with Hackman in The Domino Killings for Stanley Kramer and hosted Saturday Night Live. A frequent host on Saturday Night Live, she was the first woman to host the show and the first host to do a second show, she was the first woman to join the Five-Timers Club, when she hosted for the fifth time in 1990. Bergen guest-starred on The Muppet Show in its first year, appearing in several skits, an episode now available in a DVD collection, she did A Night Full of Rain for Lina Wertmüller and was the love interest of Ryan O'Neal's character in the Love Story sequel, Oliver's Story. She had taken photographs around this time starting exhibiting them in galleries. Bergen's father died in 1978.
She said: His death left a space
Europa is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 79 known moons of Jupiter. It is the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and was named after Europa, the Phoenician mother of King Minos of Crete and lover of Zeus. Smaller than Earth's Moon, Europa is made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust and an iron–nickel core, it has a thin atmosphere composed of oxygen. Its surface is striated by cracks and streaks, but craters are few. In addition to Earth-bound telescope observations, Europa has been examined by a succession of space probe flybys, the first occurring in the early 1970s. Europa has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System; the apparent youth and smoothness of the surface have led to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath it, which could conceivably harbour extraterrestrial life. The predominant model suggests that heat from tidal flexing causes the ocean to remain liquid and drives ice movement similar to plate tectonics, absorbing chemicals from the surface into the ocean below.
Sea salt from a subsurface ocean may be coating some geological features on Europa, suggesting that the ocean is interacting with the sea floor. This may be important in determining. In addition, the Hubble Space Telescope detected water vapor plumes similar to those observed on Saturn's moon Enceladus, which are thought to be caused by erupting cryogeysers. In May 2018, astronomers provided supporting evidence of water plume activity on Europa, based on an updated critical analysis of data obtained from the Galileo space probe, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003; such plume activity could help researchers in a search for life from the subsurface Europan ocean without having to land on the moon. The Galileo mission, launched in 1989, provides the bulk of current data on Europa. No spacecraft has yet landed on Europa, although there have been several proposed exploration missions; the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer is a mission to Ganymede, due to launch in 2022, will include two flybys of Europa.
NASA's planned. Europa, along with Jupiter's three other large moons, Io, Callisto, was discovered by Galileo Galilei on 8 January 1610, independently by Simon Marius; the first reported observation of Io and Europa was made by Galileo on 7 January 1610 using a 20×-magnification refracting telescope at the University of Padua. However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low magnification of his telescope, so that the two were recorded as a single point of light; the following day, 8 January 1610, Io and Europa were seen for the first time as separate bodies during Galileo's observations of the Jupiter system. Europa is named after Europa, daughter of the king of Tyre, a Phoenician noblewoman in Greek mythology. Like all the Galilean satellites, Europa is named after a lover of Zeus, the Greek counterpart of Jupiter. Europa became the queen of Crete; the naming scheme was suggested by Simon Marius. The names fell out of favor for a considerable time and were not revived in general use until the mid-20th century.
In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Europa is referred to by its Roman numeral designation as Jupiter II or as the "second satellite of Jupiter". In 1892, the discovery of Amalthea, whose orbit lay closer to Jupiter than those of the Galilean moons, pushed Europa to the third position; the Voyager probes discovered three more inner satellites in 1979, so Europa is now considered Jupiter's sixth satellite, though it is still sometimes referred to as Jupiter II. Europa orbits Jupiter in just over three and a half days, with an orbital radius of about 670,900 km. With an orbital eccentricity of only 0.009, the orbit itself is nearly circular, the orbital inclination relative to Jupiter's equatorial plane is small, at 0.470°. Like its fellow Galilean satellites, Europa is tidally locked to Jupiter, with one hemisphere of Europa facing Jupiter; because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Europa's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead. Europa's prime meridian is a line passing through this point.
Research suggests that the tidal locking may not be full, as a non-synchronous rotation has been proposed: Europa spins faster than it orbits, or at least did so in the past. This suggests an asymmetry in internal mass distribution and that a layer of subsurface liquid separates the icy crust from the rocky interior; the slight eccentricity of Europa's orbit, maintained by the gravitational disturbances from the other Galileans, causes Europa's sub-Jovian point to oscillate around a mean position. As Europa comes nearer to Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational attraction increases, causing Europa to elongate towards and away from it; as Europa moves away from Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational force decreases, causing Europa to relax back into a more spherical shape, creating tides in its ocean. The orbital eccentricity of Europa is continuously pumped by its mean-motion resonance with Io. Thus, the tidal flexing kneads Europa's interior and gives it a source of heat allowing its ocean to stay liquid while driving subsurface geological processes.
The ultimate source of this energy is Jupiter's rotation, tapped by Io through the tides it raises on Jupiter and is transferred to E
The United States Spacecraft Discovery One is a fictional spaceship featured in the first two novels of the Space Odyssey series, in the movies 2001: A Space Odyssey and 2010: The Year We Make Contact. The ship is a nuclear-powered interplanetary spaceship, crewed by two men and controlled by the AI onboard computer HAL 9000; this spaceship is founded on unrealized science. Its novelized and filmed appearances differ. One major concession in its filmed appearance, for the purpose of reducing confusion, was to eliminate the huge cooling "wings" which would be needed to radiate the heat produced by its hypothetical thermonuclear propulsion system; the movie's producer/director Stanley Kubrick thought that the audience might interpret the wings as meaning that the spacecraft was intended to fly through an atmosphere. Early in the development of the movie and Kubrick considered having the Discovery be powered by an Orion type nuclear pulse propulsion system, but Kubrick decided against it, both because showing the ship accelerate by a'putt-putt' method might be "too comic" for film, because it might be seen as him having embraced nuclear weapons after his prior film, Dr. Strangelove.
The Discovery One was named after Captain Robert Scott's sailing ship RRS Discovery, launched in 1901. Writer Arthur C. Clarke used to visit this ship, it shares its name with the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery. In the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, the Discovery One is described as being "almost 400 feet long with a sphere 40 feet dia". and powered by a nuclear plasma drive, separated by 275 feet of tankage and structure, from the spherical part of the spaceship where the crew quarters, the computer, flight controls, small auxiliary craft, instrumentation are located. In the crew's centrifuge, the crewmen would experience Moon-like gravitational conditions, is where they would spend most of their time. Here is where the three hibernating astronauts rested in their compartments. Piloting and other occasional tasks take place elsewhere in the crew sphere not dedicated to the centrifuge; these other sections of the crewmen's sphere include the pod bay, where three one-man repair and inspection craft would be kept, the spaceship's primary HAL 9000 mainframe computer with its level-upon-level of memory storage and digital processing units.
Because of the lack of aerodynamic design and its immense size, the Discovery One would be assembled in and launched from orbit. As described in the novel, the Discovery One was intended to survey the Jovian system, but its mission was changed to go to Saturn and investigate the destination of the signal from the black monolith found at the crater Tycho; as a result, the mission became a one-way trip to its moon Iapetus. After investigating alien artifacts at Saturn and Iapetus, the preliminary plan is for all five members of the crew to enter suspended animation for an indefinite period of time, it was hoped that a much larger and more powerful Discovery Two would be built that could make it to Iapetus and return with everyone in hibernation. The ship's centrifuge is a spinning band of deck, mounted inside the crew compartment, using centrifugal force to simulate the effects of gravity, it is the primary living and work area, featuring consoles, panels and devices. In the movie, there was Earth gravity in the centrifuge.
All other points on the ship, including the cockpit, are micro-g environments where the crew members use Velcro shoes to attach themselves to the floor. There is an automated kitchen; the Discovery is described as a large ship that could be handled by only two astronauts, along with the HAL 9000. In the book IBM predicted that computer development would be advanced to such an extent that the mission could be undertaken with all the astronauts placed in hibernation, it was said to be desired, that regular communications be maintained throughout the voyage between the pilot and copilot and mission control back on Earth. During communication, account is taken of the elapsed time for electromagnetic waves crossing space between the spaceship and the Earth. For example, Poole is depicted watching a prerecorded birthday message from his family, rather than interacting with them in real time; such a conversation is not possible because messages take over 30 minutes to transmit between Jupiter and Earth.
This time would depend on the relative positions of the bodies in the Solar System at any given moment. After the malfunction of HAL, Bowman deactivated the computer, thus isolating himself on board the Discovery. In the movie, when the spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, it encounters TMA-1's larger'Big Brother','TMA-2', at the Jupiter/Io L1 point; the novel is the same with Discovery in orbit around Saturn's moon Iapetus instead. In both versions Bowman is taken inside it; the novel and movie 2010: Odyssey Two follows the 2001: A Space Odyssey movie ending rather than the novel. After finding out that Discovery's orbit is failing, a joint Soviet-US mission travels to Jupiter aboard the spacecraft Alexei Leonov to intercept and board Discovery believing that it harbours many of the answers to the mysteries surrounding the 2001 mission. Leonov
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon, has the highest density of all the moons, has the least amount of water of any known astronomical object in the Solar System, it was discovered in 1610 and was named after the mythological character Io, a priestess of Hera who became one of Zeus' lovers. With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System; this extreme geologic activity is the result of tidal heating from friction generated within Io's interior as it is pulled between Jupiter and the other Galilean satellites—Europa and Callisto. Several volcanoes produce plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide that climb as high as 500 km above the surface. Io's surface is dotted with more than 100 mountains that have been uplifted by extensive compression at the base of Io's silicate crust; some of these peaks are taller than Mount Everest. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System, which are composed of water ice, Io is composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron-sulfide core.
Most of Io's surface is composed of extensive plains coated with sulfur-dioxide frost. Io's volcanism is responsible for many of its unique features, its volcanic plumes and lava flows produce large surface changes and paint the surface in various subtle shades of yellow, white and green due to allotropes and compounds of sulfur. Numerous extensive lava flows, several more than 500 km in length mark the surface; the materials produced by this volcanism make up Io's thin, patchy atmosphere and Jupiter's extensive magnetosphere. Io's volcanic ejecta produce a large plasma torus around Jupiter. Io played a significant role in the development of astronomy in the 18th centuries, it was discovered in January 1610 by Galileo Galilei, along with the other Galilean satellites. This discovery furthered the adoption of the Copernican model of the Solar System, the development of Kepler's laws of motion, the first measurement of the speed of light. From Earth, Io remained just a point of light until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when it became possible to resolve its large-scale surface features, such as the dark red polar and bright equatorial regions.
In 1979, the two Voyager spacecraft revealed Io to be a geologically active world, with numerous volcanic features, large mountains, a young surface with no obvious impact craters. The Galileo spacecraft performed several close flybys in the 1990s and early 2000s, obtaining data about Io's interior structure and surface composition; these spacecraft revealed the relationship between Io and Jupiter's magnetosphere and the existence of a belt of high-energy radiation centered on Io's orbit. Io receives about 3,600 rem of ionizing radiation per day. Further observations have been made by Cassini–Huygens in 2000, New Horizons in 2007, Juno in 2017 and 2018, as well as from Earth-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Simon Marius is not credited with the sole discovery of the Galilean satellites, his names for the moons were adopted. In his 1614 publication Mundus Iovialis anno M. DC. IX Detectus Ope Perspicilli Belgici, he proposed several alternative names for the innermost of the large moons of Jupiter, including "The Mercury of Jupiter" and "The First of the Jovian Planets".
Based on a suggestion from Johannes Kepler in October 1613, he devised a naming scheme whereby each moon was named for a lover of the Greek mythological Zeus or his Roman equivalent, Jupiter. He named the innermost large moon of Jupiter after the Greek mythological figure Io. Marius' names were not adopted until centuries later. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Io was referred to by its Roman numeral designation as "Jupiter I", or as "the first satellite of Jupiter". Features on Io are named after characters and places from the Io myth, as well as deities of fire, the Sun, thunder from various myths, characters and places from Dante's Inferno: names appropriate to the volcanic nature of the surface. Since the surface was first seen up close by Voyager 1, the International Astronomical Union has approved 225 names for Io's volcanoes, mountains and large albedo features; the approved feature categories used for Io for different types of volcanic features include patera, fluctus and active eruptive center.
Named mountains, layered terrain, shield volcanoes include the terms mons, mensa and tholus, respectively. Named, bright albedo regions use the term regio. Examples of named features are Prometheus, Pan Mensa, Tvashtar Paterae, Tsũi Goab Fluctus; the first reported observation of Io was made by Galileo Galilei on 7 January 1610 using a 20x-power, refracting telescope at the University of Padua. However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low power of his telescope, so the two were recorded as a single point of light. Io and Europa were seen for the first time as separate bodies during Galileo's observations of the Jovian system the following day, 8 January 1610; the discovery of Io and the other Galilean satellites of Jupiter was published in Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610. In his Mundus Jovialis, published in 1614, Simon Marius claimed to have discovered Io and the other moons of Jupiter in 1609, one week before Galileo's discovery. Galileo doubted this claim and dismissed the work of Marius a
2001: A Space Odyssey (novel)
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, it was developed concurrently with Stanley Kubrick's film version and published after the release of the film. Clarke and Kubrick worked on the book together, but only Clarke ended up as the official author; the story is based in part on various short stories by Clarke, including "The Sentinel". By 1992, the novel had sold three million copies worldwide. An elaboration of Clarke and Kubrick's collaborative work on this project was made in The Lost Worlds of 2001; the first part of the novel, in which aliens influence the primitive ancestors of humans, is similar to the plot of an earlier Clarke story, "Encounter in the Dawn". An ancient and unseen alien race uses a device with the appearance of a large crystalline monolith to investigate worlds across the galaxy and, if possible, to encourage the development of intelligent life; the book shows one such monolith appearing in ancient Africa, 3 million years B.
C. where it inspires a starving group of hominids to develop tools. The ape-men use their tools ending their starvation, they use the tools to kill a leopard preying on them. The book suggests. In AD 1999, Dr. Heywood Floyd travels to the Moon's Clavius Base, where a scientist explains that they have found a magnetic disturbance, designated Tycho Magnetic Anomaly One, in the crater Tycho. Excavation has revealed a large black slab fashioned to a ratio of 1:4:9 and therefore believed the work of intelligence. Visiting TMA-1, Floyd and others arrive just as sunlight falls upon it for the first time since it was uncovered. A mission, Discovery One, is dispatched to Saturn. En route, Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole are the only conscious humans aboard; the HAL 9000, an artificially intelligent computer, addressed as "Hal", maintains the ship. While Poole is receiving a birthday message from his family on Earth, Hal tells Bowman that the AE-35 communication unit of the ship is going to malfunction.
Poole swaps the AE-35 unit. Poole and Bowman become suspicious at Hal's refusal to admit. In communicating with Earth and Bowman are directed to disconnect Hal for analysis; these instructions are interrupted as the signal is broken, Hal informs them that the AE-35 unit has malfunctioned. As Poole is removing the unit he is killed. Bowman, uncertain of Hal's role therein, decides to wake the other three astronauts, therefore quarrels with Hal, with Hal refusing to obey his orders. Bowman threatens to disconnect him if his orders are not obeyed, Hal relents; as Bowman begins to awaken his colleagues, he hears Hal open both airlocks into space, releasing the ship's internal atmosphere. From a sealed emergency shelter, Bowman gains a spacesuit and re-enters the ship, where he shuts down Hal's consciousness, leaving intact only his autonomic functions, manually re-establishes contact with Earth, he learns that his mission is to explore Iapetus, in the hope of contacting the society that buried the monolith on the Moon.
Bowman learns that Hal had begun to feel guilty at keeping the purpose of the mission from him and Poole, against his stated mission of gathering information and reporting it fully. Bowman spends months on the ship alone approaching Iapetus. During his approach, he notices a small black spot on the surface of Iapetus, finds it identical in shape to TMA-1, only much larger; the scientists on Earth name this monolith "TMA-2", which Bowman identifies as a double misnomer because it is not in the Tycho crater and gives off no magnetic anomaly. When Bowman approaches the monolith, it pulls in Bowman's pod. Before he vanishes, Mission Control hears him proclaim: "The thing's hollow — it goes on forever — and — oh my God! — it's full of stars!"Bowman is transported via the monolith to an unknown star system, through a large interstellar switching station, sees other species' spaceships going on other routes. Bowman is given a wide variety of sights, from the wreckage of ancient civilizations to what appear to be life-forms, living on the surfaces of a binary star system's planet.
He is brought to what appears a pleasant hotel suite designed to make him feel at ease, falls asleep, whereupon he becomes an immortal'Star Child' that can live and travel in space. The Star Child returns to Earth, where he detonates an orbiting nuclear warhead; this is not discussed again until the sequel to 2010: Odyssey Two. Perils of technology2001: A Space Odyssey explores technological advancement: its promise and its danger; the HAL 9000 computer puts forward the troubles that can crop up when man builds machines, the inner workings of which he does not comprehend and therefore cannot control. Perils of nuclear warThe book explores the perils related to the atomic age. In thi
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemicals may compose the crystals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature, they are seen in the Earth's homosphere. Nephology is the science of clouds, undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howard's nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it became the basis of a modern international system that divides clouds into five physical forms that appear in any or all of three altitude levels.
These physical types, in approximate ascending order of convective activity, include stratiform sheets, cirriform wisps and patches, stratocumuliform layers, cumuliform heaps, large cumulonimbiform heaps that show complex structure. The physical forms are divided by altitude level into ten basic genus-types; the Latin names for applicable high-level genera carry a cirro- prefix, an alto- prefix is added to the names of the mid-level genus-types. Most of the genera can be further subdivided into varieties. Low stratiform clouds that extend down to the Earth's surface are given the common names fog and mist, but have no Latin names. Several clouds that form higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere have common names for their main types, they are seen infrequently in the polar regions of Earth. Clouds have been observed in the atmospheres of other planets and moons in the Solar System and beyond. However, due to their different temperature characteristics, they are composed of other substances such as methane and sulfuric acid as well as water.
Taken as a whole, homospheric clouds can be cross-classified by form and level to derive the ten tropospheric genera, the fog and mist that forms at surface level, several additional major types above the troposphere. The cumulus genus includes three species. Clouds with sufficient vertical extent to occupy more than one altitude level are classified as low- or mid-level according to the altitude range at which each forms; however they are more informally classified as multi-level or vertical. The origin of the term cloud can be found in the old English clud or clod, meaning a hill or a mass of rock. Around the beginning of the 13th century, the word came to be used as a metaphor for rain clouds, because of the similarity in appearance between a mass of rock and cumulus heap cloud. Over time, the metaphoric usage of the word supplanted the old English weolcan, the literal term for clouds in general. Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and other natural sciences.
In about 340 BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote Meteorologica, a work which represented the sum of knowledge of the time about natural science, including weather and climate. For the first time and the clouds from which precipitation fell were called meteors, which originate from the Greek word meteoros, meaning'high in the sky'. From that word came the modern term meteorology, the study of clouds and weather. Meteorologica was based on intuition and simple observation, but not on what is now considered the scientific method, it was the first known work that attempted to treat a broad range of meteorological topics. After centuries of speculative theories about the formation and behavior of clouds, the first scientific studies were undertaken by Luke Howard in England and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in France. Howard was a methodical observer with a strong grounding in the Latin language and used his background to classify the various tropospheric cloud types during 1802, he believed. Lamarck had worked independently on cloud classification the same year and had come up with a different naming scheme that failed to make an impression in his home country of France because it used unusual French names for cloud types.
His system of nomenclature included twelve categories of clouds, with such names as hazy clouds, dappled clouds and broom-like clouds. By contrast, Howard used universally accepted Latin, which caught on after it was published in 1803; as a sign of the popularity of the naming scheme, the German dramatist and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe composed four poems about clouds, dedicating them to Howard. An elaboration of Howard's system was formally adopted by the International Meteorological Conference in 1891; this system covered only the tropospheric cloud types, but the discovery of clouds above the troposphere during the late 19th century led to the creation separate classification schemes for these high clouds. Terrestrial clouds can be found throughout most of the homosphere, which includes the troposphere and mesosphere. Within these layers of the atmosphere, air can become saturated as a result of being cooled to its dew point or by having moisture added from an adjacent source. In the latter case, saturation occurs when the dew po