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2014 United States Senate elections

The 2014 United States Senate elections were held on November 4, 2014, they were a part of the United States 2014 elections. Thirty-three Class 2 seats in the 100-member United States Senate were up for election, in addition to three Class 3 seats due to expire on January 3, 2017; the candidates winning the regular elections would serve six-year terms from January 3, 2015 to January 3, 2021. The elections marked 100 years of direct elections of U. S. Senators. Twenty-one of the open seats were held by the Democratic Party, while fifteen were held by the Republican Party; the Republicans regained the majority of the Senate in the 114th Congress, which started in January 2015. They had needed a net gain of at least six seats to obtain a majority, they held all of their seats, gained nine Democratic-held seats. Republicans defeated five Democratic incumbents: Mark Begich of Alaska lost to Dan Sullivan, Mark Pryor of Arkansas lost to Tom Cotton, Mark Udall of Colorado lost to Cory Gardner, Mary Landrieu of Louisiana lost to Bill Cassidy and Kay Hagan of North Carolina lost to Thom Tillis.

The Republicans picked up another 4 open seats in Iowa, South Dakota and West Virginia. Polls and other factors had led forecasters to predict that the Republicans would win several seats, with most predicting that the party was but not certain to win at least the six seats necessary to take control of the Senate; this was the second consecutive election held in a president's sixth year where control of the Senate changed hands. This was the first time that the Democrats lost control of the Senate in a sixth-year midterm since 1918. With a total net gain of 9 seats, the Republicans made the largest Senate gain by any party since 1994; this is the first election since 1980 in which more than two incumbent Democratic Senators were defeated by their Republican challengers. For a majority, Republicans needed at least 51 seats. Democrats could have retained a majority with 48 seats because the Democratic Vice President Joe Biden would become the tie-breaker. From 1915 to 2013, control of the U. S. Senate flipped in 20 % of the time.

Republicans had lost ground in the 2012 elections, leading to an internal fight among the Republican leadership over the best strategies and tactics for the 2014 Senate races. By December 2013, eight of the twelve incumbent Republicans running for re-election saw Tea Party challenges. However, Republican incumbents won every primary challenge. Although Democrats saw some opportunities for pickups, the combination of Democratic retirements and numerous Democratic seats up for election in swing states and red states gave Republicans hopes of taking control of the Senate. 7 of the 21 states with Democratic seats up for election in 2014 had voted for Republican Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election. Democrats faced the lower voter turnout that accompanies mid-term elections. Days after the election, the United States Election Project estimated that 36.6% of eligible voters voted, 4% lower than the 2010 elections, the lowest turnout rate since the 1942 election. Poll aggregation website FiveThirtyEight gave the Republican Party a 60% chance of taking control of the Senate as of September 28.

Another poll aggregation website, RealClearPolitics, gave the Republican Party a net gain of 7 seats. Due to the closeness of several races, it was believed that Senate control might not be decided on election night. Both Louisiana and Georgia were seen as competitive, both states require a run-off election if no candidate takes a majority of the vote. Two independent candidates refused to commit to caucusing with either party. In the final months of the race, polls showed them with viable chances of winning, leading some analysts to speculate on the possibility of an "Independent caucus" that could include Maine Senator Angus King and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders. However, no Independent won a Senate race in 2014, King and Sanders continue to caucus with the Democratic Party following the 2014 election. By midnight ET, most major networks projected; the party held all three competitive Republican-held seats, defeated incumbent Democrats in North Carolina and Arkansas. Combined with the pick-ups of open seats in Iowa, South Dakota, West Virginia, the Republicans made a net gain of 7 seats before the end of the night.

Republicans defeated three incumbent Democrats, a task the party had not accomplished since the 1980 election. Five of the seven confirmed pickups were in states that voted for Mitt Romney in 2012, but two of the seats that Republicans won represent states that voted for Barack Obama in 2012. Of the three races that were not called by the end of election night and Virginia were still too close to call, while Louisiana held a December 6 run-off election. Virginia declared Democrat Mark Warner the winner of his race by a narrow margin over Republican Ed Gillespie on November 7, Alaska declared Dan Sullivan the winner against Democratic incumbent Mark Begich a week on November 12. Republican Bill Cassidy defeated Democratic incumbent Mary Landrieu in the Louisiana runoff on December 6. Going into the elections, there were 45 Republican and 2 independent senators. In all, there were 36 elections: 33 senators were up for election this year as class 2 Senators, 3 faced special elections. Of all these seats, 21 were held by Democrats and 15

Foster House (Union Springs, Alabama)

The Foster House in Union Springs, Alabama is the best example of Moorish Revival architecture in Alabama. The house was built by Dr. Sterling J. Foster, a physician, who built the house over five years from 1854; the house remained in the Foster family until 1947. The two-story wood-frame house is capped by a low-slope hipped roof, its chief distinguishing feature is a two-story three-bay front porch with a deep spandrel at the top. The spandrel is cut out with ogee arches. A small balcony spans the upper level over the center-hall entrance. Double doors at the main entrance and off the balcony open into a center hall. There are two rooms on either side of the hall on both levels. A half-octagonal addition from 1896 houses bathrooms on both levels. Interior woodwork is the house's original Greek Revival trim; the Foster House was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 14, 1998. Historic American Buildings Survey No. Al-599, "Mrs. Hugh Foster House, 201 Kennon Street, Union Springs, Bullock County, AL", 14 photos

Saurornithoides

Saurornithoides is a genus of troodontid maniraptoran dinosaur, which lived during the Late Cretaceous period. These creatures were predators, which could run fast on their hind legs and had excellent sight and hearing; the name is derived from ornith ~ and eides, referring to its bird-like skull. Saurornithoides is a member of a group of small, bird-like, gracile maniraptorans. All troodontids have many unique features of the skull, such as spaced teeth in the lower jaw, large numbers of teeth. Troodontids have sickle-claws and raptorial hands, some of the highest non-avian encephalization quotients, meaning they were behaviourally advanced and had keen senses. Saurornithoides was a rather small troodontid. Though a possible adult, the type specimen has a midline skull length of 189 millimetres, compared to 272 millimetres for Zanabazar junior, itself estimated at 2.3 metres long. It had stereoscopic vision, allowing for good depth perception, it had good vision in light and good night vision.

It had a long, low head, a depressed muzzle, sharp teeth and a large brain. Swift and smart, like its North American cousin Troodon, Saurornithoides scoured the Gobi Desert, looking for small mammals or reptiles to eat. Like other troodontids, it had an enlarged retractable claw on the second toe of each foot, that in this case was of moderate size though rather curved. A revision of the genus in 2009 provided a differential diagnosis, a list of traits in which Saurornithoides differed from certain relevant relatives concentrating on determining its place in the evolutionary tree; that Saurornithoides mongoliensis might be more derived, higher in the tree, than Sinornithoides and Sinusonasus, is indicated by the lack of a fenestra promaxillaris, a small opening at the front side of the snout, the possession of large denticles on the rear tooth edges as well as the presence of the high number of six sacral vertebrae. That S. mongoliensis might be more basal, lower in the tree, than Zanabazar and Troodon, is shown by the presence of a recessus tympanicus dorsalis, the upper one of three small openings on the side of the braincase, in the inner ear region.

Only one or two individuals of Saurornithoides were known associated within the same layer of the Djadochta Formation of Mongolia. The fossils were found on 9 July 1923 by a Chinese employee of an American Museum of Natural History expedition, Chih; the material contained a single skull and jaw in association, vertebrae, a partial pelvis and foot associated nearby. More bones were included but shown to belong to Protoceratops. Henry Fairfield Osborn at first intended to name the animal "Ornithoides", the "bird-like one", in 1924 mentioned this name in a popular publication but without a description so that it remained an invalid nomen nudum, he formally described the remains in the same year, finding them to be a new genus and species, which he named Saurornithoides mongoliensis. The generic name was chosen because of the bird-like bones of the taxon, thought to represent a megalosaurian, translating as "saurian with bird-like rostrum". Saurornithoides was noted to resemble Velociraptor; the holotype specimen is AMNH 6516.

This specimen was the first troodontid skeleton found, though at the time the connection with Troodon known only from its teeth, was not realised. In 1964, another specimen was described from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia; the first specimen collected by a professional Mongolian palaeontologist, it was given the specimen number IGM 100/1. In 1974, it was described by Rinchen Barsbold as Saurornithoides junior, it was assigned to the genus based on cranial comparisons, as well as the similar provincialism. However, since the description, many more troodontids have been described with cranial material, as such, a 2009 study on Saurornithoides reassigned this species to its own genus, Zanabazar. Several other Saurornithoides species were named. In 1928, baron Franz Nopcsa coined Saurornithoides sauvagei. However, this was the result of a printing error: he had planned to name a Teinurosaurus sauvagei. In 1982, Kenneth Carpenter renamed Stenonychosaurus inequalis Sternberg 1932 into Saurornithoides inequalis.

Today this is seen as a junior synonym of Troodon formosus. In 1991, George Olshevsky renamed Pectinodon asiamericanus Nesov 1985 into Saurornithoides asiamericanus. In 1995 he made it a Troodon asiaamericanus. In view of its provenance from the Cenomanian of Uzbekistan, it is seen as a different taxon from Saurornithoides. In 2000, Olshevsky renamed. In 2007, this was shown to have been a hadrosaurid fossil. Osborn at first placed Saurornithoides in the Megalosauridae, noticing the resemblance to Velociraptor, named in the same paper. Only in 1974, while describing S. junior, understood the connection with American forms such as Stenonychosaurus and named an encompassing Saurornithoididae. In 1987, Philip John Currie showed that this concept was a junior synonym of Troodontidae, implying that Saurornithoides were a troodontid too; the cladogram below follows a 2012 analysis by Turner and Norell. Timeline of troodontid research Johnson, Jinny. Fantastic Facts About Dinosaurs. ISBN 0-7525-3166-2. Lessem, Don.

Dinosaurs A to Z. p. 170. ISBN 0-439-16591-1