2011 Gibraltar general election
General elections were held in Gibraltar on 8 December 2011. Two parties, the Gibraltar Social Democrats and the Progressive Democrative Party and an alliance of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party and the Gibraltar Liberals each presented a full slate of ten candidates each, making a total of thirty candidates standing for seventeen seats in the Gibraltar Parliament. Members of Parliament in Gibraltar are elected "at-large" in a single electoral area covering the whole territory. Several pre-election polls gave the GSLP an advantage of up to 9% over the governing party, the GSD, while one predicted a GSD win. Two parties, the Gibraltar Social Democrats and the Progressive Democratic Party, an alliance have presented a full slate of 10 candidates each, making a total of 30 candidates for 17 seats in the Gibraltar Parliament. Several pre-election polls gave the GSLP an advantage of up to 9% over the governing party, the GSD, while one predicted a GSD win; these figures have been consolidated by party.
Under the Gibraltar electoral system, all candidates are listed on the ballot paper individually. Every voter has up to 10 votes to vote for their choice from all the candidates standing. Accordingly although there are more seats available, the main parties field 10 candidates and hope to secure'block votes', thus the total of 174,757 votes comes from 21,712 voters, an 81.4% turnout of the electorate
Elections in the United Kingdom
There are six types of elections in the United Kingdom: elections to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, elections to the European Parliament, local elections, mayoral elections and Police and Crime Commissioner elections. Within each of those categories, there may be by-elections as well as general elections. Elections are held on Election Day, conventionally a Thursday. Since the passing of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 for general elections, all six types of elections are held after fixed periods, though early elections to parliament and the devolved assemblies and parliaments can occur in certain situations. Six electoral systems are used: the single member plurality system, the multi member plurality system, party-list proportional representation, the single transferable vote, the additional member system and the supplementary vote. Elections are administered locally: in each lower-tier local authority, the polling procedure is operated by the acting returning officer or returning officer, the compiling and maintenance of the electoral roll by the electoral registration officer.
The Electoral Commission sets standards for and issues guidelines to returning officers and electoral registration officers, is responsible for nationwide electoral administration. The total number of names in the United Kingdom appearing in Electoral Registers published on 1 December 2010 and based on a qualifying date of 15 October 2010 was 45,844,691. In England and Wales, anyone who will be aged 18 or over on polling day and, a national of the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, a Commonwealth country or a European Union Member State, can apply to the electoral registration officer in the local authority area where they reside with a'considerable degree of permanence' to be listed in that area's Electoral Register. In Scotland, those fulfilling the nationality requirements who will be aged 16 or over on polling day can register to vote, as the age for voting in Scottish Parliament and local elections is 16. However, voters in Scotland under 18 are not entitled to vote in European Parliament and UK general elections.
A person can still register at their ordinary address. A person who has two homes may be able to register to vote at both addresses as long as they are not in the same electoral area. In addition, to qualify to appear on the Electoral Register, applicants who are Commonwealth citizens must either possess leave to enter or remain in the UK or not require such leave on the date of their application and no applicant may be a convicted person detained in prison or a mental hospital or a person found guilty of certain corrupt or illegal practices. In Northern Ireland, a further criterion has to be fulfilled to qualify for registration: it is possible for a person to apply to be listed on the Electoral Register only if they have been resident in Northern Ireland for at least three months prior to the date of application. Remand prisoners, voluntary patients in mental hospitals and people without a fixed place of residence can register to vote by making a declaration of local connection. Members of HM Forces and their immediate family members have the option of registering as a service voter, by making a service declaration based on their last UK address.
British citizens residing outside the United Kingdom can register as an overseas voter provided that they were on the Electoral Register in the UK within the previous 15 years. The 15-year period begins when they no longer appeared in the electoral register, not the date they moved abroad. British citizens who moved abroad before they turned 18 years old can still qualify for registration, with the 15-years period calculated from the date their parent/guardian ceased to appear in the Electoral Register. Overseas voters can only vote in European Parliament and UK Parliamentary elections in the constituency of their last registered UK address. British citizens who are away overseas temporarily do not need to register as overseas electors and can register to vote in the usual way at their UK address. Crown servants and British Council employees employed in a post outside the UK can register by making a Crown Servant declaration, allowing them to vote in all UK elections. An individual can register as an anonymous elector if his/her safety would be at risk were his/her name and address to be disclosed publicly on the Electoral Register, but the application needs to be supported by a relevant court order, injunction or an attestation by a chief police officer or a Director of Social Services.
The right of Commonwealth and Irish citizens to vote is a legacy of the Representation of the People Act 1918, which limited the vote to British subjects. At that time, "British subjects" included the people of Ireland — part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland — and
Next Gibraltar general election
The next Gibraltar general election will elect all 17 members to the 4th Gibraltar Parliament. Under section 38 of the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006, the parliament must be dissolved by the Governor four years after its first meeting following the last election. Under section 37 of the Constitution, writs for a general election must be issued within thirty days of the dissolution and the general election must be held no than three months after the issuing of a writ; the first meeting of the current parliament took place on 9 December 2015, meaning parliament must be dissolved before midnight on 8 December 2019, writs must be issued by 7 January 2020 and an election must take place before 7 April 2020. However, if recent precedent is followed, the Chief Minister is to ask the Governor for an early dissolution and an election to take place sometime in November 2019. Following the British tradition, elections conventionally take place on a Thursday
Sir Joseph John Bossano KCMG is a Gibraltarian politician who served as Chief Minister of Gibraltar from 1988 to 1996 and Leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party from 1978 to 2011. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 1984 to 1988 and 1996 to 2011. Bossano was born in Gibraltar and has a degree in Economics from the London School of Economics, as well as a degree in Italian from the University of Birmingham, he became part of the trade union movement in the 1960s while working as a seaman in Britain, where he was a member of the British Labour Party. He was asked by a group of Gibraltarian politicians to return to Gibraltar and was elected a member of the House of Assembly in 1972, as a candidate of the Integration with Britain Party. In 1969 the IWBP leader the Chief Minister, Sir Robert Peliza, was the mover of the Preamble to the Constitution which safeguards Gibraltar from passing to Spain without the expressed wishes of the Gibraltarians, he became the Branch Officer for the Transport and General Workers Union.
In 1975, he left the IWBP to form the Gibraltar Democratic Movement, which won four seats in the Assembly in the 1976 election and two years became the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. He has always kept a hard line stance against any sovereignty deal with Spain without the consent of the Gibraltarians. In 1980 he led a demonstrations of about 2,000 Gibraltarians protesting at the opening of negotiations between Spain and the United Kingdom agreed on the Lisbon Agreement. In 1987 he supported the position of the Government of Gibraltar and the Assembly against any agreement between Spain and the United Kingdom with regard to the joint use of the Airport of Gibraltar. On 10 November and Joshua Hassan Chief Minister, led a demonstration of about 12,000 Gibraltarians, one of the largest held in the territory. In February 1988, Bossano and Adolfo Canepa, the leader of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, stated that the Gibraltar House of Assembly would not approve the agreement reached by Spain and UK in December 1987 on the joint use of the Airport unless Spain accepted the British sovereignty over the isthmus.
In the key 1988 election, Bossano's party called for the self-determination, expressed its opposition to the negotiations over the sovereignty and future of Gibraltar between Spain and the United Kingdom, opposed to any transfer of sovereignty to Spain. It asked for the withdrawal of the negotiations on the Brussels Declaration and opposed to the Airport agreement; the GSLP got a 58.2 % of the popular vote. Bossano received a personal vote of 8,1128, about 4,000 more than Adolfo Canepa; therefore Bossano was the new Chief Minister. His re-election in 1992 with a 72% share of the vote, caused considerable friction with governments in both London and Madrid who were looking for a solution to the 300-year-old Spanish claim to Gibraltar; as Chief Minister he maintained good relations with Spanish politicians at municipal level, but would not sit to discuss the sovereignty of Gibraltar with them. During his time in office, Bossano oversaw significant economic change, resulting from the decline of traditional sources of employment, such as the UK Ministry of Defence, the creation of a private sector economy based on offshore finance and tourism.
He broke the back of the severe housing problem existing in Gibraltar before he came into power, by reclaiming land from the sea and constructing hundreds of affordable flats, which were offered at reasonable prices. For the first time, since Gibraltarians have become home owners, rather than renting from the government, as was traditional, his main quest is and has always been to achieve the decolonisation of Gibraltar through the maximum level of self-government possible resulting in the removal of Gibraltar from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. As leader of the GSLP and the Opposition and following his retirement as party leader, Bossano is still prominent in Gibraltar politics, he stood down as GSLP leader in April 2011. Bossano remains active in politics and was a GSLP candidate in the Gibraltar general election in December 2011. Upon the GSLP-Liberal victory, Bossano got a seat in the Gibraltar Parliament and was appointed Minister for Enterprise and Employment by the Chief Minister, Fabian Picardo.
The GSLP-Liberal government under Fabian Picardo won a second term at the 2015 general election and as of 2017, Bossano held the position of Minister for Economic Development, Telecommunications & the Gibraltar Savings Bank. Bossano was appointed a Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the 2018 New Year Honours. List of Gibraltarians Politics of Gibraltar
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation is Gibraltar's public service broadcaster. It has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. Modelled on the BBC, the Corporation was established in 1963 with the amalgamation of Gibraltar Television, a private company, the Government-owned radio service, Radio Gibraltar which started regular broadcasting in 1958. Unlike the BBC, the majority of GBC's funding comes in the form of a grant from the Government. GBC did receive a small amount of income from the levying of a television licence fee. However, it was announced in Gibraltar's budget speech of 23 June 2006 that the TV licence was to be abolished; the activities of the corporation are controlled and governed by a board consisting of a chairman and not more than seven members appointed by the governor. Subject only to any directions of the Governor-in-Council the board is responsible for the corporation's policy; the corporation appoints a general manager and other staff to carry out its policies and the board is empowered to delegate any of their duties to their employees except responsibility for policy.
Within GBC the board's powers are absolute. The chairman and board thus work through their permanent staff, headed by a general manager, who are responsible to the board. Although the chief concern of the board is undoubtedly broad policy, once laid down it is left to the general manager and senior staff, whom they appoint to carry out as trustees of the public interest in broadcasting. In view of their ultimate responsibility for everything, broadcast, it is the board's duty to take an active interest not only in the programmes, but in the financial and staff policies of the corporation; this is done through a number of sub-committees in which board members and senior staff participate in decisions relating to the treatment of political and public affairs and development, programmes. Only the House of Assembly has the power to change the ordinance and the Governor-in-Council the directions. Radio Gibraltar broadcasts 24 hours a day and its programme format is similar to that of commercial local radio stations in the United Kingdom.
The station operates on both FM and AM, broadcasting a mix of local programming in English and Spanish, retransmissions of the BBC World Service. In December 2005, GBC started internet streaming of its radio service on the Internet, along with an up-to-date programme guide for GBC television and radio, can be found on the website. You can hear Radio Gibraltar live from 7 am to 8 pm on weekdays, after 8 pm the station plays continuous music through the night with only the brief interruption of Radio Gibraltar's jingle. On the station's AM frequencies BBC transmission can be heard through the night. On Weekends the station broadcasts live from 8 am to 9 pm with the same format. Radio Gibraltar's station is located at 18 South Barrack Road in Gibraltar's south district, after moving there in the 1980s from Wellington Front, its old location since its beginning in 1958. On Saturday 16 February 2008 Radio Gibraltar celebrated its 50th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, past presenters were invited to co-host programmes in the slot which they once occupied, amongst them Peter Canessa, David Hoare, Norma Delgado, Gerry Martinez, Christine Dobinson and Richard Cartwright.
During the week leading up to the anniversary, Radio Gibraltar broadcast interviews with former presenters who recalled their memories of Radio Gibraltar as well as on-air jingles from the past. One of the high points of Radio Gibraltar's history was that it served as a communications link between Gibraltar and the neighbouring communities in Spain during the closure of the land frontier, which divided families between 1969 and 1982. A special Roadshow live from Main Street. GBC TV showed a special programme to commemorate Radio Gibraltar's 50th anniversary, celebrated during the week starting 18 February 2008. Radio Gibraltar devotes its daytime hours to local news and current affairs, delivered through the flagship programme Focus, which has an AM, Lunchtime and PM edition. Outside the Focus News programmes, Radio Gibraltar's daytime hours are filled with magazine type shows that feature chat, games and phone-ins, all is sandwiched in between "Classic Hits, Latest Songs" as per the station's slogan.
Programmes include The Morning Show, The Afternoon Show and the long-running Spanish language programme Saludos which has anchored the 2-4 pm slot for over twenty years. The weekend schedule features personality-led shows alongside repeats from Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule, the UK Chart Show and a live transmission of Sunday Mass. Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule is made up of one locally produced programme airing in the 7-8 pm slot. Programmes include; this series is Radio Gibraltar's longest running series. Soundtrack of my life. Radio Gibraltar covers Community events such as National Day, sessions of Parliament, General Elections and others, it is well known for organising Roadshows throughout the entire year organised around Charity events, Awareness Campaigns and similar, culminating in th
The Hon. Dr. John Emmanuel Cortes, MBE, is an ecologist, Justice of the Peace and Gibraltarian MP, member of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party, he has two children. Cortes founded the Gibraltar Union of Students. In 1976, he became the first General Secretary of the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society, since 1991, Director of the Gibraltar Botanic Gardens, positions he held until taking government office in 2011. Between 1983 and 1991, he was a civil servant, having reached the post of General Manager of the Gibraltar Health Authority, he was a Magistrate for 17 years, was elected President of the Gibraltar Magistrates' Association in 2009. In December 2011, with his election to the Gibraltar Parliament, Cortes resigned from all his other public duties, was appointed Minister of Health and Environment by Chief Minister Fabian Picardo. Cortes graduated in Ecology in London, received his D. Phil. From Oxford University, in 1983. Minister for Health and Environment – Government of Gibraltar Information Services Ministry for Health and Environment – Government of Gibraltar Information Services
Agence France-Presse is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France. Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, it is the world's oldest news agency, is the third largest news agency in the modern world after the Associated Press and Reuters. AFP has regional offices in Nicosia, Hong Kong, Washington, D. C. and news bureaux in 150 countries. AFP transmits in French, Arabic, Portuguese and German. Agence France-Presse has its origins in the Agence Havas, founded in 1835 in Paris by Charles-Louis Havas, making it the world's oldest news service; the agency pioneered the collection and dissemination of news as a commodity, had established itself as a global concern by the late 19th century. Two Havas employees, Paul Julius Reuter and Bernhard Wolff, set up their own news agencies in London and Berlin respectively. In 1940, when German forces occupied France during World War II, the news agency was taken over by the authorities and renamed "Office français d'information". On August 20, 1944, as Allied forces moved on Paris, a group of journalists in the French Resistance seized the offices of the FIO and issued the first news dispatch from the liberated city under the name of Agence France-Presse.
Established as a state enterprise, AFP devoted the post-war years to developing its network of international correspondents. One of them was the first Western journalist to report the death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin on March 6, 1953. AFP was keen to shake off its semi-official status, on January 10, 1957, the French Parliament passed a law establishing its independence. Since that date, the proportion of the agency's revenues generated by subscriptions from government departments has declined; such subscriptions represented 115 million Euros in 2011. In 1982, the agency began to decentralize its editorial decision-making by setting up the first of its five autonomous regional centres, in Hong Kong a British Crown colony; each region has administrative director and chief editor. In September 2007, the AFP Foundation was launched to promote higher standards of journalism worldwide; the Mitrokhin Archive identified six agents and two confidential KGB contacts inside Agence France-Presse who were used in Soviet operations in France.
In 1991, AFP set up a joint venture with Extel to create AFX News. It was sold in 2006 to Thomson Financial. In October 2008, the Government of France announced moves to change AFP's status, including the involvement of outside investors. On November 27 of that year, the main trade unions represented in the company's home base of France – the CGT, Force Ouvrière, Syndicat national des journalistes, Union syndicale des journalistes CFDT and SUD, launched an online petition to oppose what they saw as an attempt to privatise the agency. On December 10, 2009, the French Culture Minister Frédéric Mitterrand announced that he was setting up a Committee of Experts under former AFP CEO Henri Pigeat to study plans for the agency's future status. On February 24, 2010, Pierre Louette unexpectedly announced his intention to resign as CEO by the end of March, move to a job with France Télécom; the current CEO and chairman is Fabrice Fries and the Global News Director is Michèle Léridon. In the 21st century, AFP ranks as the world's third largest news agency, behind the Associated Press and Reuters.
AFP is a state-owned enterprise operating under a 1957 law, but is a commercial business independent of the French government. AFP is administered by a CEO and a board comprising 15 members: Eight representatives of the French press. One is named by the prime minister, another by the minister of finance, a third by the minister of foreign affairs; the mission of AFP is defined in its statute: Agence France-Presse may under no circumstances take account of influences or considerations liable to compromise the exactitude or the objectivity of the information it provides. The board elects the CEO for a renewable term of three years; the AFP has a council charged with ensuring that the agency operates according to its statutes, which mandate absolute independence and neutrality. Editorially, AFP is governed by a network of senior journalists; the primary client of AFP is the French government, which purchases subscriptions for its various services. In practice, those subscriptions are an indirect subsidy to AFP.
The statutes of the agency prohibit direct government subsidies. In November 2013, AFP and Getty Images were ordered to pay $1.2 million compensation to freelance photojournalist Daniel Morel for using his images posted on Twitter related to the 2010 Haiti earthquake without his permission, in violation of copyright and Twitter's terms of service. Notable investments include: AFP GmbH:AFP GmbH is the subsidiary of AFP in Germany, producing German-language services for local press and corporate clients. SID:Sport-Informations-Dienst is producing a German-language sports service. Citizenside:In 2007, AFP purchased a 34% stake in Scooplive, a c