Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Kenji Goto was a Japanese freelance video journalist covering wars and conflicts, poverty, AIDS, child education around the world. In October 2014, he was captured and held hostage by Islamic State of Iraq and Syria militants after entering Syria in the hopes of rescuing Japanese hostage Haruna Yukawa. On 30 January 2015, he was beheaded by his captors following the breakdown of negotiations for his release. Goto was born on 23 October 1967 in the city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. After graduating from Hosei University in Tokyo in 1991, he worked for a media production company before establishing Independent Press in 1996, he worked with U. N. organizations including UNICEF and the U. N. Refugee Agency. Reporting from war-torn countries around the world in Africa and the Middle East, he focused on the life and humanity of the ordinary citizens in difficult times, his works include books and DVDs on blood diamonds and child soldiers in Sierra Leone, the Rwandan conflict and its survivors, a teenage mother in an Estonian "AIDS village", girls and education in Afghanistan.
In 2006, he won the Sankei Children's Book Award for his 2005 book titled Daiyamondo yori Heiwa ga Hoshii. His video reports appeared on Japanese national networks including TV Asahi. Goto converted to Christianity in 1997, was a member of a United Church of Christ in Japan parish in Den-en-chōfu, Tokyo. In October 2014, Goto's wife, Rinko Jogo, had the couple's second child, he had an older daughter from a previous marriage. Despite being warned three times by the Japanese government in September and October 2014, both by telephone and in person, not to return to Syria, Goto entered Syria on 24 October 2014 via Turkey to rescue a Japanese hostage, Haruna Yukawa, captured by Islamic State militants in August, he was captured by ISIL members the following day. He appeared in a video released by ISIL militants on 20 January 2015, in which they demanded $200 million from the government of Japan for the lives of Goto and Yukawa, his mother, Junko Ishidō, made a plea to ISIL to spare her son at a press conference held at the Foreign Correspondents' Club of Japan in Tokyo on 23 January.
On 24 January, ISIL released a picture of Goto holding a photo of decapitated Haruna Yukawa. In an audiotape accompanying the picture, Goto read a message in English blaming the Japanese government for the death of his "cellmate" and claiming that ISIL would spare Goto's life and exchange him for Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi, an attempted suicide bomber who participated in the 2005 Amman bombings. On 29 January, Goto's wife, Rinko Jogo, released a plea to his captors through the Rory Peck Trust, a UK-based organization that supports freelance journalists. On 31 January 2015, ISIL released a video, it was reported that he had been moved to the town of Tal Abyad near the Turkish border with Syria on 29 January in preparation for a possible exchange with al-Rishawi, but when it became apparent that the exchange would not be taking place, he was taken back to a location near the city of Raqqa in Syria, killed on the morning of 30 January, local time. Following the release of Goto's beheading video by ISIL on 31 January, many major Japanese television outlets, including NHK, Nippon Television, TBS, Fuji Television, TV Asahi, suspended their normal programming schedules to provide breaking news coverage on this event.
Some foreign media outlets noted a rather skeptical and critical response by the Japanese public regarding the two hostages. The Japanese public responded in a similar way to three Japanese citizens who were taken hostage in Iraq. Public outrage of their naïveté compelled the Japanese government to bill them for their return airfare to Japan after their release; the general public sentiment in Japan towards these hostages has been that they are to be blamed for putting themselves deliberately in harm's way, while the Japanese government and taxpayers are pressured to pay the price to get them back. Before Goto was murdered, a tweet he posted to Twitter in 2010 went viral; as of 8 February 2015, it had been re-tweeted more than 40,000 times. In it, Goto said, "Close your eyes. Bear it. If we become angry and yell, we are doomed; this is like prayer. Hate is not. Judgement lies with God; that is what I learned from my Arab brothers." Daiyamondo yori Heiwa ga Hoshii: Kodomo Heishi Muria no Kokuhaku, ISBN 9784811380018 Eizu no Mura ni Umarete: Inochi o Tsunagu 16-sai no Haha Natasha, ISBN 9784811384740 Ruwanda no Inori: Naisen o Ikinobita Kazoku no Monogatari, ISBN 9784811384979 Moshimo Gakkō ni Iketara: Afuganisutan no Shōjo Mariamu no Monogatari, ISBN 9784811386119 ISIL beheading incidents Shosei Koda, a Japanese citizen kidnapped and beheaded in Iraq in 2004 Notable Japanese Christians List of Christian martyrs Independent Press Kenji Goto on Twitter Kenji Goto on IMDb
House of Representatives (Japan)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Councillors is the upper house; the House of Representatives has 465 members, elected for a four-year term. Of these, 176 members are elected from 11 multi-member constituencies by a party-list system of proportional representation, 289 are elected from single-member constituencies. 233 seats are required for a majority. The overall voting system used to elect the House of Representatives is a parallel system, a form of semi-proportional representation. Under a parallel system the allocation of list seats does not take into account the outcome in the single seat constituencies. Therefore, the overall allocation of seats in the House of Representatives is not proportional, to the advantage of larger parties. In contrast, in bodies such as the German Bundestag the election of single-seat members and party list members is linked, so that the overall result respects proportional representation; the House of Representatives is the more powerful of the two houses, able to override vetoes on bills imposed by the House of Councillors with a two-thirds majority.
It can be dissolved by the Prime Minister at will, the most recent was by Shinzō Abe as on September 28, 2017. Japanese nationals aged 18 years and older may vote. Japanese nationals aged 25 years and older may run for office in the lower house; the House of Representatives has several powers not given to the House of Councillors. If a bill is passed by the lower house but is voted down by the upper house the House of Representatives can override the decision of the House of Councillors by a two-thirds vote in the affirmative. However, in the case of treaties, the budget, the selection of the prime minister, the House of Councillors can only delay passage, but not block the legislation; as a result, the House of Representatives is considered the more powerful house. Members of the House of Representatives, who are elected to a maximum of four years, sit for a shorter term than members of the House of Councillors, who are elected to full six-year terms; the lower house can be dissolved by the Prime Minister or the passage of a nonconfidence motion, while the House of Councillors cannot be dissolved.
Thus the House of Representatives is considered to be more sensitive to public opinion, is termed the "lower house". While the legislative term is nominally 4 years, early elections for the lower house are common, the median lifespan of postwar legislatures has in practice been around 3 years. For a list of individual members, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan. Shaded green: Ruling party/coalition before and after the lower house election red: Ruling party/coalition after the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election blue: Ruling party/coalition until the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election none: Opposition before and after the electionNote that the composition of the ruling coalition may change between lower house elections, e.g. after upper house elections. Parties who vote with the government in the Diet, but are not part of the cabinet are not shaded. Under the 1889 Meiji Constitution which took effect in 1890 and established the Imperial Diet, the House of Peers functioned as an aristocratic upper house in a format similar to the House of Lords in the Westminster system, or the Herrenhaus in the Prussian government of the time.
The elected House of Representatives served as the lower house of the Imperial Diet. In the Imperial Diet, both houses had to agree to legislation; the government and the prime minister leading it were neither responsible to nor elected by the Imperial Diet. But the right to vote on legislation and more the budget gave the House of Representatives leverage to force the government into negotiations. After an early period of frequent confrontation and temporary alliances between the cabinet and political parties in the lower house, parts of the Meiji oligarchy more sympathetic to political parties around Itō Hirobumi and parts of the liberal parties formed a more permanent alliance in form of the Rikken Seiyūkai in 1900; the confidence of the House of Representatives was never a formal requirement to govern. During the Taisho Political Crisis in 1913, a "no-confidence vote" against the 3rd Katsura Cabinet, accompanied by major demonstrations outside the Diet, was followed shortly by resignation.
Subsequently, in the period referred to as Taishō democracy, it became customary to appoint many ministers including several prime ministers from the House of Representatives – Hara Takashi became the first commoner as prime minister in 1918. In the same year, the Rice Riots had confronted the government with an unprecedented scale of domestic unrest, a socialist revolution brought the Prusso-German monarchy to its end, the system Meiji oligarchs had used as the main model for the Meiji constitution to consolidate and preserve Imperial power. Oligarchs fundamentally opposed to political parties such as Yamagata Aritomo became more inclined to cooperate with the parties to prevent a rise of socialism or other movements that might threaten Imperial rul
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group
The Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group or known as the Japan Self-Defense Forces Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group refers to a battalion-sized humanitarian contingent of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, sent to Samawah, Southern Iraq in early January 2004 and withdrawn by late July 2006. However, the last JASDF forces left Kuwait on December 18, 2008. 5,500 Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force members were present in Samawah between 2004 and 2006. Their duties had included tasks such as water purification and reestablishment of public facilities for the Iraqi people. While required to remain within noncombat zones, GSDF records revealed that Japanese troops were present in areas of active hostilities; the Koizumi administration ordered the controversial formation and deployment of the JIRSG at the request of the United States. This marks a significant turning point in Japan's history, as it represents the first foreign deployment of Japanese troops since the end of World War II, excluding those deployments conducted under United Nations auspices.
Public opinion regarding the deployment was divided given that Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan prohibits the use of military forces unless for self-defence purposes. In order to legalize the deployment of Japanese forces in Samawah, the Koizumi administration legislated the Humanitarian Relief and Iraqi Reconstruction Special Measures Law on December 9, 2003 in the Diet though the opposition opposed it. Two Japanese diplomats were shot and killed near Tikrit, Iraq on November 29, 2003 while preparations for the deployment were in their final stages. In early April 2004, three Japanese- a journalist and two aid workers- were kidnapped, but they were released several days on April 15; the following day, another two Japanese- an aid worker and a journalist- were kidnapped and released within 24 hours. The kidnappers of the original three had threatened to burn the hostages alive if Japanese troops were not removed from Iraq within three days. A spokeswoman for the Islamic Clerics Committee, which negotiated their release, said that growing public calls in Japan for the SDF troops to be withdrawn from Iraq led to the release of three Japanese.
In a statement released on July 20, 2004, Al Zarqawi warned Japan and Bulgaria to withdraw their troops, demanding that the Japanese government:'...do what the Philippines has done...', threatening that:'Lines of cars laden with explosives are awaiting you...' if the demands were not met. The body of a Japanese backpacker, Shosei Koda, was found in Baghdad on October 30, 2004, several days after he had been kidnapped, his captors had promised to execute him. According to Channel NewsAsia, the killing renewed domestic pressure on Prime Minister Koizumi to bring the contingent home. One Japanese private security guard, Akihiko Saito, was killed in an ambush on his convoy on May 25, 2005. Analysts differ as to the political ramifications of the deployment. One view is that it represents the emergence of Japan as a close military ally of the United States, strategically positioned as a counterweight to China's growing regional power; this position asserts that the Iraq deployment offers a constitutional model for future overseas deployment in circumvention of Article 9.
Another interpretation is that the deployment is symbolic as it comes at little financial or human cost to the Koizumi administration, has a negligible effect on the strategic situation in Iraq, is aimed at maintaining positive relations with the U. S. so as to perpetuate a favorable economic relationship. At the height of the deployment, on September 19, 2005, a senior Defense Agency official succinctly gave his opinion on the future prospects for overseas Japanese military deployments, drawing on his opinion of the Iraq mission: "It isn’t worth it". Analysts said that the restrictive rules of engagement and reliance on the constant protection of others renders meaningful Japanese participation in international operations impossible for the foreseeable future. One opposition member had said that the JIRSG deployment "wouldn't be a problem if it were for humanitarian reasons, but it is first and foremost a show of support to the U. S; the U. S. invaded Iraq without a U. N. resolution, Japan is now aiding in that act."
Since the beginning of the war in Iraq, the city of Samawah has continuously been a stable city, in what is the most peaceful and sparsely populated province of non-Kurdish Iraq. The first elements of the contingent arrived in Kuwait on January 9 and January 17, 2004, after an advance team from the Japanese Air Self-Defense Forces assessed the security situation in Samawah in late December 2003 and to Kuwait for the arrival of other JSDF forces to Iraq; the first JGSDF troops arrived at the Dutch military base in Samawah on January 19. Prime Minister Koizumi decided on December 8, 2005 to renew the contingent's mandate for another year, despite a poll by the Asahi newspaper which found that 69% of respondents were against renewing the mandate, up from 55% in January. A total of nine JIRSG scheduled rotations took place between 2004 and 2006. Protection for the unit was provided by Australian troops, as the Japanese soldiers were prohibited from engaging Iraqi guerrillas unless they came under fire.
However, a small number of Japanese Special Forces Group, Western Army Infantry Regiment, 1st Airborne Brigade personnel were deployed to provide protection. Mortars and rockets were lobbed at the Japanese camp several times, causing injuries. Although Defense A
Democratic Party of Japan
The Democratic Party of Japan was a centrist political party in Japan from 1998 to 2016. The party's origins lie in the previous Democratic Party of Japan, founded in September 1996 by politicians of the centre-right and centre-left with roots in the Liberal Democratic Party and Japan Socialist Party. In April 1998 the previous DPJ merged with splinters of the New Frontier Party to create a new party which retained the DPJ name. In 2003 the party was joined by the Liberal Party of Ichirō Ozawa. Following the 2009 election, the DPJ became the ruling party in the House of Representatives, defeating the long-dominant Liberal Democratic Party and gaining the largest number of seats in both the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors; the DPJ was ousted from government by the LDP in the 2012 general election. It retained 57 seats in the lower house, still had 88 seats in the upper house. During its time in office, the DPJ was beset by internal conflicts and struggled to implement many of its proposed policies, an outcome described by political scientists Phillip Lipscy and Ethan Scheiner as the "paradox of political change without policy change".
Legislative productivity under the DPJ was low, falling to levels unprecedented in recent Japanese history according to some measures. However, the DPJ implemented a number of progressive measures during its time in office such as the provision of free public schooling through high school, increases in child-rearing subsidies, expanded unemployment insurance coverage, extended duration of a housing allowance, stricter regulations safeguarding part-time and temporary workers. On 27 March 2016 the DPJ merged with the Japan Innovation Party and Vision of Reform to form the Democratic Party, it is not to be confused with the now-defunct Japan Democratic Party that merged with the Liberal Party in 1955 to form the Liberal Democratic Party. It is different from another Democratic Party, established in 1947 and dissolved in 1950; the Democratic Party of Japan was formed on 27 April 1998. It was a merger of four independent parties that were opposed to the ruling Liberal Democratic Party —the previous Democratic Party of Japan, the Good Governance Party, the New Fraternity Party, the Democratic Reform Party.
The previous parties ranged in ideology from conservative to social-democratic. The new party began with ninety-three members of the House of Representatives and thirty-eight members of the House of Councilors. Moreover, the party officials were elected as well at the party convention for the first time. On 24 September 2003 the party formally merged with the small, centre-right Liberal Party led by Ichirō Ozawa in a move considered in preparation for the 2003 general election held on 9 November 2003; this move gave the DPJ eight more seats in the House of Councilors. In the 2003 general election the DPJ gained a total of 178 seats; this was short of their objectives, but a significant demonstration of the new group's strength. Following a pension scandal, Naoto Kan resigned and was replaced with moderate liberal Katsuya Okada. In the 2004 House of Councilors elections, the DPJ won a seat more than the ruling Liberal Democrats, but the LDP still maintained its firm majority in total votes; this was the first time since its inception that the LDP had garnered fewer votes than another party.
The 2005 snap parliamentary elections called by Junichiro Koizumi in response to the rejection of his Postal privatization bills saw a major setback to the DPJ's plans of obtaining a majority in the Diet. The DPJ leadership Okada, had staked their reputation on winning the election and driving the LDP from power; when the final results were in, the DPJ had lost 62 seats to its rival the LDP. Okada resigned the party leadership, fulfilling his campaign promise to do so if the DPJ did not obtain a majority in the Diet, he was replaced by Seiji Maehara in September 2005. However, Maehara's term as party leader lasted half a year. Although he led the party's criticism of the Koizumi administration in regards to connections between LDP lawmakers and scandal-ridden Livedoor, the revelation that a fake email was used to try and establish this link damaged his credibility; the scandal led to the resignation of Representative Hisayasu Nagata and of Maehara as party leader on 31 March. New elections for party leader were held on 7 April.
In Upper House election 2007, the DPJ won 60 out of 121 contested seats, with 49 seats not up for re-election. Ozawa resigned as party leader in May 2009 after a fundraising scandal and Yukio Hatoyama succeeded Ozawa before the August 2009 general election, at which the party swept the LDP from power in a massive landslide, winning 308 seats, reducing the LDP from 300 to 119 seats - the worst defeat for a sitting government in modern Japanese history; this was in marked contrast to the contested 1993 general election, the only other time the LDP has lost an election. The DPJ's strong majority in the House of Representatives assured that Hatoyama would be the next prime minister. Hatoyama was nominated on September 16 and formally appointed that day by Emperor Akihito. However, the DPJ did not have a majority in the House of Councillors, not contested at the election, fell just short of the 320 seats needed to override the upper chamber's veto power. Hatoyama was thus forced to form a
Waseda University, abbreviated as Sōdai, is a Japanese private research university in Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as the Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō by Ōkuma Shigenobu, the school was formally renamed Waseda University in 1902. Waseda is organized into thirty-six departments: thirteen undergraduate schools and twenty-three graduate schools; as of May 2016, there were 8,269 graduate students. In addition to a central campus in Shinjuku, the university operates campuses in Chūō, Nishitōkyō, Honjō, Kitakyūshū. Waseda operates twenty-one research institutes at its main Shinjuku campus; the Waseda University Library is collectively one of the largest libraries in Japan and hold some 4.5 million volumes and 46,000 serials. Waseda ranks among the most academically selective and prestigious universities in Japanese university rankings, it is ranked alongside Keio University, its rival, as the best private university in Japan. In 2015–2016, Waseda ranked 212th in the QS World University Rankings. Waseda is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness.
Waseda has graduated many notable alumni, including seven Prime Ministers of Japan, numerous important figures of Japanese literature, including Haruki Murakami, many CEOs, including Tadashi Yanai, the CEO of UNIQLO, Nobuyuki Idei, the former CEO of Sony, Takeo Fukui, the former President and CEO of Honda, Norio Sasaki, the former CEO of Toshiba, Lee Kun-hee, the Chairman of Samsung Group, Mikio Sasaki, the former Chairman of Mitsubishi, Hiroshi Yamauchi and Shuntaro Furukawa and current Presidents of Nintendo respectively. Waseda was founded as Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō on October 21, 1882 by samurai scholar and Meiji-era politician and former prime minister Ōkuma Shigenobu. Before the name'Waseda' was selected, it was known variously as Waseda Gakkō or Totsuka Gakkō after the location of the founder's villa in Waseda Village and the school's location in Totsuka Village respectively, it was renamed Waseda University on September 1902, upon acquiring university status. It started as a college with three departments under the old Japanese system of higher education.
In 1882, the university had the department of political science and economics and physical science. Along with these departments, an English language course was established, where the students of all the departments could learn English. Three years the department of physical science was closed because it had too few applicants; the department of literature was established in 1890, the department of education in 1903, the department of commerce in 1904, the department of science and engineering in 1908. Although Waseda formally adopted the term university in its title in 1902 it was not until 1920 that, in common with other Japanese schools and colleges, it received formal government recognition as a university under the terms of the University Establishment Ordinance, thus Waseda became, with Keio University, the first private university in Japan. Much of the campus was destroyed in the fire bombings of Tokyo during World War II, but the university was rebuilt and reopened by 1949, it has grown to become a comprehensive university with two senior high schools and school of art and architecture.
In June 12, 1950, sixty police raided Waseda University and seized copies of a Communist-inspired open letter to General MacArthur. The open letter to MacArthur was once read at a Communist-sponsored rally a week earlier; the letter demanded a peace treaty for Japan that would include Russia and Communist China, withdrawal of occupation forces, the release of eight Japanese sent to prison for assaulting five U. S soldiers at a Communist rally. A police official said most meetings at Waseda would be banned in the future because "political elements" might try to utilize them. Yuichi Eshima, Vice-Chairman of the Students Autonomy Society, said the police action "stupefied" students and professors, that "This is worse than the prewar peace preservation measures." Ōkuma had long desired to create an academic cap so distinctive that someone wearing the cap would be identified as a Waseda student. The chief tailor of Takashimaya, was called upon to design a cap in three days; each square cap was stamped on the inside with the student's name, his department, the school seal and the legend, "This certifies that the owner is a student of Waseda".
Thus, the cap served as a form of identification, a status symbol. The cap, with its gold-braided badge, is registered as a trademark. On October 21, 2007, Waseda University celebrated its 125th anniversary. Ōkuma talked about the "125 years of life" theory: "The lifespan of a human being can be as long as 125 years. He will be able to live out his natural lifespan as long as he takes proper care of his health", because "physiologists say that every animal has the ability to live five times as long as its growth period. Since a man is said to require about 25 years to become mature, it follows that he can live up to 125 years of age." This theory propounded by Ōkuma was popular and referred to in the media of the time. In commemorative events relating to Waseda University and Ōkuma, the number 125 is accorded special significance, as it marks an important epoch; the tower of Ōkuma Auditorium, completed on the university's 45th anniversary, is 125 shaku, or about 38 m high. In 1963, there were events to mark the 125th anniversary of Ōkuma Shigenobu's birth.
Ōkuma, who twice served as prime minister of Japan, organized his second cabinet when he was 77 and died when he was 83. He