National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is responsible for maintaining and publishing the authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, federal regulations; the NARA transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration; the Archivist not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U. S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, therefore when an act has become an amendment; the Office of the Federal Register publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, United States Statutes at Large, among others.
It administers the Electoral College. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission —the agency's grant-making arm—awards funds to state and local governments and private archives and universities, other nonprofit organizations to preserve and publish historical records. Since 1964, the NHPRC has awarded some 4,500 grants; the Office of Government Information Services is a Freedom of Information Act resource for the public and the government. Congress has charged NARA with reviewing FOIA policies and compliance of Federal agencies and to recommend changes to FOIA. NARA's mission includes resolving FOIA disputes between Federal agencies and requesters; each branch and agency of the U. S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as chief administrator; the National Archives was incorporated with GSA in 1949.
The first Archivist, R. D. W. Connor, began serving in 1934; as a result of a first Hoover Commission recommendation, in 1949 the National Archives was placed within the newly formed General Services Administration. The Archivist served as a subordinate official to the GSA Administrator until the National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency on April 1, 1985. In March 2006, it was revealed by the Archivist of the United States in a public hearing that a memorandum of understanding between NARA and various government agencies existed to "reclassify", i.e. withdraw from public access, certain documents in the name of national security, to do so in a manner such that researchers would not be to discover the process. An audit indicated that more than one third withdrawn since 1999 did not contain sensitive information; the program was scheduled to end in 2007. In 2010, Executive Order 13526 created the National Declassification Center to coordinate declassification practices across agencies, provide secure document services to other agencies, review records in NARA custody for declassification.
NARA's holdings are classed into "record groups" reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. Records include paper documents, still pictures, motion pictures, electronic media. Archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of NARA are stored in the National Archives Catalog; the archival descriptions include information on traditional paper holdings, electronic records, artifacts. As of December 2012, the catalog consisted of about 10 billion logical data records describing 527,000 artifacts and encompassing 81% of NARA's records. There are 922,000 digital copies of digitized materials. Most records at NARA are in the public domain, as works of the federal government are excluded from copyright protection. However, records from other sources may still be protected by donor agreements. Executive Order 13526 directs originating agencies to declassify documents if possible before shipment to NARA for long-term storage, but NARA stores some classified documents until they can be declassified.
Its Information Security Oversight Office monitors and sets policy for the U. S. government's security classification system. Many of NARA's most requested records are used for genealogy research; this includes census records from 1790 to 1940, ships' passenger lists, naturalization records. Archival Recovery Teams investigate the theft of records; the most well known facility of the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives Building, located north of the National Mall on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D. C.. A sister facility, known as the National Archives at College Park was opened 1994 near the University of Maryland, College Park; the Washington National Records Center located in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, is a large warehouse facility where federal records that are still under the control of the creating agency are stored. Federal government agencies pay a yearly fee for storage at the facility. In accordance with federal records schedules, documents at WNRC are transferred to the legal custody of the National Archives after a certain time.
Temporary records at WNRC are
Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand is an American attorney and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from New York since 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, she served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 2007 to 2009. Born and raised in upstate New York to two attorney parents, Gillibrand graduated from Dartmouth College and from the UCLA School of Law. After holding attorney positions in government and private practice and working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 U. S. Senate campaign, Gillibrand was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2006, she represented New York's 20th congressional district, a conservative district in upstate New York, was re-elected in 2008. During her House tenure, Gillibrand was a Blue Dog Democrat noted for voting against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and for supporting Medicare-for-all. Following Senator Clinton's appointment as Secretary of State in 2009, Governor David Paterson selected Gillibrand to fill the Senate seat, vacated by Clinton.
Gillibrand won a special election in 2010 to keep the seat, was subsequently reelected to full terms in 2012 and 2018. During her Senate tenure, Gillibrand has shifted to the left, she has been outspoken on sexual assault in the military and sexual harassment, having criticized President Bill Clinton and Senator Al Franken for sexual misconduct. She supports paid family leave, a federal jobs guarantee, the abolition and replacement of the U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. On March 17, 2019, Gillibrand declared her candidacy for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik was born on December 9, 1966, in Albany, New York, the daughter of Polly Edwina and Douglas Paul Rutnik. Both her parents are attorneys, her father has worked as a lobbyist, her parents divorced in the late 1980s. Gillibrand has an older brother, Douglas Rutnik, a younger sister, Erin Rutnik Tschantret, her maternal grandmother was Dorothea "Polly" Noonan, a founder of the Albany Democratic Women's Club, a onetime leader in the City of Albany's 20th-century Democratic machine, a confidant of Albany Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd.
She has English, Scottish and Irish ancestry. During her childhood and college years, Gillibrand used the nickname "Tina." She began using her birth name of Kirsten a few years after law school. In 1984, she graduated from Emma Willard School, an all women's private school located in Troy, New York, enrolled at Dartmouth College. Gillibrand majored in Asian Studies, studying in both Taiwan. While in Beijing, she lived with actress Connie Britton at Beijing Normal University. Gillibrand graduated magna cum laude in 1988. While at Dartmouth, she was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. During college, Gillibrand interned at Republican U. S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato's Albany office. Gillibrand received her J. D. from UCLA School of Law and passed the bar exam in 1991. In 1991, Gillibrand joined the Manhattan-based law firm of Davis Wardwell as an associate. In 1992, she took a leave from Davis Polk to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany.
Gillibrand's tenure at Davis Polk included serving as a defense attorney for tobacco company Philip Morris during major litigation, including both civil lawsuits and U. S. Justice Department criminal and civil racketeering and perjury probes; as a junior associate in the mid-1990s, Gillibrand defended the company's executives against a criminal investigation into whether they had committed perjury in their testimony before Congress when they claimed that they had no knowledge of a connection between tobacco smoking and cancer. Gillibrand worked on the case and became a key part of the defense team; as part of her work, she traveled to the company's laboratory in Germany, where she interviewed scientists about the company's alleged research into the connection. The inquiry was dropped and it was during this time that she became a senior associate. While working at Davis Polk, Gillibrand became involved in—and the leader of—the Women's Leadership Forum, a program of the Democratic National Committee.
Gillibrand states that a speech to the group by First Lady Hillary Clinton inspired her: " was trying to encourage us to become more active in politics and she said,'If you leave all the decision-making to others, you might not like what they do, you will have no one but yourself to blame.' It was such a challenge to the women in the room. And it hit me: She's talking to me."In 2001, Gillibrand became a partner in the Manhattan office of Boies, Schiller & Flexner. In 2002 she informed Boies of her interest in running for office and was permitted to transfer to the firm's Albany office, she left Boies in 2005 to begin her 2006 campaign for Congress. Gillibrand has said her work at private law firms allowed her to take on pro bono cases defending abused women and their children and tenants seeking safe housing after lead paint and unsafe conditions were found in their homes. Following her time at Davis Polk, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Andrew Cuomo during the last year of the Clinton administration.
Gillibrand worked on HUD's Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative, as well as on TAP's Young Leaders of the American Democracy, strengthening Davis–Bacon Act enforcement. In 1999, Gillibrand began working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 U. S. Senate campaign, focusing on campaigning to young women and encouraging them to join the effort
United States Electoral College
The United States Electoral College is a body of electors established by the United States Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United States. The Electoral College consists of 538 electors, an absolute majority of 270 electoral votes is required to win an election. Pursuant to Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, the legislature of each state determines the manner by which its electors are chosen; each state's number of electors is equal to the combined total of the state's membership in the Senate and House of Representatives. Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to a number of electors no greater than that of the least populous state. Following the national presidential election day in the first week of November, each state counts its popular votes pursuant to that state's laws to designate presidential electors. Most all states allot all their electoral votes to the winning candidate in that state, no matter how marginal the candidate's win.
State electors meet in their respective state. The results are certified by the states and D. C. to Congress, where they are tabulated nationally in the first week of January before a joint meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives. If a majority of votes are not cast for a candidate, the House resolves itself into a presidential election session with one presidential vote assigned to each of the fifty state delegations, excluding the District of Columbia; the elected president and vice president are inaugurated on January 20. While the electoral vote has given the same result as the popular vote in most elections, this has not been the case in a few elections, including the 2000 and 2016 elections; the Electoral College system is a matter of ongoing debate, with some defending it and others calling for its abolition. Supporters of the Electoral College argue that it is fundamental to American federalism, that it requires candidates to appeal to voters outside large cities, increases the political influence of small states, discourages the excessive growth of political parties and preserves the two-party system, makes the electoral outcome appear more legitimate than that of a nationwide popular vote.
Opponents of the Electoral College argue that it can result in a person becoming president though an opponent got more votes. Most polls since 1967 have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote; the Constitutional Convention in 1787 used the Virginia Plan as the basis for discussions, as the Virginia proposal was the first. The Virginia Plan called for the Congress to elect the president. Delegates from a majority of states agreed to this mode of election. After being debated, delegates came to oppose nomination by congress for the reason that it could violate the separation of powers. James Wilson made motion for electors for the purpose of choosing the president. In the convention, a committee formed to work out various details including the mode of election of the president, including final recommendations for the electors, a group of people apportioned among the states in the same numbers as their representatives in Congress, but chosen by each state "in such manner as its Legislature may direct."
Committee member Gouverneur Morris explained the reasons for the change. However, once the Electoral College had been decided on, several delegates recognized its ability to protect the election process from cabal, corruption and faction; some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. Madison acknowledged that while a popular vote would be ideal, it would be difficult to get consensus on the proposal given the prevalence of slavery in the South: There was one difficulty however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people; the right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections; the Convention approved the Committee's Electoral College proposal, with minor modifications, on September 6, 1787. Delegates from states with smaller populations or limited land area such as Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland favored the Electoral College with some consideration for states.
At the compromise providing for a runoff among the top five candidates, the small states supposed that the House of Representatives with each state delegation casting one vote would decide most elections. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison explained his views on the selection of the president and the Constitution. In Federalist No. 39, Madison argued the Constitution was designed to be a mixture of state-based an
2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries
The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses will be a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select at least 3,768 delegates to the Democratic National Convention and determine the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2020 U. S. presidential election. The elections will take place within all fifty U. S. states, the District of Columbia, five U. S. territories. An extra 764 unpledged delegates or superdelegates, including party leaders and elected officials, will be appointed by the party leadership independently of the primary's electoral process; the convention will approve the party's platform and vice-presidential nominee. Following the 2016 presidential elections, significant changes were proposed that would change the number and role of superdelegates in the nomination process. Changes were enacted on August 25, 2018, which would allow superdelegates to vote on the first ballot at a convention only if it were uncontested.
After Hillary Clinton's loss in the previous election, the Democratic Party was seen as not having a clear leader. There remained divisions in the party following the 2016 primaries which pitted Clinton against Bernie Sanders. Between the 2016 election and the 2018 midterm elections, Senate Democrats have shifted to the political left in relation to college tuition and immigration. Soon after the 2016 general election, the division between Clinton and Sanders supporters was highlighted in the 2017 Democratic National Committee chairmanship election between Tom Perez and Keith Ellison. Perez was elected Chairman and appointed Ellison as the Deputy Chair, a ceremonial role. Several candidates began releasing serious policy proposals early in 2019 resulting in the "invisible primary" being more visible than in previous elections. On August 25, 2018, DNC members passed reforms to the Democratic Party's primary process in order to increase participation and ensure transparency; the reforms mandate that superdelegates refrain from voting on the first presidential nominating ballot unless a candidate has enough votes from pledged delegates that superdelegates would not overturn the will of the people.
This does not preclude superdelegates from endorsing a candidate of their choosing. Caucuses are required to have absentee voting or to otherwise allow those who cannot participate in person to join in. State parties are encouraged to use a government-run primary and increase primaries' accessibility, including through same-day or automatic registration and same-day party switching. In addition to having announced that they are running for president in 2020 or having formed exploratory committees for the 2020 presidential election, the candidates in this section below have either: held public office. Including the 19 candidates listed above, 228 individuals have filed with the Federal Election Commission to run for president in the Democratic Party primary, as of April 12, 2019. Additional candidates who have filed with the FEC include the following notable persons: Michael E. Arth, builder and urban designer, political scientist Harry Braun, renewable energy consultant and researcher Ken Nwadike Jr. documentary filmmaker, motivational speaker, peace activist Robby Wells, former college football coach The candidates in this section have withdrawn or suspended their campaigns.
Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months, as of April 2019. Some have formed leadership PACs. Stacey Abrams, Georgia State Representative 2007–2017. S. Senator from Colorado since 2009 Joe Biden, Vice President of the United States 2009–2017. S. Senator from Delaware 1973–2009. S. Representative from MA-06 since 2015 Joe Sanberg and investor from California These individuals have been the subject of speculation, but have publicly denied interest in running for president. On December 20, 2018, Tom Perez, the chairman for the Democratic National Committee, announced the preliminary schedule for a series of official debates, set to begin in June 2019. In order to qualify for the first two debates, debate entrants must either attain 1% in three polls — at the national level or the first four primary states — or by meeting a fundraising threshold, in which a candidate must receive donations from 65,000 unique donors by May 15, 2019, with at least 200 unique donors per state in at least 20 states.
The polling threshold will be determined using polls published after January 1, 2019 up until two weeks before the scheduled debate, among polls commissioned or conducted by a limited set of organizations: the Associated Press, ABC News, CBS News, CNN, The Des Moines Register, Fox News, the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Monmouth University, NBC News, The New York Times, National Public Radio, Quinnipiac University, the University of New Hampshire, USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Winthrop University. Candidate
Nimrata "Nikki" Haley is an American politician who served as United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 2017 to 2018. A member of the Republican Party, she served as the 116th Governor of South Carolina from 2011 to 2017 and is a former member of the South Carolina House of Representatives. Haley was the first female governor of South Carolina, the second Indian-American to serve as a governor in the United States. First elected in 2004, Haley served three terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives. In 2010, during her third term as a state legislator, Haley ran for Governor of South Carolina and prevailed, she was re-elected Governor in November 2014. In 2015, Haley signed legislation allowing the removal of the Confederate flag from the State Capitol grounds. In 2016, Haley was named as one of the world's 100 most influential people by Time magazine. On November 23, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump nominated Haley for the position of U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations.
Haley accepted the nomination, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate in a 96–4 vote, was subsequently sworn in on January 25, 2017; as U. N. Ambassador, Haley affirmed the United States' willingness to use military force in response to further North Korean missile tests in the wake of the 2017 North Korea crisis. Haley's tenure as Ambassador was noted for its high degree of visibility. On October 9, 2018, Haley announced that she was resigning her position as Ambassador effective at the end of 2018. Haley was born Nimrata Randhawa to an Indian American Sikh family in South Carolina, she has always been called Nikki by her family. Her father, Ajit Singh Randhawa, her mother, Raj Kaur Randhawa, emigrated from Amritsar District, India, her father was a professor at Punjab Agricultural University, her mother received her law degree from the University of Delhi. Haley's parents moved to Canada after her father received a scholarship offer from the University of British Columbia; when her father received his PhD degree in 1969, he moved his family to South Carolina, where he accepted a position as a professor at the black Voorhees College.
Her mother, Raj Randhawa, earned a master's degree in education and taught for seven years in the Bamberg public schools before starting a clothing company, Exotica International, in 1976. When Haley was five years old, her parents attempted to enter her in the "Miss Bamberg" contest; the contest traditionally crowned a white queen. Since the judges decided Haley did not fit either category, they disqualified her. Haley has two brothers, her sister Simran, is a radio host and Fashion Institute of Technology alumna, was born in Canada. Her brother Mitti is a retired member of the United States Army Chemical Corps and served in Desert Storm while her other brother, Charan, is a web designer. At age 12, Haley began helping with the bookkeeping in her mother's ladies' clothing shop, Exotica International. In 1989, Haley graduated from Orangeburg Preparatory Schools. Haley graduated from Clemson University with a bachelor's degree in accounting. After graduating from Clemson University, Haley worked for FCR Corporation, a waste management and recycling company, before joining her family's clothing business.
She became Exotica International's controller and chief financial officer. Haley was named to the board of directors of the Orangeburg County Chamber of Commerce in 1998, she was named to the board of directors of the Lexington Chamber of Commerce in 2003. Haley became treasurer of the National Association of Women Business Owners in 2003, president in 2004, she chaired the Lexington Gala to raise funds for the local hospital. She served on the Lexington Medical Foundation, Lexington County Sheriff's Foundation, West Metro Republican Women, she was the president of the South Carolina Chapter of the National Association of Women Business Owners, was chair for the 2006 Friends of Scouting Leadership Division campaign. In 2004, Haley ran for the South Carolina House of Representatives to represent District 87 in Lexington County, she challenged incumbent state Representative Larry Koon in the Republican primary—the longest-serving legislator in the South Carolina Statehouse. Her platform included education reform.
In the primary election, she forced a runoff. She placed second with 40% of the vote. In the runoff, she defeated him 55–45%, she ran unopposed in the general election. She became the first Indian-American to hold office in South Carolina, she was unopposed for re-election to a second term in 2006. In 2008, she won re-election to a third term, defeating Democrat Edgar Gomez 83–17%. Haley was elected chair of the freshman caucus in 2005 and majority whip in the South Carolina General Assembly, she was the only freshman legislator named to a whip spot at the time. One of Haley's stated goals was to lower taxes; when Mark Sanford was governor of South Carolina, Haley voted against a proposed cigarette surtax. The revenue from the tax would have been appropriated to smoking prevention programs and cancer research related to smoking, she voted for a bill. The bill exempted sales tax on unprepared food such as canned goods; the same bill exempts property tax on "owner-occupied residential property" except for the taxes due from what is still owed on the property.
Haley implemented a plan in which teachers' salaries would be based on not only seniority and qualifications but job performance, as determined by evaluations and reports from principals and parents. She supports school charter schools. Haley su
2020 Republican Party presidential primaries
The 2020 Republican Party presidential primaries and caucuses will be a series of electoral contests taking place within all 50 U. S. states, the District of Columbia, five U. S. territories. Sanctioned by the Republican Party, these elections are designed to select the 2,472 delegates to send to the Republican National Convention, who will select the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2020 election; the delegates approve the party platform and vice-presidential nominee. President Donald Trump formally launched his bid for re-election on February 17, 2017. Numerous pundits and politicians have speculated that the 2020 election cycle might see a significant Republican Party challenger to President Donald Trump, namely because of his historic unpopularity in polls, his association with allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and his support of unpopular policies and decisions. Several Republican critics of the Trump Administration have hinted at or are considering challenging Trump in 2020.
In January 2019, former Republican Governor of Massachusetts and 2016 Libertarian vice presidential nominee Bill Weld changed his party affiliation back to Republican. On February 15, 2019, Weld announced the formation of a 2020 presidential exploratory committee. Former Ohio Governor and 2016 presidential candidate John Kasich has been the subject of rumors of a possible bipartisan ticket with Democratic former Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper. Kasich has denied. In November 2018, Kasich asserted that he was "very seriously" considering a White House bid in 2020. Following his 2018 reelection victory, incumbent Maryland Governor Larry Hogan was the subject of presidential speculation after his second inaugural address. In January 2019, reports indicated that Hogan was considering a potential 2020 bid for the White House. Hogan has met with commentator Bill Kristol and strategist Sarah Longwell, both prominent Never-Trump conservatives. Several Trump critics within the GOP have stated that they will not challenge him in 2020.
Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney won the election to replace outgoing U. S. Senator Orrin Hatch, which would give him a significant platform from which to challenge Trump. Other Republican Trump critics who have said that they will not seek to unseat Trump in 2020 include 2016 presidential candidate Carly Fiorina and former U. S. Sen. Jeff Flake. Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months. Bob Corker, U. S. Senator from Tennessee 2007–2019 Larry Hogan, Governor of Maryland since 2015. S. Representative from MD-05 in 1981 and Republican nominee in 1992 John Kasich, Governor of Ohio 2011–2019. S. Representative from OH-12 1983–2001. February 17: Trump formally announces his candidacy for a second term and holds the first of an occasional series of campaign rallies in Melbourne, Florida. July 18: Charlotte, North Carolina is chosen as the site for the 2020 Republican National Convention. November 7: President Trump confirms that Mike Pence will remain his vice presidential pick.
January 17: Bill Weld changes his voter registration from Libertarian back to Republican, furthering speculation he will announce a primary challenge against Trump. January 23: The Republican National Committee votes unanimously to express "undivided support" of Trump's "effective presidency". February 12: President Trump holds his first mass rally of the year. February 15: Weld announces the formation of an exploratory committee, becoming the President's first official notable challenger; the following anticipated primary and caucus dates may change depending on legislation passed before the scheduled primary dates. FebruaryFebruary 3: Iowa caucus February 11: New Hampshire primaryMarchMarch 3: Super Tuesday March 7: Louisiana primary March 10: Hawaii caucus. On December 19, 2018, the Washington Examiner reported that the South Carolina Republican Party had not ruled out forgoing a primary contest to protect Trump from any primary challengers. Party chairman Drew McKissick stated, “Considering the fact that the entire party supports the president, we’ll end up doing what’s in the president’s best interest.”
On January 24, another Washington Examiner report indicated t
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr