Charleston County is located in the U. S. state of South Carolina along the Atlantic coast. As of the 2010 census, its population was 350,209, making it the third most populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is Charleston. The county was created in 1901 by an act of the South Carolina State Legislature. Charleston County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,358 square miles, of which 916 square miles is land and 442 square miles is water, it is the largest county in South Carolina by total water area. Berkeley County - north Georgetown County - northeast Colleton County - west Dorchester County - northwest Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Charles Pinckney National Historic Site Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Fort Moultrie National Monument Fort Sumter National Monument Francis Marion National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 309,969 people, 143,326 households, 97,448 families residing in the county.
The population density was 338 people per square mile. There were 141,031 housing units at an average density of 154 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 61.9% White, 34.5% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.40 % of the population were Latino of any race. 9.6 % were of 9.5 % English, 9.1 % German and 7.6 % Irish ancestry. There were 123,326 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 15.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.20% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 23.70% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.50 males. The median income for a household in the county is $37,810, the median income for a family was $47,139. Males had a median income of $32,681 versus $25,530 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,393. About 12.40% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. In the 2000 census, the county population was classified as about 86% urban; the Charleston-North Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area includes the populations of Charleston and Dorchester counties. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 350,209 people, 144,309 households, 85,692 families residing in the county; the population density was 382.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 169,984 housing units at an average density of 185.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 64.2% white, 29.8% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.3% were German, 11.0% were English, 10.2% were Irish, 9.8% were American. Of the 144,309 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families, 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 35.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,433 and the median income for a family was $61,525. Males had a median income of $42,569 versus $34,195 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,401. About 11.5% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. From 1895 to 1973, when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule in the counties, the counties had limited powers, under what was called "county purpose doctrine."
They were governed by the General Assembly through their state legislative delegation and, with one state senator per county, the state senator was powerful. In the 1940s, Charleston County adopted a council-manager form of county government to better handle its needs. In 1975 the state's Home Rule Act established a larger role for the county governments. Charleston County has a large geographic area represented by a nine-member county council. Into the 1960s, most African Americans were excluded from voting by the state's disenfranchising constitution and practices; this changed after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. Since 1969, members of the county commission were elected in a modified at-large system for nine seats, with elections every two years for staggered four-year terms, from four residency districts. Three Council seats are reserved for residents of the City of Charleston, three for residents of North Charleston, two for residents of West Ashley, one for a resident of East Cooper.
The council elects a chairman from its members for a limited term of two years, but chairs can be re-elected. Charleston County was "one of only three counties in South Carolina to elect its entire county council at-large, it was "the only county with a majority white population to do so." At-large po
John Wiles was a South African novelist, television writer and producer. He was the second producer of the science fiction series Doctor. Wiles was credited as producer on four serials between 1965 and 1966, namely The Myth Makers, The Daleks' Master Plan, The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve, The Ark. Although he had a good working relationship with story editor Donald Tosh, Wiles found that he was unable to make many changes to the format of the programme. Attempts to make the series darker led to clashes with actor William Hartnell, who as the sole remaining member of the original team saw himself as the guardian of the series' original values. An attempt to give new companion Dodo Chaplet a cockney accent was vetoed by Wiles' superiors, who ordered that the regulars must speak "BBC English". With Hartnell in poor health and hostile to Wiles, the latter sought a way to replace the actor. However, this was again opposed by Wiles' superiors. Wiles disliked the lengthy The Daleks' Master Plan story, commissioned by the previous production team and which proved difficult to realise.
One of his few changes that lasted a short time was to limit nearly all stories to just four episodes. In early 1966, Wiles resigned in frustration over an inability to steer the show in the direction he wished. Tosh resigned in sympathy. Of the episodes from his tenure, only the four episode serial The Ark, three episodes from The Daleks' Master Plan, still survive in the BBC's archives; as Wiles chose not to employ John Cura and his Tele-snaps service, only a few publicity and behind the scenes photos give a visual record of his work on the series. After leaving Doctor Who, Wiles wrote two stories for the science-fiction anthology series Out of the Unknown; these were Taste of Evil and The Man in My Head, both broadcast as part of its fourth and final season in 1971. Wiles wrote several plays including Act of Hardness, Family on Trial and Blood and Roses. Wiles died on April 5, 1999 at the age of 73. John Wiles on IMDb
Christmas, His Masque called Christmas His Show, was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and performed at the English royal court at Christmas of 1616. Jonson's masque displays the traditional folklore and iconography of Christmas at an early-modern and pre-commercial stage of its development; the masque opens with the entrance of a personified Christmas and his attendants, one of whom leads the way in, beating a drum. Christmas is dressed in a "high-crowned hat. Christmas is soon followed by his ten children; the "Sons and Daughters" of Christmas are Carol, Gambol, Wassail, New-Year's-Gift and Pair, Minced-Pie and Baby-Cake. Each has her own fantastic get-up. Carol, for instance, wears a tawny coat and a red cap, has a flute in his belt. Mince-Pie is attired "like a fine cook's wife, drest neat," while Gambol is dressed "like a tumbler, with a hoop and bells." Each of the ten is followed by a torchbearer-attendant, carrying marchpanes, bottles of wine, other holiday gear. Cupid is soon joined by his mother Venus, who like her son is dressed down in contemporary London garb: the goddess appears as a "deaf tire-woman" who lives in Pudding Lane.
The speeches of Venus and the other characters are rich in contemporary references. The masque proceeds to singing and dancing, with the stated intent to present "A right Christmas, as of old it was." Christmas, His Masque was produced too late to be included in the first folio collection of Jonson's works in 1616. It exists in manuscripts. Early commentators tended to dismiss Jonson's masque as a piece of holiday fluff noting that the work is less a true masque and more of a mummers' show. Modern critics have looked beneath its surface to detect serious political and cultural implications. Jonson's text, in promoting a traditional Christmas, was taking a position favored by King James I and opposed to the contemporary culture of the merchants of the City of London and that of the Puritans, who were overtly hostile to the traditional holiday; the text of the masque shows an abundant and rather biting satire aimed at the anti-Christmas forces in Jacobean society. King James had made an important speech before the Star Chamber earlier in 1616, in an attempt to promote traditional country life and pastimes, which were plainly in decline in an era of ever-greater urbanization and economic development.
James would soon issue his proclamation known as the Book of Sports, another attempt to support and reinforce the traditional country life in the face of rapid social change. Jonson's masque is one element in this larger cultural debate. Collins, Tony. Encyclopedia of Traditional British Rural Sports. London, Routledge, 2005. Evans, Robert C. Jonson and the Contexts of His Time. Lewisburg, PA, Bucknell University Press, 1994. Marcus, Leah Sinanoglou; the Politics of Mirth: Jonson, Milton and the Defense of Old Holiday Pastimes. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1986
The following is a timeline of numerical analysis after 1945, deals with developments after the invention of the modern electronic computer, which began during Second World War. For a fuller history of the subject before this period, see timeline and history of mathematics. Monte Carlo simulation invented at Los Alamos by von Neumann and Metropolis. Crank–Nicolson method was developed by Crank and Nicolson. Dantzig introduces the simplex method in 1947. Turing formulated the LU decomposition method. Successive over-relaxation was devised by D. M. Young, Jr. and by H. Frankel in 1950. Hestenes and Lanczos, all from the Institute for Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards, initiate the development of Krylov subspace iteration methods. Voted one of the top 10 algorithms of the 20th century. Equations of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines introduces the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. In numerical differential equations and Friedrichs invent the Lax-Friedrichs method. Householder invents his eponymous transformation method.
Romberg integration John G. F. Francis and Vera Kublanovskaya invent QR factorization. First recorded use of the term "finite element method" by Ray Clough, to describe the methods of Courant, Hrenikoff and Zienkiewicz, among others. See here. Exponential integration by Certaine and Pope. In computational fluid dynamics and numerical differential equations and Wendroff invent the Lax-Wendroff method. Fast Fourier Transform invented by Tukey. First edition of Handbook of Mathematical Functions by Abramowitz and Stegun, both of the U. S. National Bureau of Standards. Broyden does new quasi-Newton method for finding roots in 1965; the MacCormack method, for the numerical solution of hyperbolic partial differential equations in computational fluid dynamics, is introduced by MacCormack in 1969. Verlet discovers a numerical integration algorithm, for dynamics. Creation of LINPACK and associated benchmark by Dongarra et al. Progress in digital wavelet theory throughout the decade, led by Daubechies et. al. Creation of MINPACK Fast multipole method invented by Greengard.
First edition of Numerical Recipes by Press, Teukolsky, et al. In numerical linear algebra, the GMRES algorithm invented in 1986. Scientific computing History of numerical solution of differential equations using computers Numerical analysis Timeline of computational mathematics Cipra, Barry Arthur. "Top 10 Algorithms of the 20th Century". SIAM News. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 December 2012; the History of Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing @ SIAM Ruttimann, Jacqueline. "2020 computing: Milestones in scientific computing". Nature. 440: 399–405. Doi:10.1038/440399a. PMID 16554772; the Monte Carlo Method: Classic Papers Monte Carlo Landmark Papers “Must read” papers in numerical analysis. Discussion at Math Overflow based upon a selected reading list on Lloyd N. Trefethen's personal site
Naval Hospital Boston was a hospital in Chelsea, Massachusetts. With the closure of the nearby Boston Navy Yard, the hospital closed in 1974. On January 7, 1836 the Chelsea Naval Hospital was commissioned. Located on a hill on the banks of the Mystic River in Chelsea, MA, it is 112 feet above sea level; the original building was built of Vermont granite. The hospital was a three-story building with a 100-bed capacity. A wing was added on the west side of the building in 1865. Chelsea Naval Hospital was one of the first three hospitals authorized by Congress to accommodate naval personnel. Personnel received treatment at marine hospitals operated by the Department of the Treasury for mariners, both naval and merchant; the hospital served naval personnel and others during the American Civil War, Spanish–American War, World War I and World War II. In 1970, a plaque in remembrance of Medal of Honor recipient Wayne Maurice Caron, a hospital corpsman, was placed on the grounds of the hospital. In 1973, the hospital and the surrounding grounds were added to the Naval Hospital Boston Historic District.
When it was decommissioned in 1974, it was the oldest naval hospital in service in the United States and consisted of 88 acres of land on the Mystic River. Notable patients during the hospital's history include Presidents John Quincy Adams and John F. Kennedy; the original hospital buildings were converted into condominiums while adjacent land was dotted with single family townhouses and high rise apartment complexes. Still extant are the perimeter wall and guard shack, chapel, ordnance buildings, nurses' quarters, the Captain's House. In addition to the redevelopment of the housing and hospital portion of the property, several acres on the Mystic River were taken over by the Metropolitan District Commission for Mary O'Malley Park. Http://www.olgp.net/chs/hospital/naval.htm http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/maritime/nav.htm
Grete Mostny was a Jewish Austrian who became a leading Chilean anthropologist. She had to leave because of the rise of the Nazis, she went to Belgium to complete her studies before leaving for Chile. At the end of the war she was invited back to Austria but she preferred to become a naturalised Chilean, she led a number of archaeological investigations and the Chilean National Museum of Natural History. Mostny was born in Linz in 1914, she enrolled at Vienna University but she had to leave in 1937 because of the rise of the Nazis. She had completed her dissertation on the clothes of ancient Egypt and part of her exams but she had to complete her doctorate in Brussels in Belgium in 1939, she had taken part in archaeological investigations at both Luxor and Cairo in Egypt. She left with her brother and her mother for Chile. Chile took in a large number of German refugees in 1939. There was a significant German community in Chile, but this was a source of anti-Semitism. At the end of the war she was invited back to Austria but she preferred to become a naturalised Chilean in 1946.
She led a number of archaeological investigations in South America. In 1954 she was involved; this mummy was the remains of a child found on a mountain. Mostny took over from Humberto Fuenzalida Villegas and led the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago from 1964 to 1982. Mostny died from cancer in Santiago in 1991; the University of Vienna records her biography as she was an expelled student and a victim of National Socialism. The university gives a prize for a dissertation in honour of Grete Mostny; the prize is for a dissertation in the Historical and Cultural Studies faculty and it has been awarded since 2013. Mostny's dissertation is stored in ceramic form in a salt mine in Hallstatt