2060 Chiron, provisional designation 1977 UB, known as 95P/Chiron, is a small Solar System body in the outer Solar System, orbiting the Sun between Saturn and Uranus. Discovered in 1977 by Charles Kowal, it was the first-identified member of a new class of objects now known as centaurs—bodies orbiting between the asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt. Although it was called an asteroid and classified only as a minor planet with the designation "2060 Chiron", it was found to exhibit behavior typical of a comet. Today it is classified as both a minor planet and a comet, is accordingly known by the cometary designation "95P/Chiron". Chiron is named after the centaur Chiron in Greek mythology. Michael Brown lists it as a dwarf planet with a measured diameter of 206 km, near the lower limit for an icy dwarf planet. Chiron was discovered on 1 November 1977 by Charles Kowal from images taken on 18 October at Palomar Observatory, it was given the temporary designation of 1977 UB. It was found near aphelion and at the time of discovery it was the most distant known minor planet.
Chiron was claimed as the tenth planet by the press. Chiron was found on several precovery images, going back to 1895, which allowed its orbit to be determined, it had been at perihelion in 1945 but was not discovered because there were few searches being made at that time, these were not sensitive to slow-moving objects. The Lowell Observatory's survey for distant planets would not have gone down faint enough in the 1930s and did not cover the right region of the sky in the 1940s; this minor planet was named after a half-human, half-horse centaur from Greek mythology. Son of the Titan Cronus and the nymph Philyra, Chiron was the wisest and most just of all centaurs, serving as an instructor of the Greek heroes; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 April 1978. It was suggested. Chiron's orbit was found to be eccentric, with perihelion just inside the orbit of Saturn and aphelion just outside the perihelion of Uranus. According to the program Solex, Chiron's closest approach to Saturn in modern times was around May 720, when it came within 30.5±2.0 million km of Saturn.
During this passage Saturn's gravity caused Chiron's semi-major axis to decrease from 14.55±0.12 AU to 13.7 AU. It does not come nearly as close to Uranus. Chiron attracted considerable interest because it was the first object discovered in such an orbit, well outside the asteroid belt. Chiron is classified as a centaur, the first of a class of objects orbiting between the outer planets. Chiron is a Saturn–Uranus object because its perihelion lies in Saturn's zone of control and its aphelion lies in that of Uranus. Centaurs are not in stable orbits and will be removed by gravitational perturbation by the giant planets over a period of millions of years, moving to different orbits or leaving the Solar System altogether. Chiron is a refugee from the Kuiper belt and will become a short-period comet in about a million years. Chiron came to perihelion in 1996 and will reach aphelion mid 2021; the visible and near-infrared spectrum of Chiron is neutral, is similar to that of C-type asteroids and the nucleus of Halley's Comet.
The near-infrared spectrum of Chiron shows absence of water ice. The assumed size of an object depends on the albedo. In 1984 Lebofsky estimated Chiron to be about 180 km in diameter. Estimates in the 1990s were closer to 150 km in diameter. Occultation data from 1993 suggests a diameter of about 180 km. Combined data from the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2007 and the Herschel Space Observatory in 2011 suggests that Chiron is 218±20 km in diameter. Therefore, Chiron may be as large as 10199 Chariklo; the diameter of Chiron is difficult to estimate in part because the true absolute magnitude of its nucleus is uncertain due to its variable cometary activity. Four rotational lightcurves of Chiron were taken from photometric observations between 1989 and 1997. Lightcurve analysis gave a concurring, well-defined rotational period of 5.918 hours with a small brightness variation of 0.05 to 0.09 magnitude, which indicates that the body has a rather spheroidal shape. In February 1988, at 12 AU from the Sun, Chiron brightened by 75 percent.
This is behavior typical of comets but not asteroids. Further observations in April 1989 showed that Chiron had developed a cometary coma, A tail was detected in 1993. Chiron differs from other comets in that water is not a major component of its coma, because it is too far from the Sun for water to sublimate. In 1995 carbon monoxide was detected in Chiron in small amounts, the derived CO production rate was calculated to be sufficient to account for the observed coma. Cyanide was detected in the spectrum of Chiron in 1991. At the time of its discovery, Chiron was close to aphelion, whereas the observations showing a coma were done closer to perihelion explaining why no cometary behavior had been seen earlier; the fact that Chiron is still active means it has not been in its current orbit long. Chiron is designated as both a comet—95P/Chiron—and a minor planet, an indication of the sometimes fuzzy dividing line between the two classes of object; the term proto-comet has been used. Being about 220 km in diameter, it is unusually large for a comet nucleus.
Chiron was the first member of a new family of Chiron-type co
The Asian Health Literacy Association is an association which aims to provide an overview of the health literacy status in Asia and to measure health literacy levels across Asia. The study involves close collaboration between universities, research institutions and ministries across Asia. Not only will the current state of health literacy in identified countries be evaluated but the health services and healthcare deliveries will be compared. Social and cultural determinants as well as measures to enhance the health service capacities in each country will be considered. Health literacy encompasses people’s knowledge and competences to access, understand and apply health information; the Asian Health Literacy Association seeks to understand health literacy levels across Asia in order to inform the direction of future efforts to enhance health service capacities. Furthermore, the association aims to explore the influence of health literacy in the healthcare system, disease prevention and health promotion.
Researchers, government bodies, healthcare groups and educational professionals working in the above or related fields might participate in this project, discussing health literacy issues in order to develop possible interventions in health education and healthcare services. AHLA promotes health literacy as an effective way to improve healthcare quality and reducing health disparities between communities and nations. Improving communication between patients, patient organizations, health service providers, administrative agencies, policy-makers, the media can promote health literacy and result in better-coordinated and more efficient health systems that protect people from health risks. Strong partnerships between national health literacy programs allow all stakeholders to benefit from the best ideas in health from around the world. AHLA will promote health literacy in regional and global forums; the Asian Health Literacy Association holds a HLS-Asia project, designed to mirror a similar international study, the European Health Literacy Survey.
The purpose of Health Literacy Study-Asia project is to measure health literacy levels across Asia and to provide an overview of the health literacy status in Asia. The study involves close collaboration between universities, research institutions and ministries across Asia. Not only will the current state of health literacy in identified countries be evaluated but the health services and healthcare deliveries will be compared. Social and cultural determinants as well as measures to enhance the health service capacities in each country will be considered; this project has received support from The Taiwan National Science Council, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Asian health knowledge can international cooperation in research originated from the University of Maastricht, The Netherlands dominated the EU seventh research program of the European cross-border health consciousness energy research of the project team and the national health promotion experts since October 2012 Comparative study of international cooperation can Participating countries included Taiwan, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, South Korea, the Philippines, Cambodia race, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Mongolia and other Asian countries, more than ten, together with Asian countries to promote inter-community long-term stability and common prosperity and development in close cooperation culture and health, as well as the region.
The first International Conference on Health Literacy and Better Healthcare: EU and Asia was held in 2013 in Taipei, Taiwan. This event was organized by the Asian Health Literacy Society with support from Taiwan’s National Science Council and Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Taipei City Government Department of Health, the Kaohsiung City and Taitung County Governments, the European Economic and Trade Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and MJGroup; the conference discusses global health literacy issues and explores their implications for better healthcare. Distinguished international speakers and professionals from more than 15 Asian and European countries and from 20 institutions will attend, as the conference provides a platform for health professionals and health literacy scholars to share experiences while establishing an Asian health literacy network. Health Literacy and Policy Implementation. HLS-EU and HLS-Asia. Global Health Literacy Development and Cultural Competence. International Corporation and Health Literacy Organization.
Health Literacy working in the communities. Health Literacy in multi-disciplinary partnership. Health Literacy and effectiveness; the 2nd International Conference on Health Literacy and Health Promotion to be held from October 6 to 8 October 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan. Health literacy and policy: health policy and governance, health civil society, health inequalities. Health literacy and community: health city, healthy ageing environment, healthy living environment and design and creating health literate settings. Health literacy and hospital: healthcare for non-communicable diseases management, high-risk vulnerable individuals. Health literacy and education: education and curriculum for health literacy, intervention via school educations. Health literacy and occupational environment: industry and business health-literacy friendly environment, occupational health and physical activities and health literacy, health literacy as corp
Jacob de Gheyn II was a Dutch painter and engraver, whose work shows the transition from Northern Mannerism to Dutch realism over the course of his career. De Gheyn was born in Antwerp and received his first training from his father, Jacob de Gheyn I, a glass painter and draftsman. In 1585, he moved to Haarlem, he moved again, in the middle of the 1590s. His work attracted the attention of wealthy sponsors, his first commission was for an engraving of the Siege of Geertruidenberg from Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange; this event, from 27 March to 24 June 1593, had been more of a demonstration of power by Prince Maurits, than an actual war, had attracted tourists. As a publicity stunt, the siege and its subsequent engraving were successful in propagating an image of Prince Maurits as an able general. Around 1600, de Gheyn abandoned engraving, focused on painting and etching. Moving to The Hague in 1605, he was employed by Dutch royalty, designing a garden in the Buitenhof for Prince Maurice of Orange which featured the two first grottoes in the Netherlands.
After Prince Maurice's death in 1625, de Gheyn worked for Prince Frederick Henry. De Gheyn painted some of the earliest female nudes and floral still lifes in Dutch art, he is credited with creating over 1,500 drawings, including landscapes and natural history illustrations. He produced 117 engravings for the military manual The Exercise of Armes while living in Amsterdam. De Gheyn married Eva Stalpaert van der Wiele of Mechelen in 1595, his son, Jacob de Gheyn III, was born in 1596, grew to become an engraver in his own right, as well as the subject of a portrait by Rembrandt. De Gheyn died in The Hague. Jacob de Gheyn II at Artcylopedia Works by Jacob de Gheyn II in the British Museum Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which has material on Jacob de Gheyn II Boom, Florence Hopper. "An Early Flower Piece by Jacques de Gheyn II". Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art. 8: 195. Doi:10.2307/3780384. JSTOR 3780384