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2 June Movement

The 2 June Movement was a West German anarchist militant group based in West Berlin. Active from January 1972 – 1980, the anarchist group was one of the few violent groups at the time in West Germany. Although the 2 June Movement did not share the same ideology as the Red Army Faction, these organizations were allies; the 2 June Movement did not establish as much influence in West Germany as their Marxist counterparts, but is best known for kidnapping West Berlin mayoral candidate Peter Lorenz. Rising from the ashes of political group Kommune 1 and militant group Tupamaros West-Berlin, 2 June Movement was formed in July of 1971. During the trial of Thomas Weisbecker, Michael Baumann, Georg von Rauch for the assault on Horst Rieck. Michael Baumann and Thomas Weisbecker were released on bail; when the release was announced, Georg von Rauch, facing a probable ten-year sentence for other charges, pretended to be Thomas Weisbecker, left the courtroom with Michael Baumann. The two went underground. Once Weisbecker revealed his identity, he was released from custody.

Following their escape, the 2 June Movement was formed. In contrast to the Red Army Faction, 2 June Movement was anarchist rather than Marxist; this organization derived their name from the date that German university student Benno Ohnesorg was killed by police in 1967. Participating in a protest of Germany's meeting with Iran, Ohnesorg was shot when the demonstrators were attacked by police, his death propelled the left-wing movement in West Germany, influencing politicians, political activists, violent groups. Although the organization never became notorious, 2 June Movement was most recognized in the first phase of German post-World War II militarism. After forming in 1971, political activist Fritz Teufel became one of the leaders of the 2 June Movement. Taking part in Kommune 1, his comical take on revolutionary activity had him dubbed "fun guerilla" by the general public. In 1967, Teufel became a quasi-icon in West Germany after being arrested. Charged with treason and the attempted assassination of United States Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Teufel was acquitted.

His humorous image was constructed following his arrest, as he and his associates were brought into questioning with a flour-pudding-yogurt concoction, to be used as a "bomb." On 2 June 1967, Teufel was arrested again, this time falsely accused of throwing a rock at police and provoking the riot at which Benno Ohnesorg was killed. This time, he served six months in jail. In 1975, Mr. Teufel was charged with being a leader of the 2 June Movement. Fritz Teufel spent five years in prison awaiting trial, only to present a watertight alibi in court: when the kidnapping of Peter Lorenz took place he was working under a false name in an Essen factory that made toilet seats, he said. Nonetheless, he was convicted of robbery, firearms offenses and membership in a criminal organization, he was sentenced to five years in prison. After his release, Teufel stopped his pursuit of radical politics, however he kept his taste for provocation after using a squirt gun to spray the West German finance minister while taking part in a political discussion on television in 1982.

Although the 2 June Movement never developed a clear ideology or purpose for its existence, Teufel's political activism was rooted in his hatred for his parents' generation. Just like many students and activists of his age, Teufel was angered by the Nazi regime of the previous generation, fought to eliminate that image from Germany. Much of the resentment was directed towards those individuals who had played a role in the Nazi regime those who had never taken any responsibility for their actions. Although the 2 June Movement achieved their greatest feat kidnapping Peter Lorenz, the group is known for many other attacks; the 2 June Movement predominantly used firearms when carrying out their attacks, but used explosive devices. On 4 December 1971 during a massive search throughout the city of West Berlin following the discovery of a Red Army Faction safehouse, three members of the 2 June Movement got into a shootout with a plainclothes policeman. George von Rauch was killed while, another guerrilla managed to escape.

On 2 February 1972, the 2 June Movement declared responsibility for a bombing at the British Yacht Club in West Berlin. The attack, which killed the boat's engineer, was found out to be an act of assistance for the Irish Republican Army. During the trial, which took place in February 1974, 2 June Movement and other militants started a riot at the court's exterior. On 2 March 1972 Thomas Weisbecker was killed in Augsberg, Germany during a shootout with two Munich policeman. On the fifth anniversary of Benno Ohnesorg's death, a bomb exploded in West Berlin. To this day, no group has taken responsibility for the bombing, although it was inferred that attack was the action of 2 June Movement. In West Berlin on 27 July 1973, the 2 June Movement stole 200,000 Deutsch Marks from a local bank. In mid-1974, 2 June Movement member Ulrich Schmücker was shot to death by others in the organization. Although it is not clear what the rationale was for the shooting, Schmücker was believed to be an informant; the opposing argument was.

After Red Army Faction member Holger Meins died in prison, the 2 June Movement attempted a kidnapping of Superior Court Justice Günter von Drenkmann, killed in the process. The effort to kidnap Von Drenkmann was believed to be retaliation for the poor treatment of Meins during his time in prison. Meins and other Red Army Faction members were force-fed during a hunger strike, an


Manraja is a village development committee in the Saptari District, province No. 2, of south-eastern Nepal. It sits at an elevation of 89 m, it is known for its landmark Shree Raja Ji Than Temple. Manraja is located 10 km from East-West Highway, 20 km south-west of Rajbiraj, 10 km north of the Indian border of Laukhi; the distance from Manraja to Nepal's capital, Kathmandu, is 179 km. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of Manraja was 4,447, which consisted of 902 households; the village development committee was included in Bodebarsain municipality in 2017. The Shree Raja Ji Than Temple is in the Bodebarsain Municipality of Manraja; the temple was built from ancient stones that were hand-carved with different symbols typical of the Mithila region. The temple contains rectangular stones on either side that are 1.5 m high and 1.5 m wide, which are carved with a variety of symbols. Near the roots of trees, there are many fragments of black stones carved with different symbols. According to locals, the statue is known by the name of Shree Raja Ji Baba of Shree Lakshmi Narayan.

The statues of the temple are fragmented. Some theorize. According to a survey conducted by the government of Nepal, the temple is situated on the remains of an older temple as evidenced by some older rectangular hand-carved stones found within the temple. A tamarind tree lives within the temple; the temple is surrounded by various temples dedicated to the God Hanuman, Lord Shiva, the Goddesses Saraswati and Durga. Every year at Baishakhi, a puja is performed, a festival in the Raja Ji Than area celebrates the new year. Festivals are held on auspicious days such as Ekadashi, Shivaratri and Rama Navami. In times of misfortune, people go to the temple to practice bhajan, aarti, yagya and other ceremonies; some people visit the temple to pray for their wishes to be fulfilled by their god. Sacrificial offerings are placed within the temple; these include animals, as well as offerings of kheer, peda and supari. It is a common tradition for people who suffer from ailments skin diseases, to present four pairs of brinjal as an offering for a cure.

The local people of the Bodebarsain region worship at the Raja Ji Than Temple and consider it sacred. In Phase 3 of the 2017 Nepalese local elections, the Federal Socialist Forum Nepal achieved victories in both the mayoral and deputy mayoral posts in the Bodebarsain municipality of the Saptari district. Atish Singh Yadav secured the mayoral post. Ranju Saha won the deputy mayoral post; the mayor's strongest opponent, Amarendra Yadav of RJP-Nepal, received 3,298 votes while the nearest rival of deputy mayor, Renu Saha, received 3,637 votes. "राज्यद्वारा उपेक्षित मधेशको ऐतिहासिक स्थल मानराजा गढी", News Today, 12 April 2016

Swan Bells

The Swan Bells are a set of 18 bells hanging in a specially built 82.5-metre -high copper and glass campanile in Perth, Western Australia. The tower is known as The Bell Tower or the Swan Bell Tower. Taking their name from the Swan River, which their tower overlooks, forming a sixteen-bell peal with two extra chromatic notes, they are the second largest set of change ringing bells in the world, the largest being Christ Church Cathedral, which has nineteen bells. Twelve of the set are historic bells from St Martin-in-the-Fields church in Trafalgar Square in London; the St Martin-in-the-Fields bells were donated to the State of Western Australia as part of the 1988 Australian bicentenary celebrations. The six newer bells include five that were presented to the University of Western Australia, the City of Perth and to the people of Western Australia by the City of London, the City of Westminster and a consortium of British and Australian mining companies, one bell commissioned by the Western Australian Government.

The St Martin-in-the-Fields bells can be traced to before the 14th century. They were recast in the 16th century by order of Queen Elizabeth I and again between 1725 and 1770 by members of the Rudhall family of bell founders from Gloucester. Due to be recast leading up to 1870 instead they were tuned and restored at London's Whitechapel Bell Foundry and donated to Western Australia, on the initiative of local bellringer and businessman Laith Reynolds, they are rare in that they are one of the few sets of royal bells, more so since they are the only set known to have left England. The bells are known to have rung as the explorer James Cook set sail on the voyage in which he reached Australia; the tower was designed by the local architects Hames Sharley. The 18 bells have a combined weight of about nine tonnes and, when rung, exert considerable forces on the support structure. To achieve the required rigidity, the six-story bell chamber was made with reinforced concrete cast in situ; the bell chamber was designed by the structural engineering firm Arup.

Soundproof louvres and doors are used to muffle the sound or direct the noise towards the city or the river as required. The glass-clad spire is designed using spokes which radiate horizontally from a centrally positioned axle, declining in width as it rises to a point; the solid-steel columns of the spire are rectangular and the concrete bell chamber is enveloped in 30 metres -high copper sails and glass. The redeveloped Barrack Square along Barrack Street precinct, which surrounds the tower, includes reflection pools as well as cafes, restaurants and cycling and walking paths. An inlaid path made of ceramic tiles surrounded the tower, with each tile consisting of a list of some of the youngest and oldest cohorts of students from nearly every school in Western Australia from 1999, arranged alphabetically by school name; as of March 2014, the tiles were removed as part of the Elizabeth Quay project, but have since been reinstalled in a new artwork to the east of the tower. In 2018, in order to commemorate the centenary of the World War One Armistice on November 11th, a large 6.5 ton bell was cast by VEEM Limited, Canning Vale.

Unlike the other bells in the tower, this is swung electronically using a motor, supplied by a Belgian firm. It is known as the'Great ANZAC Bell'; the A$5.5 million building was said to be built to commemorate the new millennium, but at the time the government and the Premier of Western Australia, Richard Court, received a fair amount of criticism from locals who opposed it, calling it a wasteful expenditure. However, it remains one of the only "icon" millennium projects that came in on time, on budget and is still open; the Australian and New Zealand Association of Bellringers Official Swan Bells website The Bell Tower at the Department of Culture and the Arts The Swan Bells - Perth, Australia, at

Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Commission

The Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Commission known as the Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Tribunal, is a Malaysian organisation established in 2007 by Mahathir Mohamad to investigate war crimes. The KLWCC was instigated as an alternative to the International Criminal Court in The Hague, which Mahathir accused of bias in its selection of cases to cover; the Tribunal is not recognised by the United Nations and its verdicts are only symbolic. The governance body of the KLWCT was established to oversee and investigate complaints from victims of wars and armed conflict in relation to crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity and other like offences as recognized under International Law. Members of the governance body include: Mahathir Mohamad Alfred Webre Richard Falk Zacharia Yatim - retired judge of the Malaysian Federal Court Tunku Sofiah Jewa - lawyer and scholar in international law Salleh Buang - former Federal Counsel in the Attorney-General Chambers, Malaysia Niloufer Bhagwat Shad Saleem Faruqi - an academic In November 2011 the tribunal purportedly exercised universal jurisdiction to try in absentia former US President George W. Bush and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, convicting both for crimes against peace because of what the tribunal concluded was the unlawful invasion of Iraq.

In May 2012 after hearing a testimony from victims of torture at Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo, the Tribunal unanimously convicted in absentia the former US President George W. Bush, former US Vice President Dick Cheney, former US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, former US Deputy Assistant Attorneys General John Yoo and Jay Bybee, former US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, former US counselors David Addington and William Haynes II of conspiracy to commit war crimes torture; the Tribunal referred their findings to the chief prosecutor at the International Court of Justice in the Hague. In November 2013, the Tribunal found the State of Israel guilty of genocide of the Palestinian people and convicted in absentia former Israeli general Amos Yaron for crimes against humanity and genocide for his involvement in the Sabra and Shatila massacre; the former United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, Param Cumaraswamy, has suggested that the Tribunal is a private enterprise with no legal basis, questioned its legitimacy.

The Tribunal does not have a UN mandate or recognition, no power to order arrests or impose sentences, it is unclear that its verdicts have more than symbolic significance. A statement on the Tribunal's website states: "In the event the tribunal convicts any of the accused, the only sanction is that the name of the guilty person will be entered in the Commission’s Register of War Criminals and publicized worldwide." The Kuala Lumpur Foundation to Criminalise War - Affiliated organization founded by Mahathir Mohamad

Irish Hospitals' Sweepstake

The Irish Hospitals' Sweepstake was a lottery established in the Irish Free State in 1930 as the Irish Free State Hospitals' Sweepstake to finance hospitals. It is referred to as the Irish Sweepstake abbreviated to Irish Sweeps or Irish Sweep; the Public Charitable Hospitals Act, 1930 was the act. The main organisers were Captain Spencer Freeman and Joe McGrath. Duggan was a well known Dublin bookmaker who had organised a number of sweepstakes in the decade prior to setting up the Hospitals' Sweepstake. Captain Freeman was a Welsh-born engineer and former captain in the British Army. After the Constitution of Ireland was enacted in 1937, the name Irish Hospitals' Sweepstake was adopted; the sweepstake was established because there was a need for investment in hospitals and medical services and the public finances were unable to meet this expense at the time. As the people of Ireland were unable to raise sufficient funds, because of the low population, a significant amount of the funds were raised in the United Kingdom and United States among the emigrant Irish.

Winning tickets were drawn from rotating drums by nurses in uniform. Each such ticket was assigned to a horse expected to run in one of several horse races, including the Cambridgeshire Handicap and Grand National. Tickets that drew the favourite horses thus stood a higher likelihood of winning and a series of winning horses had to be chosen on the accumulator system, allowing for enormous prizes; the original sweepstake draws were held at The Mansion House, Dublin on 19 May 1939 under the supervision of the Chief Commissioner of Police, were moved to the more permanent fixture at the Royal Dublin Society in Ballsbridge in 1940. The Adelaide Hospital in Dublin was the only hospital at the time not to accept money from the Hospitals Trust, as the governors disapproved of sweepstakes. From the 1960s onwards, revenues declined; the offices were moved to Lotamore House in Cork. Although giving the appearance of a public charitable lottery, with nurses featured prominently in the advertising and drawings, the Sweepstake was in fact a private for-profit lottery company, the owners were paid substantial dividends from the profits.

Fortune Magazine described it as "a private company run for profit and its handful of stockholders have used their earnings from the sweepstakes to build a group of industrial enterprises that loom quite large in the modest Irish economy. Waterford Glass, Irish Glass Bottle Company and many other new Irish companies were financed by money from this enterprise and up to 5,000 people were given jobs." By his death in 1966, Joe McGrath had interests in the racing industry, held the Renault dealership for Ireland besides large financial and property assets. He was known throughout Ireland for his tough business attitude but by his generous spirit. At that time, Ireland was still one of the poorer countries in Europe, his home, Cabinteely House, was donated to the state in 1986. The house and the surrounding park are now in the ownership of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council who have invested in restoring and maintaining the house and grounds as a public park. In 1986, the Irish government created a new public lottery, the company failed to secure the new contract to manage it.

The final sweepstake was held in January 1986 and the company was unsuccessful for a licence bid for the Irish National Lottery, won by An Post that year. The company went into voluntary liquidation in March 1987; the majority of workers did not have a pension scheme but the sweepstake had fed many families during lean times and was regarded as a safe job. The Public Hospitals Act, 1990 was enacted for the orderly winding up of the scheme, which had by almost £500,000 in unclaimed prizes and accrued interest. A collection of advertising material relating to the Irish Hospitals' Sweepstakes is among the Special Collections of National Irish Visual Arts Library. At the time of the Sweepstake's inception, lotteries were illegal in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. In the absence of other available lotteries, the Irish Sweeps became popular. Though tickets were illegal outside Ireland, millions were sold in the US and Great Britain. How many of these tickets failed to make it back for the drawing is unknown.

The United States Customs Service alone confiscated and destroyed several million counterfoils from shipments being returned to Ireland. In the UK, the sweepstakes caused some strain in Anglo-Irish relations, the Betting and Lotteries Act 1934 was passed by the parliament of the UK to prevent export and import of lottery related materials; the United States Congress had outlawed the use of the US Postal Service for lottery purposes in 1890. A thriving black market sprang up for tickets in both jurisdictions. From the 1950s onwards, as the American and Canadian governments relaxed their attitudes towards this form of gambling, went into the lottery business themselves, the Irish Sweeps, never legal in the United States, declined in popularity; the film The Winning Ticket is about a winning sweepstakes ticket that a baby hides and the drama of trying to find it. In Agatha Christie's novel, Death in the Clouds, one of the characters, Jane Grey, a hairdresser, has won £100 in the Sweeps, so allowing her to be on the Paris–London flight on which the novel's action begins.

Discussing her win with another passenger, they "agreed together on the general romance and desirability of sweeps and deplored the attitude

Rod Coombes

Rodney Coombes is an English singer-songwriter and musician. He was known from playing drums with the British band Strawbs from 1974 to 1977 and again from 2004 to 2010, he has played drums professionally since he was 17, when he joined singer Lulu's backing band The Luvvers. He played with the Jeff Beck Group at the time of the release of the single "Hi Ho Silver Lining" and joined soul band Trifle, with whom he stayed for about 18 months, he moved on to raunchy blues rock band Juicy Lucy before joining Stealers Wheel for their eponymous first album. In 1973, he left the dysfunctional band and joined Strawbs, with whom he stayed until after the release of the 1977 album Burning for You. After spending some time on the studio side learning to engineer and produce, he lived in Malaysia for a period, returning to obtain his master's degree, he rejoined Strawbs in 1998 for their 30th anniversary concert at Chiswick House and played on subsequent tours in the US, Canada, UK and Europe. Rod works with his jazz group'Ming Hat' and with Mark Horwood and bassist Matt Gray in the fusion group E.

V. A. Rod and Yardbirds guitarist Top Topham are working on a blues-jazz Hammond organ trio project. From 2005-2007 he mentored and taught Curt Lawrence, ex-Last Letter Read, who went on tour with MC Lars in England. Curt attributes his hard hitting style and double kick drum technique to Coombes' tuition. Coombes can play guitar and bass guitar, he played some bass for some guitar for Strawbs. Coombes composed three tracks for Strawbs: "Sad Young Man" "A Mind of my Own" "Changes Arranges Us", on which he sang lead vocals. First Meeting Lie Back and Enjoy It Get a Whiff of This Stealers Wheel Whistle Rymes Hero and Heroine Ghosts Nomadness Deep Cuts Burning for You Blue Angel Déjà Fou The Broken Hearted Bride Dancing to the Devil's Beat Jam-ming Gash Recordings 2002 Unless otherwise stated, the details are of the singles released in the UK. "Shout!" "Hi Ho Silver Lining" "All Together Now" / "Got My Thing" "Old Fashioned Prayer Meeting" / "Dirty Old Town" "Stuck in the Middle with You" "Shine on Silver Sun"/"And Wherefore" "Hero and Heroine"/"Why" "Hold on to Me"/"Where do You Go" "Round and Round"/"Heroine's Theme" "Grace Darling"/"Changes Arranges" "Angel Wine"/"Grace Darling" "Lemon Pie"/"Don't Try to Change Me" "Little Sleepy" "I Only Want My Love to Grow in You"/"Wasting My Time" "So Close and Yet So Far Away"/"The Soldier's Tale" "Charmer"/"Beside the Rio Grande" "Back in the Old Routine"/"Burning for You" "Keep on Trying"/"Simple Visions" "Heartbreaker" "Joey and Me"/"Deadly Nightshade" "New Beginnings"/"Words of Wisdom" "I Don't Want to Talk About It"/"The Last Resort" Strawbs website Rod Coombes at Strawbsweb