Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft such as boats, barges, used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States; because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed, many designs had a flat front with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. This made them difficult to control and uncomfortable in rough seas; the control point was at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title. In the days of sail, the ship's boats were used as landing craft; these rowing boats were sufficient, if inefficient, in an era when marines were light infantry, participating in small-scale campaigns in far-flung colonies against less well-equipped indigenous opponents.
In order to support amphibious operations during the landing in Pisagua by carrying significant quantities of cargo, landing troops directly onto an unimproved shore, the Government of Chile built flat-bottomed landing craft, called Chalanas. They transported 1,200 men in the first landing and took on board 600 men in less than 2 hours for the second landing. During World War I, the mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons rendered such boats obsolete. Initial landings during the Gallipoli campaign took place in unmodified rowing boats that were vulnerable to attack from the Turkish shore defenses. In February 1915, orders were placed for the design of purpose built landing craft. A design was created in four days resulting in an order for 200'X' Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow to take shelving beaches and a drop down frontal ramp; the first use took place after they had been towed to the Aegean and performed in the 6 August landing at Suvla Bay of IX Corps, commanded by Commander Edward Unwin.'X' Lighters, known to the soldiers as'Beetles', carried about 500 men, displaced 135 tons and were based on London barges being 105 feet 6 inches long, 21 feet wide, 7 ft 6 inches deep.
The engines ran on heavy oil and ran at a speed of 5 knots. The sides of the ships were bulletproof, was designed with a ramp on the bow for disembarkation. A plan was devised to land British heavy tanks from pontoons in support of the Third Battle of Ypres, but this was abandoned; the Imperial Russian Navy soon followed suit, building a series of similar landing motor barges of the so-called Bolinder-class, named after the supplier of the diesels installed in them. These, proved too small and unseaworthy for their intended Black sea theater — they were intended for the planned Marmara Sea landings. Instead, a new class was designed, based on the widespread pattern of the Black sea merchant steamers; these were very light at the bow, having all their machinery concentrated at the stern, which allowed easy beaching on any sloping coast, were equipped with a bow ramp for fast unloading. This resulted in a 1300-ton, 1500 hp Elpidifor-class, named after the Rostov-on-Don merchant Elpidifor Paramonov, whose eponymous grain carrier served as a pattern on which they were based.
With a 1.8 m loaded draft, equipped with the ballast tanks and reinforced hull for safe beaching, they were able to land 1000 troops with their train at any available beach. While the landings for which they were created never happened, the ships themselves turned out quite useful and had a long career, supporting the Caucasus Campaign and as minesweepers and utility transports. During the inter-war period, the combination of the negative experience at Gallipoli and economic stringency contributed to the delay in procuring equipment and adopting a universal doctrine for amphibious operations in the Royal Navy. Despite this outlook, the British produced the Motor Landing Craft in 1920, based on their experience with the early'Beetle' armoured transport; the craft could put a medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924, it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings. A prototype motor landing craft, designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was built and first sailed in 1926.
It had a box-like appearance, having a square bow and stern. To prevent fouling of the propellers in a craft destined to spend time in surf and be beached, a crude waterjet propulsion system was devised by White's designers. A Hotchkiss petrol engine drove a centrifugal pump which produced a jet of water, pushing the craft ahead or astern, steering it, according to how the jet was directed. Speed was 5-6 knots and its beaching capacity was good. By 1930, three MLC were operated by the Royal Navy; the United States revived and experimented in their approach to amphibious warfare between 1913 and mid-1930s, when the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps became interested in setting up advanced bases in opposing countries during wartime. In 1939, during the annual Fleet Landing Exercises, the FMF became interested in the military potential of Andrew Higgins's design of a powered, shallow-draught boat; these LCPL, dubbed the'Higgins Boats', were reviewed and passed by the U. S. Naval Bureau of Construction and Repair.
Soon, the Higgins boats were developed to a final design with a ramp - the LCVP, were pr
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Pointe du Hoc
La Pointe du Hoc is a promontory with a 100 ft cliff overlooking the English Channel on the north-western coast of Normandy in the Calvados department, France. During World War II it was the highest point between the American sector landings at Utah Beach to the west and Omaha Beach to the east; the German army fortified the area with concrete casemates and gun pits. On D-Day, the United States Army Ranger Assault Group attacked and captured Pointe du Hoc after scaling the cliffs. Pointe du Hoc lies 4 mi west of the center of Omaha Beach; as part of the Atlantic Wall fortifications, the prominent cliff top location was fortified by the Germans. The battery was built in 1943 to house six captured French First World War vintage GPF 155mm K418 guns positioned in open concrete gun pits; the battery was occupied by the 2nd Battery of Army Coastal Artillery Regiment 1260. To defend the promontory from attack, elements of the 352nd Infantry Division were stationed at the battery. To provide increased defensive capability, the Germans began to improve the defenses of the battery spring of 1944, with enclosed H671 concrete casemates.
The plan was to build six casemates but two were unfinished when the location was attacked. The casemates were built in front of the circular gun pits, which housed the 155 mm guns. Built was a H636 observation bunker and L409a mounts for 20mm Flak 30 anti-aircraft guns; the 155mm guns would have threatened the Allied landings on Omaha and Utah beaches when finished, risking heavy casualties to the landing forces. The location was bombed in April 1944. During the preparation for Operation Overlord it was determined that Pointe du Hoc should be attacked by ground forces, to prevent the Germans using the casemates for observation; the U. S. 2nd and 5th Ranger Battalions were given the task of assaulting the strong point early on D-Day. Elements of the 2nd Battalion went in to attack Pointe du Hoc but delays meant the remainder of the 2nd Battalion and the complete 5th Battalion landed at Omaha Beach as their secondary landing position. Though the Germans had removed the main armament from Pointe du Hoc, the beachheads were shelled by field artillery from the nearby Maisy battery, on the fire support plan of heavy cruiser HMS Hawkins.
The rediscovery of the battery at Maisy has shown that it was responsible for firing on the Allied beachheads until 9 June 1944. Pointe du Hoc lay within the General Leonard Gerow's V Corps field of operations; this went to the 1st Infantry Division and down to the right-hand assault formation, the 116th Infantry Regiment attached from 29th Division. In addition they were given two Ranger battalions to undertake the attack; the Ranger battalions were commanded by Lieutenant Colonel James Earl Rudder. The plan called for the three companies of Rangers to be landed by sea at the foot of the cliffs, scale them using ropes and grapples whilst under enemy fire, engage the enemy at the top of the cliff; this was to be carried out before the main landings. The Rangers trained for the cliff assault on the Isle of Wight, under the direction of British Commandos. Major Cleveland A. Lytle was to command Companies D, E and F of the 2nd Ranger Battalion in the assault at Pointe du Hoc. During a briefing aboard the Landing Ship Infantry TSS Ben My Chree he heard that Free French Forces sources reported the guns had not been removed.
Impelled to some degree by alcohol, Lytle became quite vocal that the assault would be unnecessary and suicidal and was relieved of his command at the last minute by Provisional Ranger Force commander Rudder. Rudder felt that Lytle could not convincingly lead a force with a mission that he did not believe in. Lytle was transferred to the 90th Infantry Division where he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross; the assault force was carried in ten landing craft, with another two carrying supplies and four DUKW amphibious trucks carrying the 100 ft ladders requisitioned from the London Fire Brigade. One landing craft carrying troops sank. One supply craft sank and the other put the stores overboard to stay afloat. German fire sank one of the DUKWs. Once within a mile of the shore, German mortars and machine guns fired on the craft; these initial setbacks resulted in a 40-minute delay in landing at the base of the cliffs, but British landing craft carrying the Rangers reached the base of the cliffs at 7:10am with half the force it started out with.
The landing craft were fitted with rocket launchers to fire ropes up the cliffs. As the Rangers scaled the cliffs the Allied ships USS Texas, USS Satterlee and HMS Talybont provided them with fire support and ensured that the German defenders above could not fire down on the assaulting troops; the cliffs proved to be higher. The original plans had called for an additional, larger Ranger force of eight companies to follow the first attack, if successful. Flares from the cliff tops were to signal this second wave to join the attack, but because of the delayed landing, the signal came too late, the other Rangers landed on Omaha instead of Pointe du Hoc; the added impetus these 500 plus Rangers provided on the stalled Omaha Beach landing has been conjectured to have averted a disastrous failure there, since they carried the assault beyond the beach, into the overlooking bluffs and outflanked the German defenses. The force at the top of the cliffs found that their radios were ineffective. Upon reaching the fortifications, most of th
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
United States invasion of Panama
The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, occurred between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990. The invasion was led by the administration of President George H. W. Bush, ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the U. S. to Panama by 1 January 2000. During the invasion, de facto Panamanian leader, military general and dictator Manuel Noriega was deposed, president-elect Guillermo Endara sworn into office, the Panamanian Defense Force dissolved. Timeline of main events:September 1987 U. S. Senate passes resolution urging Panama to re-establish a civilian government. Panama protests alleged U. S. violations of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties. November 1987 U. S. Senate resolution cuts economic aid to Panama. Panamanians adopt resolution restricting U. S. military presence. February 1988 Manuel Noriega indicted on drug-related charges. U. S. forces begin planning contingency operations in Panama. March 1988 15 March: First of four deployments of U.
S. forces begins providing additional security to U. S. installations. 16 March: PDF officers attempt a coup against Noriega. April 1988 5 April: Additional U. S. forces deployed to provide security. 9 April: Joint Task Force Panama activated. May 1989 7 May: Civilian elections are held in Panama; the election is declared invalid two days by Noriega. 11 May: President Bush orders 1,900 additional combat troops to Panama. 22 May: Convoys conducted to assert U. S. freedom of movement. Additional transport units travel from bases in the territorial U. S. to bases in Panama, back, for this express purpose. June–September 1989 U. S. begins conducting joint freedom of movement exercises. Additional transport units continue traveling from bases in the territorial U. S. to bases in Panama, back, for this express purpose. October 1989 3 October: PDF, loyal to Noriega, defeat second coup attempt. December 1989 15 December: Noriega refers to himself as leader of Panama and declares that the U. S. is in a state of war with Panama.
16 December: U. S. Marine lieutenant shot and killed by PDF. Navy lieutenant and wife detained and assaulted by PDF. 17 December: NCA directs execution of Operation Just Cause. 18 December: Army lieutenant shoots PDF sergeant. Joint Task Force South advance party deploys. JCS designates D-Day/H-Hour as 20 December/1:00 a.m. 19 December: U. S. forces alerted and launched. D-Day, 20 December 1989 U. S. invasion of Panama begins. The operation was conducted as a campaign with limited military objectives. JTFSO objectives in PLAN 90-2 were to: protect U. S. lives and key sites and facilities and deliver Noriega to competent authority, neutralize PDF forces, neutralize PDF command and control, support establishment of a U. S.-recognized government in Panama, restructure the PDF. Major operations detailed elsewhere continued through 24 December. JCS directs execution of Operation Promote Liberty.3 January 1990 Noriega surrenders to U. S. forces.31 January 1990 Operation. Operation Promote Liberty begins. September 1994 Operation Promote Liberty ends.
The United States had maintained numerous military bases and a substantial garrison throughout the Canal Zone to protect the American-owned Panama Canal and to maintain American control of this strategically important area. On September 7, 1977, U. S. President Jimmy Carter and the de facto leader of Panama, General Omar Torrijos, signed Torrijos–Carter Treaties, which set in motion the process of handing over the Panama Canal to Panamanian control by 2000. Although the canal was destined for Panamanian administration, the military bases remained and one condition of the transfer was that the canal would remain open for American shipping; the U. S. had long-standing relations with General Noriega, who served as a U. S. intelligence asset and paid informant of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1967, including the period when Bush was head of the CIA. Noriega had sided with the U. S. rather than the USSR in Central America, notably in sabotaging the forces of the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, the revolutionaries of the FMLN group in El Salvador.
Noriega received upwards of $100,000 per year from the 1960s until the 1980s, when his salary was increased to $200,000 per year. Although he worked with the Drug Enforcement Administration to restrict illegal drug shipments, he was known to accept significant financial support from drug dealers, because he facilitated the laundering of drug money, through Noriega, they received protection from DEA investigations due to his special relationship with the CIA. In the mid-1980s, relations between Noriega and the United States began to deteriorate. In 1986, U. S. President Ronald Reagan opened negotiations with General Noriega, requesting that the Panamanian leader step down after he was publicly exposed in The New York Times by Seymour Hersh, was implicated in the Iran-Contra Scandal. Reagan pressured him with several drug-related indictments in U. S. courts. S. were weak, Noriega did not submit to Reagan's demands. In 1988, Elliot Abrams and others in the Pentagon began pushing for a U. S. invasion, but Reagan refused, due to Bush's ties to Noriega through his previous positions in the CIA and the Task Force on Drugs, their negative impact on Bush's presidential campaign.
Negotiations involved dropping th
United States invasion of Grenada
The United States invasion of Grenada began on 25 October 1983. The invasion, led by the United States, of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located 160 kilometres north of Venezuela, resulted in a U. S. victory within a matter of days. Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, it was triggered by the internal strife within the People's Revolutionary Government that resulted in the house arrest and the execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, the establishment of a preliminary government, the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman; the invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then. Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974; the Marxist-Leninist New Jewel Movement seized power in a coup in 1979 under Maurice Bishop, suspending the constitution and detaining a number of political prisoners.
Among Bishop's core principles were workers' rights, women's rights, the struggle against racism and Apartheid. Under Bishop's leadership, the National Women's Organization was formed which participated in policy decisions along with other social groups. Women were given equal pay and paid maternity leave, sex discrimination was made illegal. Organisations for education, health care, youth affairs were established. In 1983, an internal power struggle began over Bishop's moderate foreign policy approach, on 19 October, hard-line military junta elements captured and executed Bishop and his partner Jacqueline Creft, along with three cabinet ministers and two union leaders. Subsequently, following appeals by the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and the Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, the Reagan Administration in the U. S. decided to launch a military intervention. U. S. President Ronald Reagan's justification for the intervention was in part explained as "concerns over the 600 U. S. medical students on the island" and fears of a repeat of the Iran hostage crisis.
The U. S. invasion began six days after Bishop's death, on the morning of 25 October 1983, just two days and several hours after the bombing of the U. S. Marine barracks in Beirut; the invading force consisted of the U. S. Army's Rapid Deployment Force. S. Marines. S. Army Delta Force. S. Navy SEALs, ancillary forces totaling 7,600 U. S.troops, together with Jamaican forces, troops of the Regional Security System. USAF Pararescue and TACP personnel from the 21St Tass, Shaw AFB were attached to various other Special Operations Units during the Grenada conflict; the invasion force defeated Grenadian resistance after a low-altitude airborne assault by Rangers on Point Salines Airport at the south end of the island, a Marine helicopter and amphibious landing on the north end at Pearls Airport. The military government of Hudson Austin was deposed and replaced by a government appointed by Governor-General Paul Scoon; the invasion was criticized by many countries including Canada. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher disapproved of the mission and the lack of notice she received, but publicly supported the intervention.
The United Nations General Assembly, on 2 November 1983 with a vote of 108 to 9, condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law". Conversely, it enjoyed broad public support in the United States and over time, a positive evaluation from the Grenadian population, who appreciated the fact that there had been few civilian casualties, as well as the return to democratic elections in 1984; the U. S. awarded more than 5,000 medals to its soldiers for valor. The date of the invasion is now a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, which commemorates the freeing, after the invasion, of several political prisoners who were subsequently elected to office. A truth and reconciliation commission was launched in 2000 to re-examine some of the controversies of the era. For the U. S. the invasion highlighted issues with communication and coordination between the different branches of the United States military when operating together as a joint force, contributing to investigations and sweeping changes in the form of the Goldwater-Nichols Act and other reorganizations.
Sir Eric Gairy had led Grenada to independence from the United Kingdom in 1974. His term in office coincided with civil strife in Grenada; the political environment was charged and although Gairy—head of the Grenada United Labour Party—claimed victory in the general election of 1976, the opposition did not accept the result as legitimate. The civil strife took the form of street violence between Gairy's private army, the Mongoose Gang, gangs organized by the New Jewel Movement. In the late 1970s the NJM began planning to overthrow the government. Party members began to receive military training outside of Grenada. On 13 March 1979, while Gairy was out of the country, the NJM—led by Maurice Bishop—launched an armed revolution and overthrew the government, establishing the People's Revolutionary Government; the Bishop government began constructing the Point Salines International Airport with the help of Britain, Libya and other nations. The airport had been first proposed by the British government in 1954, when Grenada was still a British colony.
It had been designed by Canadians, underwritten by the British government, built by a London firm. The U. S. government acc
Camp Forrest, located in Tullahoma, was one of the U. S. Army's largest training bases during World War II, it was an active army post between 1941 and 1946. The camp, named after Civil War cavalry Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, was named Camp Peay. Camp Peay was named after the Tennessee Governor Austin Peay and built in Tullahoma as a National Guard Camp in 1926. Camp Peay covered 1,040 acres. Camp Forrest covered 85,000 acres located just beyond the old Camp Peay; the camp was a training area for infantry, engineer, signal organizations, cooks. It served as a hospital center and temporary encampment area for troops during maneuvers. Major General George Patton brought his 2nd Armored Division from Fort Benning, Georgia for maneuvers. William Northern Field, an air training base, was an addition used as a training site for crews of four-engined B-24 bombers of the Army Air Forces. Incoming troops had amenities typical of military installations of the era; the camp was home to Red Cross and Army Emergency Relief facilities.
Recreation facilities included swimming, tennis, a sports arena and a nine-hole golf course. Camp Forrest became a prisoner of war camp on May 12, 1942; the camp housed German POWs. Prisoners became laborers on farms in the local community; the camp held Japanese and Italian American civilians who were arrested at the outbreak of the war under a program called "Alien Enemy Control." Many of these internees were incarcerated without legal process. Official government documents made available in the late 1990s indicate that over 25,000 "alien enemies" were held at various locations throughout the United States. Camp Forrest's population was over 700, of whom 200 were of Japanese ancestry. German internees at Camp Forrest published. In 1943, Camp Forrest internees were transferred to other internment camps to make room for actual POWs captured on the field of battle. In 1945 the U. S. government implemented an Intellectual Diversion Program to educate Germans on the American way of life. This program used educational and recreational media to change views of POWs, the government claimed success with many prisoners.
Tullahoma was affected by the installation of Camp Forrest. Because of maneuvers and operations, civilians had to adjust to blocked roads, traffic jams, crowded stores, the absence of mail delivery and driving at night without lights. Soldiers camped out on fields. In 1940 the population in Tullahoma was 4,500. By the end of the war, the population had grown to 75,000. Many military people who moved in for construction and operation of the camp remained after the war. In 1946 the war was over and Camp Forrest and Northern Field were declared surplus property. Buildings were torn down and carted away. Water and sewage systems and electrical systems were sold as salvage. All that remained were brick chimneys and concrete foundations; the camp's Sports Arena was bought by Lincoln Memorial University and moved to Harrogate, where it was rechristened as the Mary E. Mars Gymnasium; the building is still in use today by the school's volleyball teams and their academy's athletic teams and classes. Soon after the close of the camp, the area was selected for the site of the Air Force's new Air Engineering Development Center.
In 1951 the center was dedicated by President Truman and renamed the Arnold Engineering Development Center in honor of General of the Air Force Henry H. "Hap" Arnold. General Arnold was World War II Commander of the Army Air Corps and the only air force officer to hold 5-star rank. Arnold Engineering Development Complex Camp Forrest. Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, TN This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Camp Forrest. Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, TN". Http://www.campforrest.com/