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31st Marine Expeditionary Unit

The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force with a strength of about 2,200 Marines and sailors; the 31st MEU consists of a company-sized command element, a battalion landing team, a medium tiltrotor squadron, a combat logistics battalion. The 31st MEU is based at Camp Hansen, Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Japan; the 31st MEU is the only permanently forward-deployed MEU, provides a flexible and lethal force ready to perform a wide range of military operations as the premier crisis response force in the Indo-Pacific region. The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit will address the needs of the Geographic Combatant Commander, always Ready to Fight and Win. Mission success is defined by the 31st MEU's direct contribution to regional stability through the support and defense of our allies and partners, our nation. Ground Combat Element: Battalion Landing Team 1st Battalion, 5th Marines Aviation Combat Element: VMM-265 Logistics Combat Element: Combat Logistics Battalion 31 The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit was activated on 1 March 1967 as Special Landing Force Alpha, for operations in Vietnam.

It made the first of many amphibious deployments from Okinawa to the coast of Vietnam on 10 April 1967. The first operation conducted was on 14 April 1967, when the MEU conducted a rescue of the crew of the SS Silver Peak, a Panamanian vessel run aground by Typhoon Violet, in vicinity of Minami Ko Shima Island, Japan. Days it was committed to Operation Union, a search and destroy mission in Vietnam, it was during this period of intense combat that Special Landing Force Alpha earned the Presidential Unit Citation. The unit participated in continuing combat operations ashore over the next three years, including the Vietnam Tet counteroffensive in 1969, while returning to Okinawa periodically for re-outfitting and the rotation of forces. Special Landing Force Alpha was designated as the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit on 24 November 1970. Once more the unit returned to the Gulf of Tonkin; this time, the 31st MAU would not be committed to overt land operations as the Vietnam War was winding down. The 31st MAU performed presence missions and conducted a series of special operations through May 1971.

From June 1971 until April 1975, the 31st MAU conducted many deployments to the waters off Vietnam. The 31st MAU was directed to the Gulf of Thailand for Operation Eagle Pull, the American Embassy evacuation by air of Phnom Penh, which took place on 12 April 1975; this was followed by the 31st MAU's participation in Operation Frequent Wind on 29 April 1975, the final evacuation of Saigon as North Vietnamese forces entered the city. The 31st MEU at this time was established as the only permanently forward-deployed U. S. presence in the Western Pacific, Southern Pacific, Indian Ocean with Special Operations capabilities to include a port call at Mombasa Kenya. Other stops could include Diego Garcia, Olongapo, or Busan. In February 1980 the LPH-3 USS Okinawa task force with Marine Cobra and Harrier attack aircraft from California, made port at Pearl Harbor to take aboard the final elements of the MEU which consisted of 3rd Battalion/ 3rd Marines, Helicopter assets of MAG24, Force Recon, MSSG-31 in support, all out of Kaneohe Bay's 1st Marine Brigade.

On 24 April this group in support of 3/3 Marines rendezvoused with USS Nimitz off the coast of Iran as reserve in the ill-fated Operation Eagle Claw. Okinawa carried Sea Stallions. All members of the 31st received respective expeditionary medals. USS FF Barbey and guided missile cruiser Gridley served. Combat operations were replaced by regional exercises, which allowed training opportunities in a variety of countries. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the 31st MEU engaged in humanitarian operations, for example the floods in Bangladesh. In 1983, the 31st MEU was recalled from a combined exercise with local forces in Kenya, positioned in the Mediterranean Sea, its mission from September to October 1983 was to support the Multinational U. S. peacekeeping forces in Beirut during an intense period of complex political and life-threatening conditions in Lebanon. They took over the command operations, it was the 31st MEU's last military operation of that period and the unit was deactivated in May 1985 on ship off the shore of San Diego.

During this time the 31st MEU was based at Subic Bay Naval Station. The unit was reactivated as the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit on 9 September 1992. In 1994, the unit was relocated to its current home station in Okinawa, Japan; the flexibility of the MEU was demonstrated with the Iraq crisis in late 1998 regarding the regime not complying with the U. N. weapons inspections process. All four ARG ships had just completed Exercise Foal Eagle off the coast of Korea, were heading to various port visits for liberty, when each ship received the call in early Nov 1998 to sail to Okinawa to onload the 31st MEU. A significant portion of the 31st MEU's 2000 Marines were engaged in urban warfare training in Guam when their message to return to Okinawa came in November; the rest were still in Okinawa, but a quarter of those were a new infantry battalion, just rotating in from C

Grade I listed buildings in Pembrokeshire

This is a list of Grade I-listed buildings in the county of Pembrokeshire, Wales. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance. Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In Wales, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with Cadw. Grade II* listed buildings in Pembrokeshire Listed buildings in Wales Media related to Grade I listed buildings in Pembrokeshire at Wikimedia Commons

Black Tiger Spring

The Black Tiger Spring is a culturally significant artesian karst spring located in the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, China. The spring is ranked as the second most significant among the 72 named springs in Jinan; the water of spring stems from moderately-deep circulation and emerges from a water-filled limestone cave in a steep cliff. From the mouth of the cave, the water is funneled to flow out of the mouths of three ornamental stone-carved tiger heads into a square-shaped spring pool. From there it runs into the old city moat, next to. According to the tradition, there was a black rock lying in front of the cave in ancient time; the name of the spring is said to be derived from the shape and color of the rock, which resembled a black tiger, the sound of the water gushing past the rock being reminiscent of the roar of a tiger. The ancient layout of the spring is described in a poem by Yan Bizeng; the Black Tiger Spring is located on the south bank of the old city moat, close to the southeastern corner of the moat.

A bit to the east, on the opposite site of the moat stands the Liberation Pavilion that commemorates the arrival of the victorious People's Liberation Army in Jinan. List of sites in Jinan