Experimental film, experimental cinema or avant-garde cinema is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working. Many experimental films early ones, relate to arts in other disciplines: painting, dance and poetry, or arise from research and development of new technical resources. While some experimental films have been distributed through mainstream channels or made within commercial studios, the vast majority have been produced on low budgets with a minimal crew or a single person and are either self-financed or supported through small grants. Experimental filmmakers begin as amateurs, some used experimental films as a springboard into commercial film making or transitioned into academic positions; the aim of experimental filmmaking is to render the personal vision of an artist, or to promote interest in new technology rather than to entertain or to generate revenue, as is the case with commercial films.
The term describes a range of filmmaking styles that are quite different from, opposed to, the practices of mainstream commercial and documentary filmmaking. Avant-garde is used, for the films shot in the twenties in the field of history's avant-gardes currents in France, Germany or Russia, to describe this work, "underground" was used in the sixties, though it has had other connotations. Today the term "experimental cinema" prevails, because it's possible to make experimental films without the presence of any avant-garde movement in the cultural field. While "experimental" covers a wide range of practice, an experimental film is characterized by the absence of linear narrative, the use of various abstracting techniques—out-of-focus, painting or scratching on film, rapid editing—the use of asynchronous sound or the absence of any sound track; the goal is to place the viewer in a more active and more thoughtful relationship to the film. At least through the 1960s, to some extent after, many experimental films took an oppositional stance toward mainstream culture.
Most such films are made on low budgets, self-financed or financed through small grants, with a minimal crew or a crew of only one person, the filmmaker. Some critics have argued that much experimental film is no longer in fact "experimental" but has in fact become a mainstream film genre. Many of its more typical features—such as a non-narrative, impressionistic, or poetic approaches to the film's construction—define what is understood to be "experimental". Two conditions made Europe in the 1920s ready for the emergence of experimental film. First, the cinema matured as a medium, highbrow resistance to the mass entertainment began to wane. Second, avant-garde movements in the visual arts flourished; the Dadaists and Surrealists in particular took to cinema. René Clair's Entr'acte featuring Francis Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, with music by Erik Satie, took madcap comedy into nonsequitur. Artists Hans Richter, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Germaine Dulac, Viking Eggeling all contributed Dadaist/Surrealist shorts.
Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy, Man Ray created the film Ballet Mécanique, sometimes described as Dadaist, Cubist, or Futurist. Duchamp created the abstract film Anémic Cinéma. Alberto Cavalcanti directed Rien que les heures, Walter Ruttmann directed Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis, Dziga Vertov filmed Man With a Movie Camera, experimental "city symphonies" of Paris and Kiev, respectively; the most famous experimental film is considered to be Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí's Un chien andalou. Hans Richter's animated shorts, Oskar Fischinger's abstract films, Len Lye's GPO films would be excellent examples of more abstract European avant-garde films. Working in France, another group of filmmakers financed films through patronage and distributed them through cine-clubs, yet they were narrative films not tied to an avant-garde school. Film scholar David Bordwell has dubbed these French Impressionists, included Abel Gance, Jean Epstein, Marcel L'Herbier, Dimitri Kirsanoff; these films combine narrative experimentation, rhythmic editing and camerawork, an emphasis on character subjectivity.
In 1952, the Lettrists avant-garde movement in France, caused riots at the Cannes Film Festival, when Isidore Isou's Traité de bave et d'éternité was screened. After their criticism of Charlie Chaplin at the 1952 press conference in Paris for Chaplin's Limelight, there was a split within the movement; the Ultra-Lettrists continued to cause disruptions when they announced the death of cinema and showed their new hypergraphical techniques. The Soviet filmmakers, found a counterpart to modernist painting and photography in their theories of montage; the films of Dziga Vertov, Sergei Eisenstein, Lev Kuleshov, Alexander Dovzhenko, Vsevolod Pudovkin were instrumental in providing an alternative model from that offered by classical Hollywood. While not experimental films per se, they contributed to the film language of the avant-garde; the U. S. had some avant-garde films before World War II, such as Manhatta by Charles Sheeler and Paul Strand, The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra by Slavko Vorkapich and Robert Florey.
However, much pre-war experimental film culture consisted of artists working in isolation, on film projects. Painter Emlen Etting directed dance films in the early 1930s. Commercial artist and
Popeye is a 1980 American musical comedy film directed by Robert Altman and based on E. C. Segar's character of the same name from the Thimble Theatre comic strip. Produced by Paramount Pictures and Walt Disney Productions, the film stars Robin Williams as Popeye the Sailor Man and Shelley Duvall as Olive Oyl. Paramount handled North American distribution, while Buena Vista International handled international distribution; the film premiered on December 6, 1980 in Los Angeles, California, to mixed reviews and disappointing box office results. Harry Nilsson's soundtrack received positive reviews. Popeye, a sailor, arrives at the small coastal town of Sweethaven while searching for his disappeared father, he is feared by the townsfolk because he is a stranger and is accosted by a greedy taxman. He rents a room at the Oyl family's boarding house where the Oyls' daughter, Olive, is preparing for her engagement party, her hand is promised to Captain Bluto, a powerful, perpetually angry bully who runs the town in the name of the mysterious Commodore.
In the morning, Popeye visits the local diner for breakfast and demonstrates his strength as he brawls with a gang of provocative ruffians who give him and the other customers a hard time. On the night of the engagement party and the townsfolk arrive at the Oyls' home. Olive sneaks out of the house, after discovering that the only attribute she can report for her bullying fiancé is size, she encounters Popeye. The two come across an abandoned baby in a basket. Popeye adopts the child, naming him Swee'Pea after the town Sweethaven, the two return to the Oyls' home. Bluto has grown furious with Olive's absence, he realizes. He flies into a rage and destroys the house; when he sees Popeye and Olive with Swee'Pea, Bluto beats Popeye into submission and declares heavy taxation for the Oyls. The taxman repossesses the remains of their possessions; the Oyls' son, decides to compete against the local heavyweight boxer, Oxblood Oxheart, in the hopes of winning a hefty prize for his family. Castor knocked out of the ring by Oxheart.
Popeye takes the ring in Castor's place and defeats Oxheart earning the townsfolk's respect. Back at home and Olive sing Swee'Pea to sleep; the next day, Olive tells Popeye that during his match with Oxheart, she discovered that Swee'Pea can predict the future by whistling when he hears the correct answer to a question. Wimpy, the local con artist and petty gambler and asks to take Swee'Pea out for a walk, though he takes him to the "horse races" and wins two games. Popeye is outraged, vents his frustrations on the racing parlor's customers. Fearing further exploitation of his child, Popeye moves out onto the docks. In the chaos, intimidated by Bluto, kidnaps Swee'Pea for him; that night, Olive remarks to herself about her budding relationship with Popeye, while Popeye writes a message in a bottle for Swee'Pea. Wimpy sees Bluto taking Swee'Pea into the Commodore's ship. Inside, Bluto presents the boy to the Commodore; when the Commodore reminds Bluto that his buried treasure is all the fortune he needs, Bluto ties him up and takes Swee'Pea himself.
Popeye meets the Commodore, realizing that he is his father, Poopdeck Pappy. Pappy denies that Popeye is his son. Popeye refuses to eat it. Bluto sets sail to find Pappy's treasure. Popeye, Pappy and the Oyl family board Pappy's ship to give pursuit. Bluto sails to Scab Island, a desolate island in the middle of the ocean, while Pappy argues with his son and rants about children. Popeye catches Bluto and fights him. During the duel, Pappy recovers his treasure and opens the chest to reveal a collection of personal sentimental items from Popeye's infancy, including a few cans of spinach. A gigantic octopus attacks Olive from underwater. With Popeye in a choke hold, Pappy throws him a can of spinach; the spinach boosts his strength. Bluto turns yellow and swims away as Popeye celebrates his victory and his new-found appreciation of spinach. According to James Robert Parish, in his book Fiasco: A History of Hollywood's Iconic Flops, the idea for the Popeye musical had its basis in the bidding war for the film adaptation of the Broadway musical Annie between the two major studios vying for the rights and Paramount.
When Robert Evans found out that Paramount had lost the bidding for Annie, he held an executive meeting in which he asked about comic strip characters that they had the rights to which could be used in order to create a movie musical, one attendee said "Popeye". At that time though King Features Syndicate retained the television rights to Popeye and related characters, with Hanna-Barbera producing the series The All-New Popeye Hour under license from King Features, Paramount still held all theatrical rights to the Popeye character, due to the studio releasing cartoons produced by Fleisc
A health club is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise. Most health clubs have a main workout area, which consists of free weights including dumbbells and barbells and the stands and benches used with these items and exercise machines, which use gears and other mechanisms to guide the user's exercise; this area includes mirrors so that exercisers can monitor and maintain correct posture during their workout. A gym that predominantly or consists of free weights, as opposed to exercise machines, is sometimes referred to as a black-iron gym, after the traditional color of weight plates. A cardio theater or cardio area includes many types of cardiovascular training-related equipment such as rowing machines, stationary exercise bikes, elliptical trainers and treadmills; these areas include a number of audio-visual displays TVs in order to keep exercisers entertained during long cardio workout sessions. Some gyms provide newspapers and magazines for users of the cardio theatre to read while working out.
Most 2010-era health clubs offer group exercise classes that are conducted by certified fitness instructors or trainers. Many types of group exercise classes exist, but these include classes based on aerobics, boxing or martial arts, high intensity training, step yoga, regular yoga and hot yoga, muscle training and self-defense classes such as Krav Maga and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Health clubs with swimming pools offer aqua aerobics classes; the instructors must gain certification in order to teach these classes and ensure participant safety. Some health clubs offer sports facilities such as a swimming pools, squash courts, indoor running tracks, ice rinks, or boxing areas. In some cases, additional fees are charged for the use of these facilities. Most health clubs employ personal trainers who are accessible to members for training/fitness/nutrition/health advice and consultation. Personal trainers can devise a customized fitness routine, sometimes including a nutrition plan, to help clients achieve their goals.
They can monitor and train with members. More than not, access to personal trainers involves an additional hourly fee. Newer health clubs include health-shops selling equipment, snack bars, child-care facilities, member lounges and cafes; some clubs have a sauna, steam room, or swimming pool or alternative medicine wellness facilities or offices to be present. Health clubs charge a fee to allow visitors to use the equipment and other provided services. In the 2010s, some clubs have is eco-friendly health clubs which incorporate principles of "green living" in its fitness regimen, into the design of the centre or both. Health clubs offer many services and as a result, the monthly membership prices can vary greatly. A recent study of American clubs found that the monthly cost of membership ranged from US$15 per month at basic chain clubs that offer limited amenities to over US$200 per month at spa-oriented clubs that cater to families and to those seeking social activities in addition to a workout.
In addition, some clubs - such as many local YMCAs - offer per-use punchcards or one-time fees for those seeking to use the club on an as-needed basis. These one-time fees are referred to as day passes. Costs can vary through the purchase of a higher-level membership, such as a Founders or a Life membership; such memberships have a high up-front cost but a lower monthly rate, making them beneficial to those who use the club and hold their memberships for years. Health clubs in North America offer a number of facilities and services with different price points for different levels of services; some services have differently-priced levels or tiers, such as regular, pro and gold facilities or packages. Some of the health and fitness facilities use cardio equipment, fitness screening, resistance-building equipment, pro shops, artificial sun-beds, health spas and saunas; the membership plans vary from as low as $20 per month, for value-priced gyms to as high as $700 per month. These health clubs in the United States, are equipped with a range of facilities and provide personal trainer support.
An early public gymnasium started in Paris in 1847. However, the history of health clubs for the general public can be traced back to Santa Monica, California in 1947. Jack Lalanne created the first American fitness club 1936 in California. Country club Outdoor fitness Spa Sports centre Carroll, L. "Choosing a health club", MSNBC Health, December 19, 2003. Accessed February 23, 2008. Media related to Health clubs at Wikimedia Commons
Shelley Alexis Duvall is an American former actress, producer and singer. Over the duration of her career, Duvall garnered critical acclaim for her portrayals of various eccentric characters. Duvall began her career appearing in various Robert Altman films in the 1970s, including Brewster McCloud, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Thieves Like Us, 3 Women, which won her the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress and a BAFTA nomination for Best Actress, she had a supporting role in Annie Hall before starring in lead roles in The Shining. Duvall appeared in Time Bandits, Frankenweenie and The Portrait of a Lady, she is an Emmy-nominated producer responsible for Shelley Duvall's Faerie Tale Theatre, which she narrated and starred in, other child-friendly anthology series. Duvall's most recent performance was in Manna from Heaven. Shelley Alexis Duvall was born on July 7, 1949, in Houston, the daughter of Bobbie Ruth Crawford, a real estate broker and Robert Richardson "Bobby" Duvall, a lawyer. Duvall has three brothers: Scott and Stewart.
Duvall was an artistic young girl with lots of energy earning the nickname "Manic Mouse" from her mother. After graduating from high school in 1967, Duvall sold cosmetics at Foley's and attended South Texas Junior College, where she majored in nutrition and diet therapy, she met Robert Altman. He offered Duvall a part in the film, she said: Duvall had never left Texas before Altman offered her a film role. She flew to Hollywood and landed the role of a free-spirited love interest to Bud Cort's reclusive Brewster in Brewster McCloud. Altman chose Duvall for roles as an unsatisfied mail-order bride in McCabe & Mrs. Miller, the daughter of a convict and mistress to Keith Carradine's character in Thieves Like Us, a spaced-out groupie in Nashville, a sympathetic Wild West woman in Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson; the same year, Duvall left Altman to star as Bernice, a wealthy girl from Wisconsin in PBS’s adaptation of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s short story Bernice Bobs Her Hair.
She hosted an evening of Saturday Night Live and appeared in 5 sketches: "Programming Change," "Video Vixens," "Night of the Moonies," "Van Arguments" and "Goodnights."In 1977, Duvall starred as Mildred "Millie" Lammoreaux in Altman's 3 Women. Duvall's performance garnered the award for Best Actress at the 1977 Cannes Film Festival and the LAFCA Award for Best Actress, as well as a BAFTA nomination, she appeared in a minor role in Woody Allen's Annie Hall. Duvall's next role was Wendy Torrance in The Shining directed by Stanley Kubrick. Jack Nicholson states in the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures that Kubrick was great to work with but that he was "a different director" with Duvall; because of Kubrick's methodical nature, principal photography took a year to complete. Kubrick and Duvall argued although Duvall said she learned more from working with Kubrick on The Shining than she did on all her earlier films. In order to give The Shining the psychological horror it needed, director Stanley Kubrick antagonized his actors.
The film's script was changed so that Nicholson stopped reading each draft. Kubrick intentionally argued with her often. Duvall was forced to perform the exhausting baseball bat scene 127 times. Afterwards, Duvall presented Kubrick with clumps of hair that had fallen out due to the extreme stress of filming. While Duvall was in London shooting The Shining, Altman asked her to play Olive Oyl in his big-screen adaptation of Popeye opposite Robin Williams, a role Roger Ebert believes she was born to play: Her role of Pansy in Terry Gilliam's Time Bandits followed. In 1982, Duvall narrated and was executive producer of the children's television program Faerie Tale Theatre, she starred in seven episodes of the series. Since the program's first episode "The Frog Prince", which starred Robin Williams and Teri Garr, Duvall produced 27 hour-long episodes of the program. In 1985, she created Tall Tales & Legends, another one-hour anthology series for Showtime, which featured adaptations of American folk tales.
As with Faerie Tale Theatre, the series starred well-known Hollywood actors with Duvall as host, executive producer, occasional guest star. The series garnered Duvall an Emmy nomination. While Duvall was producing Fairy Tale Theatre, it was reported that she was to star as the lead in the film adaptation of Tom Robbins’s Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, which starred Mick Jagger, Jerry Hall, her sister Cindy Hall and Sissy Spacek; the project was delayed and when it released in 1993 it starred an different cast. She landed roles in films and television series: the mother of a boy whose dog is struck by car in Tim Burton's short film Frankenweenie, a lonely and timid woman who receives a message from a flying saucer in The Twilight Zone episode "The Once and Future King/A Saucer of Loneliness", the friend of Steve Martin's character in the comedy Roxanne. In 1988, Duvall founded a new production company called Think Entertainment to develop programs and television movies for cable channels, she created Nightmare Classics, a third Showtime anthology series that featured adaptations of well-known horror stories by authors incl
Images is a 1972 British-American psychological horror film written and directed by Robert Altman and starring Susannah York and René Auberjonois. The picture follows an unstable children's author who finds herself engulfed in apparitions and hallucinations while staying at her remote vacation home. Conceived by Altman in the mid-1960s, Images secured financing in 1971 by Hemdale Film Group Ltd. and shot on location in County Wicklow, Ireland in the fall of that year. The script, sparsely composed by Altman, was collaboratively developed further throughout the shoot with the actors. Images premiered at the 25th Cannes Film Festival, where York won the award for Best Actress, after which it was released theatrically in the United States by Columbia Pictures on December 18, 1972, its theatrical run in the United States was short-lived, the film received little promotion from Hemdale in the United Kingdom. Critical reception of the film was mixed, with some critics praising York's performance and Vilmos Zsigmond's cinematography, while others faulted it for being incoherent, comparing it to films like Repulsion.
The film was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best English-Language Foreign Film, John Williams was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Score. Wealthy children's author Cathryn receives a series of disturbing phone calls in her home in London one dreary night. Hugh comes home; as Hugh attempts to comfort her, Cathryn witnesses a different man, behaving as if he were her husband. She backs away, only to see her vision of the figure revert to her husband. Hugh attributes her outburst to her pregnancy, he decides to take her on a vacation to an isolated cottage in the Irish countryside, where Cathryn can work on her book and take photographs for its illustrations. Upon her arrival, Cathryn hears voices saying her name and sees strange apparitions: While preparing lunch one day, she sees her husband Hugh pass through the kitchen transform into her dead lover, Rene. Rene continues to appear to her around the house, speaks with her. Cathryn's paranoia and visions become pervasive, are exacerbated when a local neighbor and ex-lover, brings his adolescent daughter, Susannah, to visit.
Cathryn becomes unable to distinguish Hugh from Marcel, as the men shift before her eyes. One day, Rene taunts Cathryn, asking her to kill him if she wants rid of him, hands her a shotgun, she shoots him through the abdomen. Cathryn claims. Seeking solace, Cathryn goes to a nearby waterfall, where she sees her doppelgänger staring back at her. After one such occurrence, she returns to the house, where Hugh tells her he has to leave for business, she drives him to returns to the house, where she finds Marcel waiting inside. He begins to undress to have sex with her; the next morning, she encounters a local elderly man walking his dog, invites him to come inside for coffee, in spite of the fact that Marcel's corpse lies in the living room. In the evening, Susannah stops by the house, remarks that her father was not at home when she awoke that morning. Cathryn is alarmed by this, as it could mean that she did kill Marcel, she is relieved to hear that Marcel did return drunk after midnight, invites Susannah in for a cup of tea since, Marcel cannot be dead on her living room floor.
Susannah asks Cathryn if she looked like her when she was young before ominously saying, "I'm going to be like you." After having tea, Cathryn drives Susannah back home. Marcel comes out of the house and attempts to talk to Cathryn. While on a stretch of road through a desolate field, Cathryn witnesses her doppelgänger again, attempting to wave her down. Back at the house, she finds both Marcel's corpses have reappeared in the living room. Cathryn leaves again, encounters her doppelgänger at a bend in the road; the doppelgänger begs Cathryn to let her into the car, the two begin to speak in unison. She hits the doppelgänger with the car, throwing her off a cliff and into a waterfall below. Cathryn drives back to her home in London. At her home, she goes to take a shower. While in the bathroom, the door opens, the doppelgänger walks inside. Cathryn screams in terror, "I killed you," to which the doppelgänger responds, "Not me." The final shot shows Hugh's corpse lying at the bottom of the falls. Susannah York as Cathryn Rene Auberjonois as Hugh Marcel Bozzuffi as Rene Hugh Millais as Marcel Cathryn Harrison as Susannah John Morley as the Old Man Images was an American-British coproduction.
According to a piece published by Variety in December 1969 while the film was in pre-production, Altman had intended to shoot the film in North America in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Director Altman, who had begun to write the project in the 1960s, had said that he wanted to make a film similar to the work of Joseph Losey, whose films he admired. According to Susannah York, the shoot was loose in form as well as collaborative
Persona (1966 film)
Persona is a 1966 Swedish psychological drama film and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. The story revolves around a young nurse named Alma and her patient, well-known stage actress Elisabet Vogler, who has stopped speaking, they move to a cottage, where Alma cares for Elisabet, confides in her and begins having trouble distinguishing herself from her patient. With elements of psychological horror, Persona has been the subject of considerable analysis and debate; the film, with its themes of duality and personal identity, has been interpreted as depicting the Jungian theory of persona and explores cinema, vampire mythology, motherhood and other subjects. The experimental style of its prologue and storytelling has been noted; the enigmatic film has been called the Mount Everest of cinematic analysis. Bergman wrote Persona with Ullmann and Andersson in mind for the lead roles and the idea of exploring their identities, shot the film in Stockholm and Fårö in 1965.
In production, the filmmakers experimented with effects, using smoke and a mirror to frame one scene and combining the lead characters' faces in post-production for one shot. Andersson defended a sexually explicit monologue in the screenplay, rewrote portions of it; when first released, Persona was edited because of its controversial subject matter. It received positive reviews, with Swedish media coining the word Personkult to describe its enthusiastic admirers, it won Best Film at the 4th Guldbagge Awards, was Sweden's entry for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The censored content was reinstated in English-language restorations in 2001. Many critics consider Persona one of the greatest films made, it was ranked the fifth-best in Sight & Sound's 1972 poll and 17th in 2012, it influenced many directors, including Robert Altman and David Lynch. A projector begins screening a series of images, including a crucifixion, a spider and the killing of a lamb, a boy wakes up in a hospital or morgue.
He sees a large screen with a blurry image of two women. One of the women may be a young nurse assigned by a doctor to care for Elisabet Vogler. Elisabet is a stage actress who has stopped speaking and moving, which the doctors have determined is the result of willpower rather than physical or mental illness. In the hospital, Elisabet is distressed by television images of a man's self-immolation during the Vietnam War. Alma reads her a letter from her husband that contains a photo of their son, the actress tears the photograph up; the doctor speculates that Elisabet may recover better in a cottage by the sea, sends her there with Alma. At the cottage, Alma tells Elisabet that no one has really listened to her before, she talks about her fiancé, Karl-Henrik, her first affair. One night Alma tells a story of how, while she was in a relationship with Karl-Henrik, she sunbathed in the nude with Katarina, a woman she had just met. Two young boys appeared, Katarina initiated an orgy. Alma had an abortion and continues to feel guilty.
Alma drives to town to mail their letters, notices that Elisabet's is not sealed. She reads it; the letter says that Elisabet mentions the nurse's orgy and abortion. Furious, Alma accuses Elisabet of using her for some purpose. In the resulting fight, she threatens to scald Elisabet with boiling water and stops when Elisabet begs her not to; this is the first time Alma is certain the actress has spoken since they met, though she thought Elisabet whispered to her when Alma was half-asleep. Alma tells her. Elisabet looks at the Stroop Report photograph of Jews arrested in the Warsaw Ghetto. One night, Alma hears a man outside calling for Elisabet, he calls Alma "Elisabet" and, though the nurse tells him he is mistaken, they have sex. Alma meets with Elisabet to talk about. Alma tells much of Elisabet's story: that she wanted the only thing she did not have and became pregnant. Regretting her decision, Elisabet attempted a failed self-induced abortion and gave birth to a boy whom she despises, but her son craves her love.
Alma ends the story in distress, denying that she is Elisabet. She coaxes Elisabet to say the word "nothing", leaves the cottage as a crew films her. According to Bergman, the story had its roots in a chance encounter with past collaborator Bibi Andersson in a Stockholm street. Andersson, with Liv Ullmann, introduced Ullmann to him. Ullmann placed the meeting in 1964, said that Bergman recognized her and asked her on the spot if she would like to work with him, he said. This inspired the beginning of his story, a vision of two women "wearing big hats and laying their hands alongside each other". Andersson said, "Liv and I had worked together before and we were close". Bergman was attracted to Ullmann. Involved". Bergman wrote Persona in nine weeks while recovering from pneumonia, much of his work was done in the Sophiahemmet hospital. With this project, he abandoned his practice of writing finished and comprehensive screenplays before photog
Improvisation is the activity of making or doing something not planned beforehand, using whatever can be found.. Improvisation, in the performing arts is a spontaneous performance without specific or scripted preparation; the skills of improvisation can apply to many different faculties, across all artistic, physical, cognitive and non-academic disciplines. Improvisation exists outside the arts. Improvisation in engineering is to solve a problem with the tools and materials at hand. Improvised weapons are used by guerrillas and criminals. Improvisation in engineering is to solve a problem with the tools and materials at hand. Examples of such improvisation was the re-engineering of carbon dioxide scrubbers with the materials on hand during the Apollo 13 space mission, or the use of a knife in place of a screwdriver to turn a screw. Engineering improvisations may be needed because of emergencies, obsolescence of a product and the loss of manufacturer support, or just a lack of funding appropriate for a better solution.
Users of motor vehicles in parts of Africa develop improvised solutions where it is not feasible to obtain manufacturer-approved spare parts. The popular television program MacGyver used as its gimmick a hero who could solve any problem with jury rigged devices from everyday materials, a Swiss Army knife and some duct tape. Improvisation can be thought of as an "on the spot" or "off the cuff" spontaneous moment of sudden inventiveness that can just come to mind and spirit as an inspiration. Viola Spolin created theater games as a method of training improvisational acting, her son, Paul Sills popularized improvisational theater, or IMPROV, by using Spolin's techniques to train The Second City in Chicago, the first improvisational theater company in the US. However, for some gifted performers, no preparation or training is needed. Improvisation in any life or art form, can occur more if it is practiced as a way of encouraging creative behavior; that practice includes learning to use one's intuition, as well as learning a technical understanding of the necessary skills and concerns within the domain in which one is improvising.
This can be when an individual or group is acting, singing, playing musical instruments, creating artworks, problem solving, or reacting in the moment and in response to the stimulus of one's immediate environment and inner feelings. This can result in the invention of new thought patterns, new practices, new structures or symbols, and/or new ways to act. Improvisation was rarely used on dramatic television. A major exception was the situation comedy Mork & Mindy where star Robin Williams was allotted specific sections in each episode where he was allowed to perform freely; the skills of improvisation can apply to many different abilities or forms of communication and expression across all artistic, physical, cognitive and non-academic disciplines. For example, improvisation can make a significant contribution in music, cooking, presenting a speech, personal or romantic relationships, flower arranging, martial arts and much more. Techniques of improvisation are used in training for performing arts or entertainment.
To "extemporize" or "ad lib" is the same as improvising. Colloquial terms such as "let's play it by the ear", "take it as it comes", "make it up as we go along" are all used to describe "improvisation"; the simple act of speaking requires a good deal of improvisation because the mind is addressing its own thought and creating its unrehearsed delivery in words and gestures, forming unpredictable statements that feed back into the thought process, creating an enriched process, not unlike instantaneous composition. Where the improvisation is intended to solve a problem on a temporary basis, the "proper" solution being unavailable at the time, it may be known as a "stop-gap"; this applies to the field of engineering. Another improvisational, group problem-solving technique being used in organizations of all kinds is brainstorming, in which any and all ideas that a group member may have are permitted and encouraged to be expressed, regardless of actual practicality; as in all improvisation, the process of brainstorming opens up the minds of the people involved to new and useful ideas.
The colloquial term for this is "thinking outside the box." Musical improvisation is defined as the composition of music while singing or playing an instrument. In other words, the art of improvisation can be understood as composing music "on the fly". There have been previous experiments by Charles Limb, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that show the brain activity during musical improvisation. Limb was able to show an increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with an increase in self-expression. Further, there was decreased activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, an area associated with self-monitoring; this change in activity is thought to reduce the inhibitions that prevent individuals from taking risks and improvising. Improvisation can take place as a solo performance, or interdependently in ensemble with other players; when done well, it elicits gratifying emotional responses from the audience. One notable improvisational pianist is Franz Liszt.
The origins of Liszt's improvisation in an earlier tradition of playing variations on a theme were mastered and epitomized by Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven. Notable improvisati