SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

4-4-0

4-4-0 is a locomotive type with a classification that uses the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement and represents the arrangement: four leading wheels on two axles, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, a lack of trailing wheels. Due to the large number of the type that were produced and used in the United States, the 4-4-0 is most known as the American type, but the type subsequently became popular in the United Kingdom, where large numbers were produced; every major railroad that operated in North America in the first half of the 19th century owned and operated locomotives of this type. The first use of the name American to describe locomotives of this wheel arrangement was made by Railroad Gazette in April 1872. Prior to that, this wheel arrangement was known as a eight-wheeler; this locomotive type was so successful on railroads in the United States of America that many earlier 4-2-0 and 2-4-0 locomotives were rebuilt as 4-4-0s by the middle of the 19th century.

Several 4-4-0 tank locomotives were built, but the vast majority of locomotives of this wheel arrangement were tender engines. Five years after new locomotive construction had begun at the West Point Foundry in the United States with the 0-4-0 Best Friend of Charleston in 1831, the first 4-4-0 locomotive was designed by Henry R. Campbell, at the time the chief engineer for the Philadelphia and Norristown Railway. Campbell received a patent for the design in February 1836 and soon set to work building the first 4-4-0. At the time, Campbell's 4-4-0 was a giant among locomotives, its cylinders had a 14-inch bore with a 16-inch piston stroke, it boasted 54-inch diameter driving wheels, could maintain 90 pounds per square inch of steam pressure and weighed 12 short tons. Campbell's locomotive was estimated to be able to pull a train of 450 short tons at 15 miles per hour on level track, outperforming the strongest of Baldwin's 4-2-0s in tractive effort by about 63%. However, the frame and driving gear of his locomotive proved to be too rigid for the railroads of the time, which caused Campbell's prototype to be derailment-prone.

The most obvious cause was the lack of a weight equalizing system for the drivers. At about the same time as Campbell was building his 4-4-0, the company of Eastwick and Harrison was building its own version of the 4-4-0; this locomotive, named Hercules, was completed in 1837 for the Beaver Meadow Railroad. It was built with a leading bogie, separate from the locomotive frame, making it much more suitable for the tight curves and quick grade changes of early railroads; the Hercules suffered from poor tracking, corrected by giving it an effective springing system when returned to its builder for remodeling. Though the Hercules and its successors from Eastwick and Harrison proved the viability of the new wheel arrangement, the company remained the sole builders of this type of locomotive for another two years. Norris Locomotive Works built that company's first 4-4-0 in 1839, followed by Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the Locks and Canals Machine Shop and the Newcastle Manufacturing Company in 1840.

After Henry Campbell sued other manufacturers and railroads for infringing on his patent, Baldwin settled with him in 1845 by purchasing a license to build 4-4-0s. As the 1840s progressed, the design of the 4-4-0 changed little, but the dimensions of a typical example of this type increased; the boiler was lengthened, drivers grew in diameter and the firegrate was increased in area. Early 4-4-0s were short enough that it was most practical to connect the pistons to the rear drivers, but as the boiler was lengthened, the connecting rods were more connected to the front drivers. In the 1850s, locomotive manufacturers began extending the wheelbase of the leading bogie and the drivers as well as the tender bogies. By placing the axles farther apart, manufacturers were able to mount a wider boiler above the wheels that extended beyond the sides of the wheels; this gave newer locomotives increased heating and steaming capacity, which translated to higher tractive effort. It was in this decade that 4-4-0 locomotives had assumed the appearance for which they would be most recognized by railways and people around the world.

The design and subsequent improvements of the 4-4-0 configuration proved so successful that, by 1872, 60% of Baldwin's locomotive construction was of this type and it is estimated that 85% of all locomotives in operation in the United States were 4-4-0s. However, the 4-4-0 was soon supplanted by bigger designs, like the 2-6-0 and 2-8-0 though the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement was still favored for express services; the widespread adoption of the 4-6-0 and larger locomotives helped seal its fate as a product of the past. Although superseded in North American service by the early 20th century, Baldwin Locomotive Works produced two examples for the narrow gauge Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatán in early 1946 the last engines of this wheel arrangement intended for general use. A number of individual engines have been custom-built for Theme Parks in recent years, resembling early designs in appearance; the first British locomotives to use this wheel arrangement were the 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge 4-4-0 tank engine designs which appeared from 1849.

The first British tender locomotive class, although of limited success, was the broad gauge Waverley class of the Great Western Railway, designed by Daniel Gooch and built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1855. The first American-style British 4-4-0 tender locomotive on 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge, designed by William Bouch for the Stockton & Darlington Railway in 1860

Red Hair (film)

Red Hair is a 1928 silent film starring Clara Bow and Lane Chandler, directed by Clarence G. Badger, based on a novel by Elinor Glyn, released by Paramount Pictures; the film had one sequence filmed in Technicolor, is now considered a lost film except for the color sequence at the UCLA Film and Television Archive, a few production stills. A free-spirited young girl has three middle-aged admirers, each of whom sees her from a different perspective. Unknown to her, they happen to be the guardians of a wealthy young man to whom she is attracted. Clara Bow as Bubbles McCoy Lane Chandler as Robert Lennon William Austin as Dr. Eustace Gill Jacqueline Gadsden as Minnie Luther Lawrence Grant as Judge Rufus Lennon Claude King as Thomas L. Burke William Irving as Demmy List of lost films List of early color feature films Red Hair on IMDb Red Hair at SilentEra.com Red Hair at Virtual History

Batocnema africanus

Batocnema africanus is a moth of the family Sphingidae. It is known from open woodland and savanna from north-eastern South Africa to Zimbabwe and the Kenya coast; the length of the forewings is 30–33 mm for males and about 35 mm for females and the wingspan is 72–85 mm. The head and body are pale green and the tegulae and first abdominal tergite are dark green; the forewings are pale yellowish green mottled with darker green and yellow. There is a large dark green inner marginal spot at the base, a dark green wedge-shaped spot at the costa and a large quadrate dark green spot at the apex; the hindwings are yellow with a dark green spot at the tornus. It is similar to Batocnema coquerelii; the larvae feed on Sclerocarya caffra