The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sam Houston is a U. S. Army post in Texas. Known colloquially as "Fort Sam," it is named for the U. S. Senator from Texas, U. S. Representative from Tennessee and Texas Governor, first President of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston; the installation's missions include serving as the command headquarters for the United States Army North, United States Army South, the Army Medical Command headquarters, the Army Medical Department Center and School, the Fifth Recruiting Brigade, Navy Regional Recruiting, the San Antonio Military Entrance and Processing Station, the Medical Education and Training Campus. On October 1, 2010, Fort Sam Houston joined Lackland Air Force Base and Randolph Air Force Base to create Joint Base San Antonio, under Air Force administration. U. S. Department of Defense Elements Medical Education and Training Campus United States Military Entrance Processing Command Elements MEPS San AntonioU. S. Army Elements U. S. Army North Elements HQ, U. S. Army North U. S. Army Installation Management Command Elements HQ, U.
S. Army IMCOM IMCOM West Mission Training Complex U. S. Army Medical Command Elements HQ, U. S. Army MEDCOM U. S. Army Veterinary Command U. S. Army Dental Command Southern Regional Medical Command Brooke Army Medical Center Troop Command, Brooke Army Medical Center, HHC & companies A–D Warrior Transition Battalion, Brooke Army Medical Center U. S. Army Institute of Surgical Research U. S. Army Medical Department Center and School Health Readiness Center of Excellence Academy of Health Sciences 32nd Medical Brigade 187th Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–D 232rd Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–H 264th Medical Battalion, HHD & companies A–F Training Support Company U. S. Army Medical Department Student Detachment Non-Commissioned Officer Academy Defense Medical Readiness Training Institute US Army Medical Information and Technology Center U. S. Army South Elements HQ, U. S. Army South U. S. Army Forces Command Elements 5501st US Army Hospital 418th Medical Logistics Company 591st Medical Logistics Company 470th Blood Detachment 79th Ordnance Battalion U.
S. Army Recruiting Command Elements U. S. Army Fifth Recruiting Brigade 5th Brigade, U. S. Army Cadet Command Army Contracting Command Elements 410th Contracting Support Brigade Mission and Installation Contracting Command 412th Contracting Support Brigade U. S. Army Criminal Investigation Command 6th Region CID Ft. Sam Houston 25th Military Police Detachment U. S. Army Intelligence and Security Command Elements 470th Military Intelligence Brigade, HHC & companies A–B U. S. Army Network Enterprise & Technology Command 106th Signal Brigade U. S. Army Environmental CommandU. S. Air Force Elements HQ, 502nd Air Base Wing 502nd Mission Support Group Camp Bullis United States Army North is the senior command and responsible for all Army activities on Fort Sam Houston, but not for the post itself. Commanded by Lt. Gen. Jeffrey S. Buchanan, Army North's primary missions are land-based Homeland Defense, Defense Support of Civil Authorities and Theater Security Cooperation with the Bahamas and Mexico; because Fort Sam Houston is part of Joint Base San Antonio, the installation commander is the commander of the 502d Air Base Wing.
Fort Sam Houston is known as the "Home of Army Medicine" and "Home of the Combat Medic." At the end of World War II, the Army decided to make Fort Sam Houston the principal medical training facility. In conjunction with this decision came the determination to develop Brooke General Hospital into one of the Army's premier medical centers; this combined the capabilities of Wilford Hall Medical Center located at nearby Lackland Air Force Base to create the largest medical treatment facility and teaching hospital in the Department of Defense. Construction associated with this transition increased the square footage of the hospital by 50%, including a much larger, variable capacity emergency department, additional surgical suites and recovery facilities, as well as teaching facilities and bed space. Despite the installation transitioning to Air Force control, the command and control of the facility will remain with the Army; the command and other key positions will rotate between the Air Force. Staffing consist of members of both services, as well as a large number of civilians.
As of 2011, Fort Sam Houston is the largest and most important military medical training facility in the world. Military Medical Training is provided by numerous elements, including METC, AMEDD Center and School, Brooke Army Medical Center, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, The Center for Battlefield Health and Trauma, Defense Medical Readiness Training Institute, as well as many smaller organizations. Known as the brain trust for the Army Medical Department, the Army Medical Department Center and School annually trains more than 25,000 students attending 170 officer, NCO and enlisted courses in 14 medical specialties; the command maintains several academic affiliations for bachelor's and master's degree programs with major universities such as Baylor University, University of Texas Health Science Centers at Houston and San Antonio, University of Nebraska. As a result of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission 2005 recommendations, all military medical training has been consolidated at Fort Sam Houston.
This consolidation concluded with the opening of the Military Education and Training Campus in 2011. The Navy moved its medical training from California; the Air Force moved its
Camp Bullis Military Training Reservation is a U. S. Army training camp comprising 27,990 acres in Bexar County, Texas, USA, just northwest of San Antonio. Camp Bullis provides Base Operations Training Support to Joint Base San Antonio; the camp is named for Brigadier General John L. Bullis,Camp Bullis and Camp Stanley make up the Leon Springs Military Reservation. Camp Bullis is used as maneuvering grounds for U. S. Army, Air Force and Marines combat units, it is utilized as a field training site for the various medical units stationed at Brooke Army Medical Center in nearby Fort Sam Houston. In 1906 United States military bought over 17,000 acres from parts of six ranches; this area was designated the Leon Springs Military Reservation and was to be used as a maneuvers and training area for troops based at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio. Leon Springs was praised for varied terrain. Use of the new training area began immediately. In July and August 1907, the target ranges in present-day Camp Stanley were used for the Southwestern Rifle and Pistol Competition.
The first major maneuvers were held in 1908, involving regular army and National Guard infantry and field artillery units. The first documented firing of artillery occurred in 1909. Mobilization of troops in response to upheavals in Mexico in 1911 led to large-scale maneuvers at the Reservation. With the increased tensions along the United States-Mexico border between 1912 and 1916, activity at the Reservation decreased as troops from Fort Sam Houston were deployed along the border. Activity increased again in 1916, as large numbers of troops were called up for training after the raid of Columbus, New Mexico, by Pancho Villa. In 1916, a large remount station was built near Anderson Hill in present-day Camp Stanley. In February 1917, the facilities at the reservation were renamed Camp Funston in honor of Major General Frederick Funston. In May 1917 while preparing for World War I, Camp Funston established the First Officers Training Camp. Drills and training at the FOTC included practice marches, target practice, trench warfare training.
Officers of the FOTC graduated in August 1917, after which a Second Series Officer Training Camp began. In October 1917, Camp Funston was renamed Camp Stanley to avoid confusion with another base of the same name; the Camp Bullis cantonment was located across Salado Creek from the old Scheele Ranch. Training facilities at Camp Bullis included cavalry camps, maneuver grounds, target ranges. Construction of permanent facilities was limited to a camp headquarters, an administrative building, spaces for rows of mess halls and tents; the 315th Engineer Regiment of the 90th Division constructed rifle ranges and a pistol range between Hogan Ridge and Salado Creek that could accommodate 3,000-4,000 men. Between World Wars I and II, Camp Bullis grew in size; the leased properties of Camp Bullis and additional adjacent properties were purchased. In addition, 1,760 acres of Camp Stanley the inner cantonment of present-day Camp Stanley, were transferred to the Chief of Ordnance for the San Antonio Arsenal, located in the City of San Antonio to the south.
The remaining area known as the Leon Springs Military Reservation, was transferred to Camp Bullis. During this period and engineering units of the 2d Division and other troop units in the San Antonio area used Camp Bullis. Training and drills by the Citizens Military Training Camp and the Reserve Officers Training Corps took place at Camp Bullis. Troops took part in target and combat practice, firing Stokes mortars, maneuvering in regiment-sized units. Starting in 1937, the second Division tested new divisional structures meant to increase mobility and flexibility through mechanization and motorization; these tests, featured in a 1939 LIFE Magazine issue and employed the use of antitank units and the 6th Infantry Regiment, lasted through 1939. The resulting concept, known as the triangular division was built around three infantry regiments and gave commanders at each level of organization, from platoon to division, three forces to face enemy units: one to confront the enemy, one to maneuver and outflank the enemy, one to exploit enemy failures or weaknesses and act as a reserve.
In 1939, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall ordered that the triangular division design be adopted for all infantry divisions; the formal reorganization of the 2d Division included the addition of the 38th Infantry Regiment, two artillery battalions, a change from 75-mm to 105-mm howitzers. In 1942 and 1943, the Triangular Division was replaced when the need for tank and other armored units became essential parts of division-sized units. Prior to World War II, Camp Bullis had hosted a number of nonmilitary activities. In 1926, portions of two movies—The Rough Riders and Wings—were filmed at the installation; the Rough Riders was filmed using troops of the 5th Cavalry regiments as extras. Palmtree Hill, stormed by the troops, was planted with palm trees to resemble San Juan Hill in Cuba; the flying fields at Camp Bullis were used in the production of Wings, the winner of the first Academy Award for best picture. In the early 1930s, Camp Bullis was one of many military installations across the country used for the organization of Civilian Conservation Corps personnel.
Personnel from the CCC, as well as the Works Progress Administration, participated in the construction of some of the camp's facilities during this period. As the war in Europe began and more troops trained at Camp Bull
Merrill Anthony "Tony" McPeak is a retired 4-star general in the United States Air Force whose final assignment before retirement was as the 14th Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1990 to 1994. In 1993, McPeak served as Acting Secretary of the Air Force, before Sheila E. Widnall was appointed by President Bill Clinton, is to this date the only Chief of Staff of the Air Force and uniformed Air Force officer on active duty to have served as the Acting Secretary. McPeak was born in California. After graduating from Grants Pass High School in Grants Pass, Oregon, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics from San Diego State College in 1957 and became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity, he was commissioned through Air Force ROTC, entered active duty in November of that year. He earned a Master of Arts degree in international relations from George Washington University in 1974. After completing preflight and pilot training, McPeak flew single-seat fighter aircraft, the F-100 Super Sabre and the F-104 Starfighter, in operational squadrons in the United States and the United Kingdom.
He returned to the United States as an instructor pilot and weapons officer at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. From December 1966 to December 1968, McPeak was assigned as an opposing solo and lead solo pilot with the Thunderbirds, the Air Force's aerobatic flying team. While with the Thunderbirds, he performed in nearly 200 air shows in overseas. Upon completion of his tour with the Thunderbirds, he was assigned as an F-100 pilot with the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing at Phù Cát Air Base in South Vietnam. On February 1, 1969, he was assigned to Project Commando Sabre, known as the Misty FACs, a specialized group of high speed forward air controllers trying to stop vehicular resupply traffic down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, he became the tenth commander of Commando Sabre on April 22, 1969, moved it to the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing at Tuy Hoa Air Base on May 1, when the 37th TFW transitioned to the twin-seat F-4 Phantom II. Rotating out of his command on May 31, 1969 after 98 missions, he served as chief of standardization and evaluation for 31st TFW.
McPeak completed a total of 269 combat missions while in Vietnam, was awarded the Silver Star, remained in-country until 1970, after which he attended the Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia. From 1970 to 1973, McPeak was an air operations staff officer for the Mideast Division at Headquarters USAF in Washington, D. C.. After graduating from the National War College in 1974, he was named assistant deputy commander for operations for the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing at MacDill AFB, Florida flying the F-4 Phantom II. From 1975 to 1976, he was a military fellow with the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City. In 1976, McPeak contributed an article to Foreign Affairs Journal expressing his views on the Israeli occupation of territories during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. In July 1976, he became commander of the 513th Combat Support Group based at RAF Mildenhall in the United Kingdom. From 1978 to 1980, he was assistant chief of staff for current operations, Allied Air Forces Central Europe.
1980 and 1981 saw him flying the twin-seat F-111E fighter bomber and commanding the 20th Tactical Fighter Wing based at RAF Upper Heyford, United Kingdom. McPeak was chief of staff at USAFE headquarters from 1981 to 1982, deputy chief of staff for plans at Tactical Air Command headquarters, Langley AFB, Virginia from 1982 to 1985, he returned to Headquarters USAF in 1985 -- 87 as deputy chief of staff for resources. In June 1987, McPeak moved to Bergstrom AFB, Texas in the dual roles of Commander, 12th Air Force and Commander of Air Forces for United States Southern Command. A year he was named commander-in-chief of Pacific Air Forces, he was appointed Air Force Chief of Staff by President George H. W. Bush in October 1990, replacing the retiring General Michael Dugan following the latter's removal from the CSAF post by SECDEF Dick Cheney for ill-timed and inappropriate comments to the news media regarding Iraq during Operation Desert Shield. McPeak took over as Chief of Staff during Operation Desert Shield, assisted in overall strategic planning for Operation Desert Storm.
McPeak's tenure as Chief of Staff following the Gulf War saw a major reduction in force in terms of aircraft, units and enlisted airmen across the entire Air Force as a result of the end of the Cold War. During his time as Chief of Staff, he oversaw the disestablishment of Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command, Military Airlift Command, Air Force Systems Command, Air Force Logistics Command, Air Force Communications Command, with assets transferred to the newly-established Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Materiel Command and the then-Air Force Communications Agency, his tenure oversaw the merging of Air Training Command and Air University into the Air Education and Training Command. McPeak pushed through major organizational changes in the Air Force aimed at streamlining and emphasizing operations and combat readiness. Much of his tenure focused on elevating the status of flight operations single-seat fighter pilots, some say at the expense of multi-seat fighter and reconnaissance aircraft and personnel and air refueling aircraft and personnel, non-flying career fields.
He created the Air Force Expeditionary Wing concept, a fusion of combat forces and support into a single organization. He transferred several
Lackland Air Force Base
Lackland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Bexar County, Texas. The base is under the jurisdiction of the 802d Mission Support Group, Air Education and Training Command and an enclave of the city of San Antonio, it is the only entry processing station for Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training. Lackland AFB is part of Joint Base San Antonio, an amalgamation of the Fort Sam Houston, the Randolph Air Force Base and Lackland Air Force Base, which were merged on 1 October 2010. Joint Base San Antonio, which includes Lackland Air Force Base, was established in accordance with congressional legislation implementing the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission; the legislation ordered the consolidation of the three facilities which were adjoining, but separate military installations, into a single joint base – one of 12 joint bases formed in the United States as a result of the law. 502d Installation Support GroupA unit of the JBSA 502d Air Base Wing, the 502d ISG is the focal point for all base activities and supporting the 37th and 737th Training Groups and all of its mission partners as well as the more than 24,000 retirees living in the local area.37th Training Wing37th Training Group Provides professional and technical training in the knowledge and skills needed for graduates to perform their jobs worldwide.
Joint service training for Air Force, Army and Marine personnel is provided in numerous courses, such as the military working dog program and security and law enforcement 737th Training Group Provides Air Force Basic Military Training for all enlisted people entering the Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard, earning Lackland the nickname, "Gateway to the Air Force."Inter-American Air Forces AcademyFostering enduring Inter-American engagement through education and training. Teaches 37 technical courses, in Spanish and in English, to students from more than 22 countries every year. Defense Language InstitutePrimary mission was to teach English to Allied pilot candidates. In 1966, its mission expanded to include other career fields, the school moved under the DoD with the U. S. Army as the executive agent. Twenty-Fifth Air ForceOrganizes, trains and presents assigned forces and capabilities to conduct intelligence and reconnaissance for combatant commanders and the nation, it implements and oversees the execution of Air Force policies intended to expand ISR capabilities.
Twenty-Fourth Air ForceExtends and defends the Air Force portion of the Department of Defense network and provide full spectrum capabilities for the Joint warfighter in, from cyberspace. 624th Operations CenterInterfaces with theater and functional Air Operations Centers to establish, direct, coordinate and command & control cyber operations in support of AF and Joint warfighting requirements. Lackland AFB hosts a collection of vintage military aircraft on static display on its parade grounds, including a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, B-29 Superfortress, C-121 Constellation, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and a B-25 Mitchell. Lackland Air Force Base is home to the 37th Training Wing which operates a variety of training squadrons. Within the 37th TRW is the 37th Training Group which oversees the 5 technical training schools on the base, the 737 TRG which oversees the Basic Military Training squadrons. Lackland is best known for its role in being the sole location for U.
S. Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training for the active duty Regular Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard. BMT is organized into each with their own training site on the base; each squadron is equipped with either a medical clinic. Some BMT squadrons share dining facilities if they are located close enough together and the same is true for medical clinics; each squadron has a specific exercise area where basic trainees conduct physical readiness training. AFOSI anti-terrorism teams are trained here. In October 2008 the BMT was expanded an extra two weeks to implement more air base defense training as well as other rudimentary skills; the BMT course of training is at 8 1⁄2 weeks. Prior to 22 September 1993, Lackland AFB's Medina Annex was home to Air Force Officer Training School, one of three USAF officer accession and commissioning sources in addition to the U. S. Air Force Academy and Air Force ROTC. On 25 September 1993, OTS permanently relocated to Alabama. Lackland, like many other Air Education and Training Command bases, trains enlisted airmen out of basic training in a specific specialty via various "tech schools."
Lackland has six technical training squadrons on base training multiple airmen in various Air Force Specialty Codes. The 37th Training Group supports the following five training squadrons and trains technical training instructors, military training instructors and military training leaders; the 341st Training Squadron trains military working dogs and handlers for the entire Department of Defense and several federal agencies. The 342nd Training Squadron teaches Pararescuemen, Combat Controllers, Special Operations Weathermen, Tactical Air Control Party members, Evasion and Escape Specialists, a variety of advanced Security Forces courses; the 343rd TRS trains airmen to become Security Forces members in a 13-week academy. The 344th TRS provides technical training for more than 10,000 active duty, Guard and civilian students annually in Career Enlisted Aviator, Vehicle Maintenance, Logistics Readiness Officer, Logistics Plans, Materiel Management
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.