617 Patroclus

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617 Patroclus
Discovery [1]
Discovered by A. Kopff
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 17 October 1906
Designations
MPC designation (617) Patroclus
Pronunciation /pəˈtrkləs/ · pə-TROH-kləs
Named after
Patroclus
(Greek mythology)[2]
1906 VY · 1941 XC
1962 NB
Jupiter trojan[1][3][4]
Trojan[5][6] · background[6]
Adjectives Patroclean
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 19.15 yr (6,993 d)
Aphelion 5.9376 AU
Perihelion 4.4959 AU
5.2167 AU
Eccentricity 0.1382
11.92 yr (4,352 d)
170.39°
0° 4m 57.72s / day
Inclination 22.047°
44.354°
308.15°
Known satellites Menoetius [7]
/mɪˈnʃəs/ mi-NEE-shəs
117 km × 108 km × 90 km[8]
104±3 km (mean-diameter)[8]
102.8 h (orbital period)
Jupiter MOID 0.1966 AU
TJupiter 2.8360
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 127 km × 117 km × 98 km (primary only)[8]
Mean diameter
113±3 km (primary only)[8]
140.36±0.87 km[9]
140.85±3.37 km[10]
140.92±4.7 km[11]
143.14±8.37 km[12]
154 km[8]
Volume 1.3636×103 km3[8]
Mass (1.36±0.11)×1018 kg[12]
1.20×1018 kg[8]
Mean density
0.88±0.17 g/cm3[12][8]
40 h (at least; dated)[13]
102.8 h[14]
102 h[15]
103.02±0.40 h[16]
103.5±0.3 h[17]
0.047±0.003[9][10][11]
D (Tholen)[18]
C0 (Barucci)[18]
D (Tedesco)[18]
U–B = 0.215±0.045[18]
B–V = 0.710±0.050[19]
V–R = 0.420±0.030[19]
V–I = 0.830±0.020[19]
8.19[3][9][10][11][4]

617 Patroclus (/pəˈtrkləs/ pə-TROH-kləs), provisional designation 1906 VY is a binary Jupiter trojan approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) in diameter.[a] It was discovered on 17 October 1906, by astronomer August Kopff at the Heidelberg Observatory in Germany. The asteroid was named after Patroclus from Greek mythology.[1] It was the second trojan to be discovered and the only member of the Trojan camp named after a Greek character.[2] The dark D-type asteroid is also slow rotator and one of the largest Jupiter trojans. Patroclus is one of five Jovian asteroids targeted by the Lucy space probe to be visited in 2033. In 2001, a minor-planet moon – later named Menoetius, and slightly smaller than its primary – was discovered. It was the first discovery of binary asteroid among the Jupiter trojans.[7]

Orbit[edit]

Patroclus orbits in Jupiter's trailing Lagrangian point, L5,[7] in an area called the Trojan camp after one of the sides in the legendary Trojan War (the other node, at the L4 point, is called the "Greek camp").

It orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.5–5.9 AU once every 11 years and 11 months (4,353 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 22° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The asteroid's observation arc begins at the discovering Heidelberg Observatory in November 1906, about 3 weeks after its official discovery observation.[1]

Binary system[edit]

In 2001, it was discovered that Patroclus is a binary system, made up of two components with a minor-planet moon of roughly similar size.[7][20][21] It is one of 18 binary Trojan asteroids known to exist. In 2006, accurate measurements of the orbit from the Keck Laser guide star adaptive optics system were reported.[22]

It was estimated[23] that the two components orbit around their center of mass in 4.283±0.004 days at a distance of 680±20 km in a roughly circular orbit.[7] Combining these observations with thermal measurements taken in 2000, the sizes of the components of the system were estimated at 106 km and 98 km, with an equivalent whole-system diameter of 145 km[7], refined by later measurements from the Keck Observatory to approximately 122 km and 112 km for each partner[24], and a co-orbital period of 103.5±0.3 hours (4.3125±0.0125 days)[22][17].

More recent direct optical measurements using stellar occlusion data pin the orbital distance closer to 664.6 km, and give a size for the slightly larger component, which retains the name Patroclus, as 124.6x98.2 km and overall volume equivalent to a 113 km sphere, with the smaller component, now named Menoetius (/mɪˈnʃəs/ mi-NEE-shəs; official designation (617) Patroclus I Menoetius) after the legendary father of Patroclus, measuring 117.2x93.0 km with a volume equivalent to a 104 km diameter sphere[8]. It was previously known by the provisional designation S/2001 (617) 1.

Physical characteristics[edit]

Lightcurves[edit]

Since 1989, several rotational lightcurves of Patroclus have been obtained from photometric observations. Analysis of the best rated lightcurves gave a rotation period between 102.8 and 103.5 hours with a brightness amplitude of less than 0.1 magnitude (U=2/3/).[14][15][16][17] A low brightness variation typically indicates that a body has a nearly spheroidal shape. Its long rotation period makes it a slow rotator.

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the Patroclus system has an effective combined size between 140.36 and 140.92 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.047.[9][11] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0471 and a diameter of 140.92 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 8.19.[4]

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Largest Jupiter Trojans by survey(A)
(mean-diameter in kilometers; YoD: Year of Discovery)
Designation H WISE IRAS Akari Ln RP V–I YoD Ref
624 Hektor 7.2 225 233 230.99 L4 6.92 0.930 1907 list
617 Patroclus 8.19 140.362 140.92 140.85 L5 102.80 0.830 1906 list
911 Agamemnon 7.89 131.038 166.66 185.30 L4 6.59 0.980 1919 list
588 Achilles 8.67 130.099 135.47 133.22 L4 7.31 0.940 1906 list
3451 Mentor 8.4 126.288 116.30 117.91 L5 7.70 0.770 1984 list
3317 Paris 8.3 118.790 116.26 120.45 L5 7.09 0.950 1984 list
1867 Deiphobus 8.3 118.220 122.67 131.31 L5 58.66 0.930 1971 list
1172 Äneas 8.33 118.020 142.82 148.66 L5 8.71 0.950 1930 list
1437 Diomedes 8.3 117.786 164.31 172.60 L4 24.49 0.810 1937 list
1143 Odysseus 7.93 114.624 125.64 130.81 L4 10.11 0.860 1930 list
2241 Alcathous 8.64 113.682 114.63 118.87 L5 7.69 0.940 1979 list
659 Nestor 8.99 112.320 108.87 107.06 L4 15.98 0.790 1908 list
3793 Leonteus 8.7 112.046 86.26 87.58 L4 5.62 0.780 1985 list
3063 Makhaon 8.4 111.655 116.14 114.34 L4 8.64 0.830 1983 list
1583 Antilochus 8.6 108.842 101.62 111.69 L4 31.54 0.950 1950 list
884 Priamus 8.81 101.093 96.29 119.99 L5 6.86 0.900 1917 list
1208 Troilus 8.99 100.477 103.34 111.36 L5 56.17 0.740 1931 list
1173 Anchises 8.89 99.549 126.27 120.49 L5 11.60 0.780 1930 list
2207 Antenor 8.89 97.658 85.11 91.32 L5 7.97 0.950 1977 list
2363 Cebriones 9.11 95.976 81.84 84.61 L5 20.05 0.910 1977 list
4063 Euforbo 8.7 95.619 102.46 106.38 L4 8.85 0.950 1989 list
2357 Phereclos 8.94 94.625 94.90 98.45 L5 14.39 0.960 1981 list
4709 Ennomos 8.5 91.433 80.85 80.03 L5 12.28 0.690 1988 list
2797 Teucer 8.7 89.430 111.14 113.99 L4 10.15 0.920 1981 list
2920 Automedon 8.8 88.574 111.01 113.11 L4 10.21 0.950 1981 list
(15436) 1998 VU30 9.1 87.646 85.71 78.63 L4 8.97 0.870 1998 list
3596 Meriones 9.2 87.380 75.09 73.28 L4 12.96 0.830 1985 list
2893 Peiroos 9.23 86.884 87.46 86.76 L5 8.96 0.950 1975 list
4086 Podalirius 9.1 85.495 86.89 85.98 L4 10.43 0.870 1985 list
4060 Deipylos 9.3 84.043 79.21 86.79 L4 9.30 0.760 1987 list
1404 Ajax 9.3 83.990 81.69 96.34 L4 29.38 0.960 1936 list
4348 Poulydamas 9.5 82.032 70.08 87.51 L5 9.91 0.840 1988 list
5144 Achates 9.0 80.958 91.91 89.85 L5 5.96 0.920 1991 list
4833 Meges 8.9 80.165 87.33 89.39 L4 14.25 0.940 1989 list
2223 Sarpedon 9.41 77.480 94.63 108.21 L5 22.74 0.880 1977 list
(4489) 1988 AK 9.0 76.595 92.93 95.02 L4 12.58 0.950 1988 list
2260 Neoptolemus 9.31 76.435 71.65 81.28 L4 8.18 0.950 1975 list
5254 Ulysses 9.2 76.147 78.34 80.00 L4 28.72 0.970 1986 list
(3708) 1974 FV1 9.3 75.661 79.59 76.75 L5 6.55 0.980 1974 list
2674 Pandarus 9.1 74.267 98.10 101.72 L5 8.48 1.000 1982 list
3564 Talthybius 9.4 73.730 68.92 74.11 L4 40.59 0.900 1985 list
4834 Thoas 9.1 72.331 86.82 96.21 L4 18.19 0.950 1989 list
(7641) 1986 TT6 9.4 71.839 68.97 75.28 L4 27.77 0.980 1986 list
3540 Protesilaos 9.3 70.225 76.84 87.66 L4 8.95 0.940 1973 list
(11395) 1998 XN77 9.8 68.977 64.71 67.78 L4 17.38 1998 list
(4035) 1986 WD 9.6 68.733 68.23 66.99 L4 13.47 0.970 1986 list
5264 Telephus 9.4 68.472 73.26 81.38 L4 9.53 0.970 1991 list
1868 Thersites 9.5 68.163 70.08 78.89 L4 10.48 0.960 1960 list
(9799) 1996 RJ 9.6 68.033 64.87 72.42 L4 21.52 0.910 1996 list
4068 Menestheus 9.5 67.625 62.37 68.46 L4 14.40 0.950 1973 list
(23135) 2000 AN146 9.9 66.230 58.29 68.50 L4 8.69 0.860 2000 list
2456 Palamedes 9.3 65.916 91.66 99.60 L4 7.24 0.920 1966 list
3709 Polypoites 9.1 65.297 99.09 85.23 L4 10.04 1.000 1985 list
1749 Telamon 9.5 64.898 81.06 69.14 L4 16.98 0.970 1949 list
3548 Eurybates 9.6 63.885 72.14 68.40 L4 8.71 0.730 1973 list
4543 Phoinix 9.7 63.836 62.79 69.54 L4 38.87 1.200 1989 list
12444 Prothoon 9.8 63.835 64.31 62.41 L5 15.82 1996 list
4836 Medon 9.5 63.277 67.73 78.70 L4 9.82 0.920 1989 list
(16070) 1999 RB101 9.7 63.191 64.13 68.98 L5 20.24 0.960 1999 list
(15440) 1998 WX4 9.6 62.519 66.48 71.88 L4 21.43 0.970 1998 list
(4715) 1989 TS1 9.7 62.097 63.91 65.93 L5 8.81 0.850 1989 list
(34746) 2001 QE91 9.8 61.684 60.51 63.63 L5 19.63 0.950 2001 list
(38050) 1998 VR38 9.8 61.603 61.04 50.44 L4 18.85 0.990 1998 list
5130 Ilioneus 9.7 60.711 59.40 52.49 L5 14.77 0.960 1989 list
5027 Androgeos 9.6 59.786 57.86 n.a. L4 11.38 0.910 1988 list
(6090) 1989 DJ 9.4 59.568 74.53 81.92 L4 18.48 0.980 1989 list
(5648) 1990 VU1 9.7 59.295 63.91 n.a. L5 37.56 0.900 1990 list
7119 Hiera 9.7 59.150 76.40 77.29 L4 400 0.950 1989 list
4805 Asteropaios 10.0 57.647 53.16 43.44 L5 12.37 1990 list
16974 Iphthime 9.8 57.341 55.43 57.15 L4 78.9 0.960 1998 list
4867 Polites 9.8 57.251 58.29 64.29 L5 11.24 1.010 1989 list
2895 Memnon 10.0 56.706 55.67 n.a. L5 7.50 0.710 1981 list
4708 Polydoros 9.9 54.964 55.67 n.a. L5 7.52 0.960 1988 list
(21601) 1998 XO89 10.0 54.909 55.67 56.08 L4 12.65 0.970 1998 list
(12929) 1999 TZ1 9.9 54.077 61.04 55.34 L5 9.27 0.880 1999 list
17492 Hippasos 10.0 53.975 55.67 n.a. L5 17.75 1991 list
5652 Amphimachus 10.1 53.921 53.16 52.48 L4 8.37 1.050 1992 list
2759 Idomeneus 9.9 53.676 61.01 52.55 L4 32.38 0.910 1980 list
(5258) 1989 AU1 10.2 53.275 50.77 n.a. L4 19.85 1.010 1989 list
(12126) 1999 RM11 10.1 53.202 n.a. n.a. L5 n.a. ? 1999 list
(15502) 1999 NV27 10.0 53.100 55.67 50.86 L5 15.13 0.875 1999 list
4754 Panthoos 10.0 53.025 53.15 56.96 L5 27.68 1977 list
4832 Palinurus 10.0 52.058 53.16 n.a. L5 5.32 1.000 1988 list
5126 Achaemenides 10.5 51.922 44.22 48.57 L4 53.02 1989 list
3240 Laocoon 10.2 51.695 50.77 n.a. L5 11.31 0.880 1978 list
4902 Thessandrus 9.8 51.263 61.04 71.79 L4 738 0.960 1989 list
11552 Boucolion 10.1 51.136 53.16 53.91 L5 32.44 1993 list
(20729) 1999 XS143 10.4 50.961 46.30 n.a. L4 5.72 1.000 1999 list
(6545) 1986 TR6 10.1 50.951 53.16 n.a. L4 16.26 0.910 1986 list
4792 Lykaon 10.1 50.870 53.16 n.a. L5 40.09 0.960 1988 list
21900 Orus 10.0 50.810 55.67 53.87 L4 13.45 0.950 1999 list
1873 Agenor 10.1 50.799 53.76 54.38 L5 20.60 1971 list
5028 Halaesus 10.2 50.770 50.77 n.a. L4 24.94 0.900 1988 list
2146 Stentor 9.9 50.755 58.29 n.a. L4 16.40 1976 list
4722 Agelaos 10.0 50.378 53.16 59.47 L5 18.44 0.910 1977 list
5284 Orsilocus 10.1 50.159 53.16 n.a. L4 10.31 0.970 1989 list
11509 Thersilochos 10.1 49.960 53.16 56.23 L5 17.37 1990 list
5285 Krethon 10.1 49.606 58.53 52.61 L4 12.04 1.090 1989 list
4791 Iphidamas 10.1 49.528 57.85 59.96 L5 9.70 1.030 1988 list
9023 Mnesthus 10.1 49.151 50.77 60.80 L5 30.66 1988 list
5283 Pyrrhus 9.7 48.356 64.58 69.93 L4 7.32 0.950 1989 list
4946 Askalaphus 10.2 48.209 52.71 66.10 L4 22.73 0.940 1988 list
(22149) 2000 WD49 10.2 48.190 50.77 50.37 L4 7.84 1.090 2000 list
(32496) 2000 WX182 10.2 48.017 50.77 51.63 L5 23.34 0.950 2000 list
5120 Bitias 10.2 47.987 50.77 n.a. L5 15.21 0.780 1988 list
12714 Alkimos 10.1 47.819 61.04 54.62 L4 28.48 1991 list
(7352) 1994 CO 9.9 47.731 55.67 47.07 L5 648 0.850 1994 list
1870 Glaukos 10.6 47.649 42.23 n.a. L5 5.99 1971 list
4138 Kalchas 10.1 46.462 53.16 61.04 L4 29.2 0.810 1973 list
(23958) 1998 VD30 10.2 46.001 50.77 47.91 L4 562 0.990 1998 list
4828 Misenus 10.4 45.954 46.30 43.22 L5 12.87 0.920 1988 list
4057 Demophon 10.1 45.683 53.16 n.a. L4 29.82 1.060 1985 list
4501 Eurypylos 10.4 45.524 46.30 n.a. L4 6.05 1989 list
4007 Euryalos 10.3 45.515 48.48 53.89 L4 6.39 1973 list
5259 Epeigeus 10.3 44.741 42.59 44.42 L4 18.42 1989 list
30705 Idaios 10.4 44.546 46.30 n.a. L5 15.74 1977 list
16560 Daitor 10.7 43.861 51.42 43.38 L5 1991 list
(15977) 1998 MA11 10.4 43.530 46.30 51.53 L5 250 0.906 1998 list
7543 Prylis 10.6 42.893 42.23 n.a. L4 17.80 1973 list
4827 Dares 10.5 42.770 44.22 n.a. L5 19.00 1988 list
1647 Menelaus 10.5 42.716 44.22 n.a. L4 17.74 0.866 1957 list
(A) Used sources: WISE/NEOWISE catalog (NEOWISE_DIAM_V1 PDS, Grav, 2012); IRAS data (SIMPS v.6 catalog);
and Akari catalog (Usui, 2011); RP: rotation period and V–I (color index) taken from the LCDB

Note: missing data was completed with figures from the JPL SBDB (query) and from the LCDB (query form) for the
WISE/NEOWISE and SIMPS catalogs, respectively. These figures are given in italics. Also, listing is incomplete above #100.

Composition[edit]

Recent evidence suggests that the objects are icy like comets, rather than rocky like most asteroids. In the Tholen classification, Patroclus is a dark P-type asteroid.[4]

Because the density of the components (0.88 g/cm³) is less than water and about one third that of rock, it was suggested that the Patroclus system, previously thought to be a pair of rocky asteroids, is more similar to a comet in composition.[22] It is suspected that many Jupiter trojans are in fact small planetesimals captured in the Lagrange point of the Jupiter–Sun system during the migration of the giant planets 3.9 billion years ago. This scenario was proposed by A. Morbidelli and colleagues in a series of articles published in May 2005 in Nature.[25]

Exploration[edit]

Patroclus is a proposed target for Lucy, a mission to several asteroids, mostly Jupiter trojans.[26] The mission's targets with their flyby dates are:[27][28]

  • 52246 Donaldjohanson — 20 April 2025: 4 km diameter C-type asteroid in the inner main-belt, member of ~130Myr old Erigone family;
  • 3548 Eurybates — 12 August 2027: 64 km diameter C-type Jupiter Trojan in the Greek camp at L4, largest member of the only confirmed disruptive collisional family in the Trojans;
  • 15094 Polymele — 15 September 2027: 21 km diameter P-type Trojan at L4, likely collisional fragment;
  • 11351 Leucus — 18 April 2028: 34 km diameter D-type slow rotator Trojan at L4;
  • 21900 Orus — 11 November 2028: 51 km diameter D-type Trojan at L4;
  • 617 Patroclus — 2 March 2033: P-type binary Trojan. The primary, Patroclus, has a mean diameter of 113 km and its companion, Menoetius, has a diameter of 104 km. The pair orbit at a separation of 680 km. The binary resides in the Trojan camp at L5.

Naming[edit]

This minor planet was named after the Greek hero Patroclus from Greek mythology. Friend of Achilles, he was killed by Hector during the Trojan War (see also (588) and (624)). The minor planet's name was proposed by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 65).[2]

Patroclus is the only object in the Trojan camp to be named after a Greek rather than a Trojan character. The naming conventions for the Jupiter trojans were not adopted until after Patroclus was named (similarly, the asteroid Hektor is the only Trojan character to appear in the Greek camp).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Buie (2015). Volume equivalent diameters based on derived ellipsods are: Patroclus: 113 km and Menoetius: 104 km, while for the combined system, a mean-diameter of 154 km is given. Measured by asteroid occultation. Alternative observations gave a combined diameter of 140 kilometers. Summary figures for (617) Patroclus at the LCDB.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "617 Patroclus (1906 VY)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (617) Patroclus. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 62. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 617 Patroclus (1906 VY)" (2017-06-14 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (617) Patroclus". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  5. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 20 August 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Asteroid (617) Patroclus – Proper elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Johnston, Wm. Robert (21 September 2014). "(617) Patroclus and Menoetius". johnstonsarchive.net. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Buie, Marc W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Merline, William J.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F.; Timerson, Brad; et al. (March 2015). "Size and Shape from Stellar Occultation Observations of the Double Jupiter Trojan Patroclus and Menoetius". The Astronomical Journal. 149 (3): 11. Bibcode:2015AJ....149..113B. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/3/113. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R. (November 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojan Population: Taxonomy" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (1): 10. arXiv:1209.1549Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759...49G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/1/49. Retrieved 13 June 2018.  (online catalog)
  10. ^ a b c Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 13 June 2018.  (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  11. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  12. ^ a b c Carry, B. (December 2012). "Density of asteroids" (PDF). Planetary and Space Science. 73 (1): 98–118. arXiv:1203.4336Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009. Retrieved 13 June 2018.  See Table 1.
  13. ^ Gonano, M.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; di Martino, M. (December 1990). "Physical study of outer belt asteroids". Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B /Meetings B2: 197–200. Bibcode:1991AdSpR..11..197G. doi:10.1016/0273-1177(91)90563-Y. ISSN 0273-1177. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  14. ^ a b Marchis, Franck; Hestroffer, Daniel; Descamps, Pascal; Berthier, Jérô; me; Bouchez, Antonin H.; et al. (February 2006). "A low density of 0.8gcm-3 for the Trojan binary asteroid 617Patroclus". Nature. 439 (7076): 565–567. arXiv:astro-ph/0602033Freely accessible. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..565M. doi:10.1038/nature04350. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  15. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (617) Patroclus". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  16. ^ a b Mueller, Michael; Marchis, Franck; Emery, Joshua P.; Harris, Alan W.; Mottola, Stefano; Hestroffer, Daniel; et al. (February 2010). "Eclipsing binary Trojan asteroid Patroclus: Thermal inertia from Spitzer observations" (PDF). Icarus. 205 (2): 505–515. arXiv:0908.4198Freely accessible. Bibcode:2010Icar..205..505M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.043. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  17. ^ a b c Oey, Julian (July 2012). "Period Determination of 617 Patroclus". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (3): 106–107. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39..106O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 11 July 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Asteroid 617 Patroclus". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  19. ^ a b c Chatelain, Joseph P.; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Trilling, David E. (June 2016). "Photometric colors of the brightest members of the Jupiter L5 Trojan cloud". Icarus. 271: 158–169. Bibcode:2016Icar..271..158C. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.01.026. Retrieved 12 June 2018. 
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