The Jupiter trojans called Trojan asteroids or Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun. Relative to Jupiter, each Trojan librates around one of Jupiter's two stable Lagrange points: L4, lying 60° ahead of the planet in its orbit, L5, 60° behind. Jupiter trojans are distributed in two elongated, curved regions around these Lagrangian points with an average semi-major axis of about 5.2 AU. The first Jupiter trojan discovered, 588 Achilles, was spotted in 1906 by German astronomer Max Wolf. A total of 7,040 Jupiter trojans have been found as of October 2018. By convention, they are each named from Greek mythology after a figure of the Trojan War, hence the name "Trojan"; the total number of Jupiter trojans larger than 1 km in diameter is believed to be about 1 million equal to the number of asteroids larger than 1 km in the asteroid belt. Like main-belt asteroids, Jupiter trojans form families; as of 2004, many Jupiter trojans showed to observational instruments as dark bodies with reddish, featureless spectra.
No firm evidence of the presence of water, or any other specific compound on their surface has been obtained, but it is thought that they are coated in tholins, organic polymers formed by the Sun's radiation. The Jupiter trojans' densities vary from 0.8 to 2.5 g·cm−3. Jupiter trojans are thought to have been captured into their orbits during the early stages of the Solar System's formation or later, during the migration of giant planets; the term "Trojan Asteroid" refers to the asteroids co-orbital with Jupiter, but the general term "trojan" is sometimes more applied to other small Solar System bodies with similar relationships to larger bodies: for example, there are both Mars trojans and Neptune trojans, as well as a discovered Earth trojan. The term "Trojan asteroid" is understood to mean the Jupiter trojans because the first Trojans were discovered near Jupiter's orbit and Jupiter has by far the most known Trojans. In 1772, Italian-born mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange, in studying the restricted three-body problem, predicted that a small body sharing an orbit with a planet but lying 60° ahead or behind it will be trapped near these points.
The trapped body will librate around the point of equilibrium in a tadpole or horseshoe orbit. These leading and trailing points are called the L5 Lagrange points; the first asteroids trapped in Lagrange points were observed more than a century after Lagrange's hypothesis. Those associated with Jupiter were the first to be discovered. E. E. Barnard made the first recorded observation of a trojan, 1999 RM11, in 1904, but neither he nor others appreciated its significance at the time. Barnard believed he had seen the discovered Saturnian satellite Phoebe, only two arc-minutes away in the sky at the time, or an asteroid; the object's identity was not understood until its orbit was calculated in 1999. The first accepted discovery of a trojan occurred in February 1906, when astronomer Max Wolf of Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory discovered an asteroid at the L4 Lagrangian point of the Sun–Jupiter system named 588 Achilles. In 1906–1907 two more Jupiter trojans were found by fellow German astronomer August Kopff.
Hektor, like Achilles, belonged to the L4 swarm, whereas Patroclus was the first asteroid known to reside at the L5 Lagrangian point. By 1938, 11 Jupiter trojans had been detected; this number increased to 14 only in 1961. As instruments improved, the rate of discovery grew rapidly: by January 2000, a total of 257 had been discovered; as of October 2018 there are 4,601 known Jupiter trojans at L4 and 2,439 at L5. The custom of naming all asteroids in Jupiter's L4 and L5 points after famous heroes of the Trojan War was suggested by Johann Palisa of Vienna, the first to calculate their orbits. Asteroids in the leading orbit are named after Greek heroes, those at the trailing orbit are named after the heroes of Troy; the asteroids 617 Patroclus and 624 Hektor were named before the Greece/Troy rule was devised, resulting in a Greek spy in the Trojan node and a Trojan spy in the Greek node. Estimates of the total number of Jupiter trojans are based on deep surveys of limited areas of the sky; the L4 swarm is believed to hold between 160–240,000 asteroids with diameters larger than 2 km and about 600,000 with diameters larger than 1 km.
If the L5 swarm contains a comparable number of objects, there are more than 1 million Jupiter trojans 1 km in size or larger. For the objects brighter than absolute magnitude 9.0 the population is complete. These numbers are similar to that of comparable asteroids in the asteroid belt; the total mass of the Jupiter trojans is estimated at 0.0001 of the mass of Earth or one-fifth of the mass of the asteroid belt. Two more recent studies indicate that the above numbers may overestimate the number of Jupiter trojans by several-fold; this overestimate is caused by the assumption that all Jupiter trojans have a low albedo of about 0.04, whereas small bodies may have an average albedo as high as 0.12. According to the new estimates, the total number of Jupiter trojans with a diameter larger than 2 km is 6,300 ± 1,000 and 3,400 ± 500 in the L4 and L5 swarms, respectively; these numbers would be reduced by a factor of 2 if small Jupiter trojans are more reflective than large on
Aidan Kearney is an Irish hurler who plays as a left corner-back for the Waterford senior team. Kearney joined the team during the 2006 championship and has become a regular member of the starting fifteen over subsequent seasons. Since he has won one Munster medal and one National Hurling League medal. Kearney has ended up as an All-Ireland runner-up on one occasion, he was educated at his local primary school and attended the famous St. Colman's College in Fermoy, County Cork, a virtual nursery for young hurling talent. Here his hurling skills were first developed and he became a star on the college's various hurling teams. Kearney enjoyed a successful hurling career, beginning by capturing Two Dean Ryan Cup titles in-a-row in 2000, 2001. By this stage he was a star on the St. Colman's senior hurling team. Kearney won his first Dr. Harty Cup winners' medal in 2001, he collected his first All-Ireland colleges' title when St. Colman's defeated Gort Community School in the final of that competition.
Kearney captured a second Harty Cup title in 2002 before lining out in a second All-Ireland colleges' final. ST KIERAN'S provided the opposition, it was his second All-Ireland winners' medal. 2003 saw. The subsequent All-Ireland final saw St. Colman's take on St. Kieran's, victory went to the Kilkenny team on that occasion. Aidan and his Twin brother Paul are the only Twins in the history of the Harty cup Competition to win 3 Harty Cups on the field of Play, they are the only hurlers from Waterford to have achieved winning 3 Harty Cup Titles. At club level Kearney plays with Tallow. Kearney plays both hurling and Gaelic football with Tallow, he signed for St. Marys in 2017 Kearney first came to prominence on the inter-county scene as a member of the Waterford minor and under-21 hurling teams, however, he enjoyed little success in these grades. In 2006 Kearney made his senior championship debut for Waterford in an All-Ireland qualifier against Westmeath; the following season Kearney became a regular member of the starting fifteen.
He won a National Hurling League medal that year when Waterford defeated Kilkenny by 0-20 to 0-18 in the final. He claimed a first Munster medal as Waterford defeated Limerick by 3-17 to 1-14 in the provincial decider. While Waterford were viewed as going on and winning the All-Ireland title for the first time in half a century, Limerick ambushed Kearney's side in the All-Ireland semi-final. 2008 began poorly for Waterford as the team lost their opening game to Clare as well as their manager Justin McCarthy. In spite of this poor start Kearney's side reached the All-Ireland final for the first time in forty-five years. Kilkenny provided the opposition and went on to trounce Waterford by 3-30 to 1-13 to claim a third All-Ireland title in-a-row. In recent seasons Kearney has remained on the Waterford panel but has failed to make an impact on the starting fifteen
Nine Circles is a Dutch-German minimal electronic band. The name originates from the "Nine Circles of Hell" from Dante Alighieri's "Divine Comedy". Nine Circles were founded in 1980 in Amsterdam by Peter van Garderen. Van Garderen played in the band Genetic Factor and met Lidia Fiala, who wrote poems and lyrics since she was 15 years old. Richard Zijlstra presented a radio show called Spleen, it gave new wave bands a chance to become known. Bands sent in their demo tapes to VPRO and some of them got the possibility to play live in the radio and to release their songs on the compilation LP "Radio Nome". Nine Circles got the live radio deal and the possibility to be on the LP. In the meantime van Garderen and Fiala became a couple and within 2 years they composed about 60 songs, from which half of them were released on several records until 2013. 1982 the relationship broke up and with it the band. Fiala lived in another relationship and took care of her new partner and her kids, she still wrote poems and lyrics.
In 2009 Fialas youngest son Patrick surfed through the Internet and found out about his mothers former band. Much to her surprise Fiala found that people were interested in her music, that the "Radio Nome" LP was sold for insane prices, that a whole CD of Nine Circles was released without her knowledge. More than 25 years she had neither talked about the music nor listened to it because she thought it was bad and people wouldn't like it. In 2010 she decided to revive Nine Circles. Since van Garderen lived a different life where music had no place, he couldn't join Fiala in the band, but he supported her by sending her most of the old recordings to be released on vinyl. So she wrote new songs and played some concerts. Over time it turned out, that the keyboarder deceived her and ripped her off, so that Fiala had to split up with him and Nine Circles was on the verge of "dying" again. In 2012 Nine Circles was revived a second time. Through Facebook and MySpace Lidia Fiala met Per-Anders Kurenbach and both recognized that they were on the same wavelength.
They played their first concert in Lyon at the end of May without having rehearsed together and without having met in person before. The concert was a success and so other concerts followed. An album with new songs was released in 2014. "Nice Circles" CD "Live Queekhoven 1982" CDR "The Early Days" 2LP "Alice" LP/CD "New Era/Tsar Bomba" 7" "How's About The Aims In Life/Your Heat Burns My Mask" 7" "Number Not Available/The Face Behind A Clown" 7" "Twinkling Stars" and "What's There Left" on "Various Artists - Radionome" LP "How About The Aims In Life" on "Various Artists - Colonial Vipers" MC "Here Come I, Here Is Me" on "Various Artists - Nullzeit" CDR "Twinkling Stars" on "Various Artists - Cold Waves + Minimal Electronics" 2LP/CD "Mister Nothing" on "Various Artists - Future Echo Tape 01" MC "The Rose" on "Various Artists - Death # Disco" CD "Here Come I, Here Is Me" on "Various Artists - Underground Wave Volume 3" LP "In The Dark Of The Night" on "Various Artists - Frogmania 2" LP "I'm Deeply Touched" on "Various Artists - 80s Compilation EP" 7" "Mercy" on "Various Artists - Electric Voice II" LP "Games" on "Various Artists - Tunes That R...
Attractive!" LP "What's There Left" on "Sixth June - Everytime" CD "What's There Left" on "Roxy Epoxy - 1000" 12" "What's There Left" on "A Tribute To Flexi-Pop - Vol.1" CDR "What's There Left" on "Shock Waves - Vol.1" CDR "Nine Circles" CD Official website official facebook site interview in the guardian discography