Darlington, New South Wales
Darlington is a small, inner-west suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Darlington is located about 3 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. At the time of its incorporation in 1864, it had the distinction of being the smallest municipality in the Sydney metropolitan area, at a mere 44 acres. Darlington is bordered by City Road, Cleveland Street, Golden Grove Street, Wilson Street and Abercrombie Street; the first Aboriginal inhabitants of Darlington were the Cadigal people of the Eora belonging to the wider Dharug language group. The Cadigal were a coastal people who subsisted on fishing, hunting land animals and gathering shellfish and plants. Darlington was part of their southern range bordered by the Kameygal clan to the south at Botany Bay and the Wangal clan to the west; the earliest recorded British history of Darlington is linked to school purposes when in 1789, Governor Arthur Phillip received instructions from England to set aside land in the new penal colony for church and school use.
In 1819, fifty two acres of land was given to William Hutchinson by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. In 1835, a 28 acres land grant was made to William Shepherd by Governor Richard Bourke, it had been promised earlier in 1827 by Governor Ralph Darling and in his honour, Shepherd named the fruit and flower farm he established'Shepherd's Darling Nursery'. His nursery is still remembered today in many Darlington street names such as Ivy, Myrtle, Rose and Shepherd Streets. By 1844, the Hutchinson estate, much of Shepherd's Nursery and a portion of the adjoining 96 acre land grant to William Chippendale comprised much of present-day Darlington. By the late 1850s, the University of Sydney to the north of Darlington, at the site of the former Grose Farm was established; the incorporation of Darlington was proclaimed on 16 September 1864 and the first council was elected. The origin of the suburb’s name is arguable being derived from Governor Ralph Darling and the Darling Nursery, or from William Vane, 3rd Earl of Darlington, a well known British politician during the early years of the New South Wales Colony.
Rapid subdivision of Darlington continued in the 1880s but by 1891, Darlington was regarded as a slum and was the most densely populated suburb of Sydney. By the late 1890s, the Eveleigh Railway Workshops had been built and were employing many local workers. Other industries operating in Darlington at this time included the Henry Jones and Co. jam factory, iron foundry, a zinc and brass works, two cabinet factories, a cordial factory, a boot factory, a portmanteau factory and other small industries. In the late 1950s, the State Government re-zoned some 70 acres of the Darlington area as a ‘special uses’ or University Extension Area, enabling the University of Sydney to extend its campus across City Road into Darlington; this resulted, despite increasing community opposition and resentment, in the demolition of about 650 houses as well as shops, banks, the post office, the Town Hall and other amenities, the population of Darlington decreased by about 2,000. Factories and light industries have closed and the suburb has experienced residential consolidation and urban renewal since the 1990s.
Abercrombie St at Lawson St has become the commercial focus of Darlington since the University expansion in the 1960s. This street has a number of cafes, small grocery and other businesses. Commercial businesses operate within the Sydney University Darlington campus. Broadway Shopping Centre. Sydney University’s Cadigal Green is the largest park in Darlington and contains the old Darlington School, seating and a wetland. Charles Kernan Reserve on Abercrombie St is named after a former local resident and has playground facilities, public BBQs and a community garden. Other parks include the Vine St playground and a pocket park located on the corner of Boundary and Shepherd Sts. Other large parks within walking distance include Victoria Park, Prince Alfred Park and Redfern Park; the Royal Hotel on Abercrombie Street was built by James England in 1894 to serve the needs of local railway workers and offers accommodation, a bistro and pub facilities. The Glengarry Castle Hotel provides pub facilities and a bottleshop.
The Adina Apartment Hotel Complex offers a range of hotel amenities. The opening of the Eveleigh Railway Workshops in the 1880s was the major stimulus for the building of Victorian worker's terraces in Darlington; this style of housing dominated the suburb and housed the workers for the railway workshops and nearby industries. Some earlier workers cottages dating from the 1870s-1880s remain in Vine Streets; the McMurtrie, Kellermann & Co factory stands on the corner of Abercrombie and Lawson Streets and is a landmark in the local neighbourbood marking the junction of five streets. This former boot factory represents the industrial development of Darlington from the late nineteenth century to the mid twentieth century and is significant for its connection to the Australian manufacturing of shoes from the 1880s to the 1920s and gas meters from the 1920s to the 1960s; the former factory represents the historical development of the labour movement as the site of large strikes in 1935 protesting the replacement of skilled with unskilled workers.
It was converted into residential and commercial space in 2002. The IXL Garage building on Golden Grove Street was built in 1937 as a motor garage for the Henry Jones and Company factory and represents the industrial development of Darlington during the mid-twentieth century, it is significant for its connection to the development of the Austra
Anzac Cove is a small cove on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey. It became famous as the site of World War I landing of the ANZACs on 25 April 1915; the cove is 600 metres long, bounded by the headlands of Arıburnu to the north and Little Arıburnu, known as Hell Spit, to the south. Following the landing at Anzac Cove, the beach became the main base for the Australian and New Zealand troops for the eight months of the Gallipoli campaign; the first objective for soldiers coming ashore in enemy-held territory was to establish a beachhead, a safe section of beach protected from enemy attack where supplies and extra troops could be safely brought ashore. Anzac Cove was always within 1 kilometre of the front-line, well within the range of Turkish artillery though spurs from the high ground of Plugge's Plateau, which rose above Arıburnu, provided some protection. General William Birdwood, commander of Anzac, made his headquarters in a gully overlooking the cove, as did the commanders of the New Zealand and Australian Division and the Australian 1st Division.
It was on 29 April that General Birdwood recommended that the original landing site between the two headlands be known as "Anzac Cove" and that the surrounding, hitherto nameless, area occupied by his corps be known as "Anzac". The beach itself became an enormous supply dump and two field hospitals were established, one at either end. Four floating jetties were constructed for the landing of stores replaced in July by a permanent structure known as "Watson's Pier"; the volume of stores overflowed onto the adjacent beaches. Three wireless radio stations were established on the beach to maintain contact with the fleet. While the cove was sheltered from shellfire from across the peninsula, the Chanak forts, as well as the Turkish battleships Turgut Reis and Barbaros Hayreddin anchored in the Dardanelles, shelled the waters off the cove and it was exposed to view from Gaba Tepe to the south and open to view from Nibrunesi Point at the southern tip of Suvla Bay to the north. Nibrunesi Point was under the guns of the Royal Navy so was never used to fire on Anzac, however the well-concealed Turkish battery at Gaba Tepe, known as "Beachy Bill", was a constant menace.
Despite the shelling and Turkish snipers, Anzac Cove was a popular swimming beach for the soldiers. At ANZAC it was a struggle to supply sufficient water for drinking and there was any available for washing. Most soldiers disregarded all but the fiercest shelling rather than interrupt the one luxury available to them. On Anzac Day in 1985, the name "Anzac Cove" was recognised by the Turkish government; the Anzac Day dawn service was held at Arıburnu Cemetery within the cove until 1999 when the number of people attending outgrew the site. A purpose-built "Anzac Commemorative Site" was constructed nearby on North Beach in time for the 2000 service. Over the years, Anzac Cove beach has been degraded by erosion, the construction of the coast road from Kabatepe to Suvla started by Australian engineers just prior to the evacuation of Anzac in December 1915, resulted in the beach being further reduced and bounded by a steep earth embankment; the only way onto the beach was via the CWGC cemeteries at each headland, Arıburnu Cemetery, Beach Cemetery.
In 2003 the Australian government announced that it was negotiating with Turkey to place Anzac Cove on the National Heritage List, which included Australian sites such as the Eureka Stockade gardens. However this request was dismissed by the Turkish government as the Gallipoli peninsula is Turkish territory and a national park in the Turkish National Park System. In 2004 the Australian Minister for Veteran's Affairs, Danna Vale, made a request to the Turkish authorities that roadworks be carried out in the area. In 2005, the resultant efforts to widen the road to provide a bus parking area for the Commemorative Site covered some of the remaining beach, making it impossible to traverse, cut into Plugge's Plateau, making the path to the summit and Plugge's Plateau Cemetery impassable. On 18 October 2005 the federal minister for veterans affairs, Danna Vale, called for the battlefield to be recreated in Australia, saying that the physical similarity between the end of the Mornington Peninsula, in Victoria, Anzac Cove, in Turkey, is "uncanny".
Notes Australian Light Horse Studies Centre – The Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, 25 April 1915 A comprehensive collection of all sources, both Allied and Turkish, including contemporary maps, regarding the landings around Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915. About Anzac Cove
27th Battalion (Australia)
The 27th Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. It was raised in 1915 as part of the First Australian Imperial Force for service during World War I. During the conflict, the battalion saw action at Gallipoli before fighting on the Western Front between 1916 and 1918, it was disbanded in 1919, but was re-raised in 1921 as part of the Citizens Force, which became the "Militia". During World War II the battalion was used in a garrison role until the last year of the war when it was committed to the fighting against the Japanese during the Bougainville campaign. Following the end of hostilities it was disbanded in May 1946. Between 1948 and 1965 the battalion was re-raised and disbanded a number of times before becoming part of the Royal South Australia Regiment, it was disbanded for a final time in 1987, when it was amalgamated with the 10th Battalion, Royal South Australia Regiment to form the 10th/27th Battalion, Royal South Australia Regiment. Because of the restrictions that the Defence Act placed upon deploying units of the Citizens Force overseas, following the outbreak of World War I, the Australian government decided to raise an all volunteer force for overseas service.
This force was known as the Australian Imperial Force. The AIF was to consist of only one infantry division, but following the despatch of the 1st Division in late 1914 further units were raised and these were organised to form the 2nd Division; as part of the 2nd Division, the 27th Battalion was formed on 16 March 1915 at Ascot Park Camp, from recruits drawn from South Australia, allocated to the 24th Battalion. After a period of basic training, the battalion embarked for the Middle East on the troopship HMAT A2 Geelong on 31 May 1915, arriving there on 6 July, they undertook a further two months of training in Egypt before an urgent request for reinforcements led to them being dispatched to Gallipoli where they landed on 12 September. Attached to the 7th Brigade, along with the 25th, 26th and 28th Battalions, they reinforced the battle-worn New Zealand and Australian Division and took up a defensive position on Cheshire Ridge. Throughout October they defended the ridge, during which time they suffered five killed and 29 wounded, before being relieved by New Zealanders in early November.
After this they moved to new positions in Mule Gulley where they undertook further defensive operations alongside the 26th Battalion. Losses during this time amounted to eight wounded. In December, they took over from the 28th Battalion around Happy Valley, before the decision was made to evacuate the Allied forces from the peninsula. On 12 December 1915, the battalion embarked upon the Osmaliegh, bound for Lemnos Island. Following this the 27th Battalion returned to Egypt, where the AIF undertook a period of training and re-organisation as reinforcements arrived from Australia. During this time the AIF was expanded from two infantry divisions to four – with a fifth forming in Australia – and many infantry battalions that had seen service at Gallipoli were split up to provide cadre staff for the newly raised battalions; the battalions of the 2nd Division, were not split up in this manner and the 27th Battalion remained intact. In early 1916, the decision was made to transfer part of the AIF to Europe to take part in the fighting in the trenches along the Western Front in France and Belgium.
Still attached to the 7th Brigade, the 27th Battalion entered the front-line for the first time on 7 April 1916 as the Australians took over a quiet sector near Armentières. On 8 July 1916, the 7th Brigade was ordered to march to the Somme to support the Australian 1st Division, taking part in the fighting around Pozières. On 28 July, the 7th Brigade undertook an attack on the German line, during this time the 27th Battalion was held back in reserve; the attack proved unsuccessful and as a result it was ordered to launch a second attack on 4 August, centred upon German positions around Bapaume. This time the 27th Battalion was to play a key role. Moving off from positions around La Boiselle in the afternoon, the battalion advanced with two companies forward and two back in reserve under the cover of an intense artillery barrage. Due to congestion around the assembly trenches, the battalion arrived at its objective late; the first wave managed to capture the first line of German trenches and although the follow-up waves became lost amidst thick smoke, the two assault companies began to consolidate their position during the night.
In the early morning of 5 August, a heavy German counterattack was launched. This was turned back with considerable cost, with the Germans suffering an estimated 100 men killed and 60 men captured. Following this, the battalion sent out patrols into No Man's Land. During the day their positions were subjected to heavy shellfire from German guns positioned around Thiepval. Although successful, the attack proved costly with the battalion reporting the following casualties: 40 killed, 289 wounded and 67 missing. Afterwards they were relieved by the 48th Battalion and were transferred to Belgium where they were rested in a'quiet' sector south of Zillebeke. In early October, they undertook a number of small scale raids on the German line, capturing a number of prisoners, before they were withdrawn from the line on 27 October and transferred back to the Somme where they subsequently took part in two unsuccessful attacks against German positions east of Flers. In January 1917, the 7th Brigade moved into the Le Sars sector where they took over from British units that were holding the line near Mametz.
Offensive operations during this time were curtailed by bad weather, but
International Force East Timor
The International Force East Timor was a multinational non-United Nations peacemaking taskforce and led by Australia in accordance with United Nations resolutions to address the humanitarian and security crisis that took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of UN peacekeepers. INTERFET was commanded by an Major General Peter Cosgrove. Indonesia annexed the former Portuguese colony; the annexation was resisted by many East Timorese. Cold War security concerns were emphasised, while foreign powers placed high importance on good relations with Indonesia and were reluctant to assist a push for independence as a result. However, following the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto, the new president, B. J. Habibie, was prepared to grant East Timor special autonomy. In late 1998, the Australian prime minister, John Howard, with his foreign minister, Alexander Downer, drafted a letter to Habibie supporting the idea of autonomy but incorporating a suggestion that the long-term issue of East Timorese self-determination could best be defused by providing the East Timorese with an opportunity for a plebiscite after a substantial period of autonomy.
The explicit comparison was with the Matignon Accords involving New Caledonia. The letter upset Habibie, who saw it as implying Indonesia was a "colonial power", he decided in response to announce a snap referendum to be conducted within six months. News of the proposal provoked a violent reaction from pro-Indonesian militia in East Timor; the Indonesian army did not intervene to restore order. At a summit in Bali, Howard told Habibie that a United Nations peacekeeping force should oversee the process. Habibie rejected the proposal; the United Nations Mission in East Timor was established to organise and conduct a referendum on the question of independence. It was composed of observers rather than military personnel; the UN-sponsored referendum held on 30 August 1999 showed overwhelming approval for East Timorese independence from Indonesia. After the result was announced on 4 September, violent clashes, instigated by a suspected anti-independence militia, sparked a humanitarian and security crisis in the region, with Xanana Gusmão calling for a UN peacekeeping force the same day.
Many East Timorese were killed, with as many as 500,000 displaced and around half fleeing the territory. On 6 September, Operation Spitfire commenced with Royal Australian Air Force C-130 Hercules aircraft evacuating UNAMET staff, foreign nationals and refugees, including Bishop Belo, to Darwin from Dili and Baucau airfields with protection provided by unarmed Special Air Service Regiment soldiers; the violence was met with widespread public anger in Australia and elsewhere, activists in Portugal, the United States and other nations pressured their governments to take action. Australia's Opposition Spokesman on Foreign Affairs, Laurie Brereton, was vocal in highlighting evidence of the Indonesian military's involvement in pro-integrationist violence and advocated United Nations peacekeeping to support the East Timor's ballot; the Catholic Church in Australia urged the Australian Government to send an armed peacekeeping force to East Timor to end the violence. Protests occurred outside the Indonesia Consulate in the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
The Australian prime minister, John Howard, gained the support of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U. S. President Bill Clinton for an Australian-led international peacekeeping force to enter East Timor to end the violence. On 12 September, Clinton announced: he Indonesian military has aided and abetted militia violence in East Timor, in violation of the commitment of its leaders to the international community; this has allowed the militias to murder innocent people, to send thousands fleeing for their lives, to attack the United Nations compound. The United States has suspended all military cooperation and sales to Indonesia... The Indonesian Government and military must not only reverse course, they must halt the violence not just throughout the nation. They must permit humanitarian assistance and let the U. N. mission do its job... We are ready to support an effort led by Australia to mobilize a multinational force to help to bring security to East Timor under U. N. auspice... the eyes of the world are on that tiny place and on those poor innocent, suffering people.
Indonesia, in dire economic straits, relented. Under international pressure to allow an international peacekeeping force, President B. J. Habibie announced on 12 September, he told a press conference: A couple of minutes ago I called the United Nations Secretary General, Mr Kofi Annan, to inform about our readiness to accept international peacekeeping forces through the United Nations, from friendly nations, to restore peace and security in East Timor. On 15 September 1999, the United Nations Security Council expressed concern at the deteriorating situation in East Timor and issued its Resolution 1264 calling for a multinational force to restore peace and security to East Timor, to protect and support the United Nations mission there, to facilitate humanitarian assistance operations until such time as a United Nations peacekeeping force could be approved and deployed in the area; the resolution welcomed Australia's letter to accept the leadership of a proposed multinational force in East Timor and to make a substantial contribution to the force itself.
The lead-up to the operation remained politically and militarily tense. The Royal Australian Air Force (RA
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan and Operation Freedom's Sentinel, followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001. The U. S. was supported by the United Kingdom and Australia and by a coalition of over 40 countries, including all NATO members. The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. Since the initial objectives were completed at the end of 2001, the war involves U. S. and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The War in Afghanistan is the longest war in U. S. history. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the U. S. which President George W. Bush blamed on Osama bin Laden, living or hiding in Afghanistan and had been wanted since 1998, President Bush demanded that the Taliban, who were de facto ruling the country, hand over bin Laden; the Taliban declined to extradite him unless they were provided clear evidence of his involvement in the attacks, which the U.
S. dismissed as a delaying tactic and on 7 October 2001 launched Operation Enduring Freedom with the United Kingdom. The two were joined by other forces, including the Northern Alliance – the Afghan opposition, fighting the Taliban in the ongoing civil war since 1996. By December 2001, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were defeated in the country, at the Bonn Conference new Afghan interim authorities elected Hamid Karzai to head the Afghan Interim Administration; the United Nations Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force to assist the new authority with securing Kabul, which after a 2002 loya jirga became the Afghan Transitional Administration. A nationwide rebuilding effort was made following the end of the totalitarian Taliban regime. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected president of the country, now named the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. NATO became involved in ISAF in August 2003, that year assumed leadership of it. At this stage, ISAF included troops from 43 countries with NATO members providing the majority of the force.
One portion of U. S. forces in Afghanistan operated under NATO command. S. command. Following defeat in the initial invasion, the Taliban was reorganized by its leader Mullah Omar, launched an insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF in 2003. Though outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban - and to a lesser extent Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin and other groups - waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, turncoat killings against coalition forces; the Taliban exploited weaknesses in the Afghan government to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. From 2006 the Taliban made significant gains and showed an increased willingness to commit atrocities against civilians – ISAF responded by increasing troops for counter-insurgency operations to "clear and hold" villages. Violence escalated from 2007 to 2009. Troop numbers began to surge in 2009 and continued to increase through 2011 when 140,000 foreign troops operated under ISAF and U.
S. command in Afghanistan. Of these 100,000 were from the U. S. On 1 May 2011, United States Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. NATO leaders in 2012 commended an exit strategy for withdrawing their forces, the United States announced that its major combat operations would end in December 2014, leaving a residual force in the country. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military ending their combat operations in the war. On 28 December 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government; the NATO-led Operation Resolute Support was formed the same day as a successor to ISAF. As of May 2017, over 13,000 foreign troops remain in Afghanistan without any formal plans to withdraw, continue their fight against the Taliban, which remains by far the largest single group fighting against the Afghan government and foreign troops. Tens of thousands of people have been killed in the war.
Over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors, over 62,000 Afghan national security forces were killed, as well as over 31,000 civilians and more Taliban. Afghanistan's political order began to break down with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by his distant cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in a bloodless 1973 Afghan coup d'état. Daoud Khan had served as prime minister since 1953 and promoted economic modernization, emancipation of women, Pashtun nationalism; this was threatening to neighboring Pakistan, faced with its own restive Pashtun population. In the mid-1970s, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto began to encourage Afghan Islamist leaders such as Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, to fight against the regime. In 1978, Daoud Khan was killed in a coup by Afghan's Communist Party, his former partner in government, known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan; the PDPA pushed for a socialist transformation by abolishing arranged marriages, promoting mass literacy and reforming land ownership.
This provoked opposition across rural areas. The PDPA's crackdown was met including Ismail Khan's Herat Uprising; the PDPA was beset by internal leadership differences and was weakened by an internal coup on 11 September 1979 when Hafizullah Amin ousted Nur Muhammad Tara
Conscription in Australia
Conscription in Australia, or mandatory military service known as national service, has a controversial history dating back to the first years of nationhood. Australia only has provision for conscription during times of war. In 1909, the federal government of the prime minister, Alfred Deakin, introduced legislation for a form of conscription for boys from 12 to 14 years of age and for youths from 18 to 20 years of age for the purposes of home defence; the legislation did not allow soldiers to be conscripted for overseas service. This legislation was passed through the combined support of the Protectionist Party and the Australian Labor Party. Following a visit and a report on Australia's defence readiness by Field Marshal Kitchener, the Australian Labor Party government instituted a system of compulsory military training for all males aged between 12 and 26 from 1 January 1911. John Barrett, in his study of boyhood conscription, Falling In, noted: In 1911 there were 350,000 boys of an age to register for compulsory training up to the end of 1915.
Since'universal' was a misnomer, about half that number were exempted from training, or never registered, reducing the group to 175,000. There was extensive opposition to boyhood conscription resulting in, by July 1915, some 34,000 prosecutions and 7,000 detentions of trainees, employers or other persons required to register. Under Labor prime minister Billy Hughes, full conscription for overseas service was attempted during WWI through two plebiscites; the first plebiscite was held on 28 October 1916 and narrowly rejected conscription with a margin of 49% for and 51% against. The plebiscite of 28 October 1916 asked Australians: Are you in favour of the Government having, in this grave emergency, the same compulsory powers over citizens in regard to requiring their military service, for the term of this War, outside the Commonwealth, as it now has in regard to military service within the Commonwealth? A second plebiscite was defeated by a greater margin; the question put to Australians was: Are you in favour of the proposal of the Commonwealth Government for reinforcing the Commonwealth Forces overseas?
After the failure of the first plebiscite, Billy Hughes left the Australian Labor Party parliamentary caucus, taking with him most of the parliamentary party's talent. He promptly crossed the floor with about half of the parliamentary party, creating a new National Labor Party and surviving as prime minister by forming a conservative Nationalist government dependent for support on the Commonwealth Liberal Party; the remainder of the Labor Party, under their new leader Frank Tudor expelled Hughes and all who had followed him. Following the split, Labor stayed out of office for ten years. After the first plebiscite the government used the War Precautions Act and the Unlawful Associations Act to arrest and prosecute anti-conscriptionists such as Tom Barker, editor of Direct Action and many other members of the Industrial Workers of the World and E. H. Coombe of the Daily Herald; the young John Curtin, at the time a member of the Victorian Socialist Party, was arrested. Anti-conscriptionist publications, were seized by government censors in police raids.
Other notable opponents to Conscription included the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne Daniel Mannix, the Queensland Labor Premier Thomas Ryan, Vida Goldstein and the Women's Peace Army. Most trade unions opposed conscription; the County Cork born Archbishop Mannix stated that Ireland had been more wronged by Great Britain than Belgium had been by Germany. Many people thought positively of conscription as a sign of loyalty to Britain and thought that it would support those men who were fighting. However, trade unions feared that their members might be replaced by cheaper foreign or female labour and opposed conscription; some groups argued that the whole war was immoral, it was unjust to force people to fight. South Africa and India were the only other participating countries not to introduce conscription during the First World War; the conscription issue divided Australia with large meetings held both for and against. The women's vote was seen as important, with large women's meetings and campaign information from both sides aimed at women voters.
The campaigning for the first plebiscite was launched by Hughes at a huge overflow meeting at the Sydney Town Hall where he outlined the Government's proposals. This was followed by a huge pro-conscription meeting at the Melbourne Town Hall on 21 September. Anti-conscriptionists in Melbourne, were able to mobilise large crowds with a meeting filling the Exhibition Building on 20 September 1916. An anti-conscription stop work meeting called by five trade unions held on the Yarra Bank mid-week on 4 October attracted 15,000 people, it was passed on 21 September 1916 and mandatory registration and enrolment commenced while the first plebiscite campaign was underway. By 5 October The Age reported that of 11607 men examined, 4581 were found fit 40 percent; the Age noted, in the article "Influence of the IWW", that "the great bulk of the opposition to conscription is centred in Victoria". Many meetings in inner Melbourne and Sydney were disrupted by anti-conscriptionists with speakers being howled down from the audience in what The Age described as "disgraceful exhibition" and "disorderl
Surry Hills, New South Wales
Surry Hills is an inner city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Surry Hills is south-east of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Sydney. Surry Hills is surrounded by the suburbs of Darlinghurst to the north and Haymarket to the west, Moore Park and Paddington to the east and Redfern to the south, it is bordered by Elizabeth Street and Chalmers Street to the west, Cleveland Street to the south, South Dowling Street to the east, Oxford Street to the north. Central is a locality in the north-west of the suburb around Central station. Prince Alfred Park is located nearby. Strawberry Hills is a locality around Cleveland and Elizabeth Streets and Brickfield Hill to the east of that. A multicultural suburb, Surry Hills has had a long association with the Portuguese community of Sydney; the first land grants in Surry Hills were made in the 1790s. Major Joseph Foveaux received 105 acres, his property was known after the Surrey Hills in Surrey, England.
Foveaux Street is named in his honour. Commissary John Palmer received 90 acres, he called the property George Farm and in 1800 Palmer bought Foveaux's farm. In 1792, the boundaries of the Sydney Cove settlement were established between the head of Cockle Bay to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. West of the boundary, which included present-day Surry Hills, was considered suitable for farming and was granted to military officers and free settlers. After Palmer's political failures, his reduced financial circumstances forced the first subdivision and sale of his estate in 1814. Isaac Nichols bought Allotment comprising over 6 acres. Due to the hilly terrain, much of the suburb was considered remote and'inhospitable'. In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks or Cleveland Paddocks. A few villas were built in the suburb in the late 1820s; the suburb remained one of contrasts for much of the nineteenth century, with the homes of wealthy merchants mixed with that of the commercial and working classes.
In 1820, Governor Macquarie ordered the consecration of the Devonshire Street Cemetery. A brick wall was erected. Within a four-year period the cemetery was expanded by the addition of 7 acres to its south. A road was formed along the southern boundary of the cemetery in the first half of the 1830s and was called Devonshire Street; the Devonshire Street Cemetery, where many of the early settlers were buried, was moved to build the Sydney railway terminus. Central railway station was opened on 4 August 1906; the area around Cleveland and Elizabeth streets was known as Strawberry Hills. Strawberry Hills post office was located at this intersection for many years. In 1833, the Nichols estate was sold. One purchase was by Thomas Broughton and subsequently acquired by George Hill who constructed Durham Hall on this and adjoining lots. Terrace houses and workers' cottages were built in Surry Hills from the 1850s. Light industry became established in the area in the rag trade, it became a working class suburb, predominately inhabited by Irish immigrants.
The suburb developed a reputation for vice. The Sydney underworld figure Kate Leigh, lived in Surry Hills for more than 80 years. Surry Hills was favoured by newly arrived families after World War II when property values were low and accommodation was inexpensive. From the 1980s, the area was gentrified, with many of the area's older houses and building restored and many new upper middle-class residents enjoying the benefits of inner-city living; the suburb is now a haven for young rich. The West Kensington via Surry Hills Line operated from 1881 down Crown Street as far as Cleveland Street as a steam tramway, it was extended to Phillip Street in 1909, Todman Avenue in 1912, to its final terminus down Todman Avenue in 1937. When the line was operational it branched from the tramlines in Oxford Street and proceeded down Crown Street to Cleveland Street in Surry Hills south along Baptist Street to Phillip Street, where it swung left into Crescent Street before running south along Dowling Street.
It passed the Dowling Street Depot tuned left into Todman Avenue, where it terminated at West Kensington. The line along Crown Street closed in 1957, the remainder stayed open until 1961 to allow access to Dowling Street Tram Depot. State Transit routes 301, 302 and 303 follow the route down Crown and Baptist Streets as far as Phillip Street. Surry Hills has a mixture of residential and light industrial areas, it remains Sydney's main centre for fashion wholesale activities on the western side. Surry Hills Markets are held in Shannon Reserve at the corner of Crown and Collins Streets, on the first Saturday of every month, the Surry Hills Festival is an annual community event, attracting tens of thousands of visitors, held in and around Ward Park, Shannon Reserve, Crown Street and Hill Street; the Surry Hills Library and Community Centre sits opposite Shannon Reserve and houses the local branch of the city library and the Surry Hills Neighbourhood Centre. The building was "designed to achieve excellence in sustainable design and set new benchmarks in environmental performance" according to the City of Sydney website.
The Harp in the South is a novel by Ruth Park. Published in 1948, it portrays the life of a Catholic Irish-Australian family in Surry Hills, an inner city slum at the time. A sequel, Poor Man's Orange, was published in 1949. Central railway station, the largest station on the Syd