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8-bit computing

In computer architecture, 8-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 8 bits wide. 8-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 8-bit is a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm. The IBM System/360 introduced byte-addressable memory with 8-bit bytes, as opposed to bit-addressable or decimal digit-addressable or word-addressable memory, although its general purpose registers were 32 bits wide, addresses were contained in the lower 24 bits of those addresses. Different models of System/360 had different internal data path widths; the first adopted 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8080, being used in many hobbyist computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s running the CP/M operating system. The Zilog Z80 and the Motorola 6800 were used in similar computers; the Z80 and the MOS Technology 6502 8-bit CPUs were used in home computers and second- and third-generation game consoles of the 1970s and 1980s.

Many 8-bit CPUs or microcontrollers are the basis of today's ubiquitous embedded systems. There are 28 different possible values for 8 bits; when unsigned, it has possible values ranging from 0 to 255. Eight-bit CPUs use an 8-bit data bus and can therefore access 8 bits of data in a single machine instruction; the address bus is a double octet wide, due to practical and economical considerations. This implies a direct address space of only 64 kB on most 8-bit processors; the first commercial 8-bit processor was the Intel 8008, intended for the Datapoint 2200 intelligent terminal. Most competitors to Intel started off with such character oriented 8-bit microprocessors. Modernized variants of these 8-bit machines are still one of the most common types of processor in embedded systems. Another notable 8-bit CPU is the MOS Technology 6502.

Bunny Lewis

Bunny Lewis known professionally under various pseudonyms was a London-based manager, record producer and composer and music manager whose songwriting abilities were used in a number of films. Sometimes this coincided with involvement in films of musicians whom he managed, most notably the actor and singer, Craig Douglas, he co-composed the song, "Cara Mia". Authorship was accredited to'Tulio Trapani and Lee Lange'. Born Bridges George McGibbon Lewis, in Kensington, London, he served in World War II in the Black Watch and was awarded the Military Cross. After being demobbed in January 1946, Lewis worked at Decca Records, his major work was connected to early 1960s productions. Other film credits included work on A Change of The Painted Smile and One Too Many. Lewis managed Doug Sheldon, Tony King, Bourbon Street, Christine Quaite and Douglas, giving the singer known as Terry Perkins, the name under which he would become famous. Sheldon was discovered by Lewis while acting on stage, was offered a recording contract with Decca.

As a composer, Lewis contributed the song, "A Voice in the Wilderness", to the Cliff Richard film, Expresso Bongo. Lewis wrote a handful of songs that figured in the repertoire of early 1960s UK pop star Helen Shapiro. Craig Douglas' cover version of "Oh Lonesome Me" was produced by Lewis; as well as Lee Lange, Bridges wrote and produced his songs under the pseudonyms of Johnny May and Emile Reisdorff. Lewis' record production tally extended to David Whitfield's "Cara Mia" and "Answer Me". All of these songs were number one hits in the UK Singles Chart. Lewis' UK chart-topping effort of four production credits exceeds those notables such as Phil Spector, Mickie Most, Denny Cordell, Phil Coulter and Albhy Galuten, all of whom managed only three such Number Ones. In 1999, Lewis was presented with a Gold Badge award by the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. Lewis died in Westminster, London, in September 2001, at the age of 82. Film credits at IMDb Christine Quaite connection

Hail, Caesar!

Hail, Caesar! is a 2016 comedy film written, produced and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. The film stars Josh Brolin, George Clooney, Alden Ehrenreich, Ralph Fiennes, Jonah Hill, Scarlett Johansson, Frances McDormand, Tilda Swinton, Channing Tatum, it is a fictional story that follows the real-life fixer Eddie Mannix working in the Hollywood film industry in the 1950s, trying to discover what happened to a cast member who vanished during the filming of a biblical epic. First talked about by the Coens in 2004, Caesar! was set to take place in the 1920s and to follow actors performing a play about ancient Rome. The Coens shelved the idea until late 2013. Principal photography began in November 2014 in California; the film premiered in Los Angeles on February 1, 2016, was released in the United States on February 5, 2016. It received positive reviews; the film was chosen by National Board of Review as one of the top ten films of 2016 and it received nominations at the 89th Academy Awards and 70th British Academy Film Awards, both for production design.

In 1951 Hollywood, Eddie Mannix is head of physical production at Capitol Pictures. His duties as the studio "fixer" find him corraling its scandalous stars, fending off twin gossip columnists Thora and Thessaly Thacker, weighing an impressive job offer from the Lockheed Corporation; when unmarried synchronized swimming actress DeeAnna Moran becomes pregnant, Mannix arranges for her to place the baby in foster care discreetly adopt it, preserving her image. Baird Whitlock, the dimwitted star of the studio's major production Hail, Caesar! A Tale of the Christ, is abducted, he awakens at a meeting of The Future, a group of Communist screenwriters, is won over to their cause. The Future send a ransom note demanding $100,000 for Whitlock's return, which Mannix procures from the studio as "petty cash", he convinces Thora to withhold a story in exchange for information on signing Western film star Hobie Doyle. Doyle has been hopelessly cast in a comedy of manners and, despite the efforts of director Laurence Laurentz, cannot overcome his thick Southern American accent.

When Laurentz requests Doyle's removal, Mannix convinces him to continue his coaching. Doyle admits to Mannix his trepidation about the role, but Mannix reassures him and confides in him about Whitlock's kidnapping; that evening, Doyle attends the premiere of his new Western with starlet Carlotta Valdez, as arranged by Mannix. The pair are accosted by the Thacker sisters, but Doyle spots the briefcase of ransom money, carried by musical star Burt Gurney. Mannix and Moran meet with surety agent Joseph Silverman, a trusted scapegoat for the studio, who agrees to foster Moran's child, his dependability proves immensely attractive to Moran. Doyle finds only Whitlock inside; the Future have taken Gurney to rendezvous with a Soviet submarine and defect to Russia, but lose the briefcase in the ocean. Doyle returns Whitlock to the studio. Mannix smacks Whitlock to stop his blathering in his newfound Communist jargon, but orders him to "go out and be a star" and finish Hail, Caesar! The next morning, Mannix learns.

Mannix decides to remain at Capitol Pictures. Thora informs him. However, Mannix persuades her not to run the story as her source, Gurney – being a Communist defector – will tarnish her reputation. Mannix confident in his role in life; the Coens first pitched the story to George Clooney in 1999 during the shooting of O Brother, Where Art Thou? Ethan Coen described it as a "thought experiment" rather than a tangible project. A comedy film, the story was said to follow "a troupe of actors in the 1920s putting on a play about ancient Rome", with the focus on a matinée idol. Clooney was to play the main character, "a hammy actor with a pencil mustache". In February 2008, the Coens said that the film only existed as an idea, they pitched it to Clooney as a fourth opportunity to play a "numbskull", following his roles in O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Intolerable Cruelty and Burn After Reading. Clooney was not enthused; the project was mentioned in a December 2013 interview about Inside Llewyn Davis. Joel Coen revealed that they were "working on" Hail, Caesar!, that it would be their next project.

In May 2014, the Coens reconfirmed the film's development, with the plot now focused on a "fixer" working in the Hollywood film industry in the 1950s. Set in 1951, Caesar! takes place at a transitional time for the film industry. The studio system was breaking down, a Supreme Court ruling had forced studios to divest their movie theaters. Television still in its early years, threatened to pull away audiences; the Cold War and the Red Scare were both underway. Hollywood responded by creating escapist fare: westerns choreographed dance and aquatic spectacles, Roman epics with massive casts. Writing in The Washington Post, Kristen Page-Kirby noted that the nostalgia for Hollywood's golden age is filtered by time. "It’s easy to look back at any part of the past and say,'Yeah, that’s how it should be today'. Hail, Caesar! Uses the uniformly terrible fake movies within it to show that while we all remember 1946 for stuff like The Yearling and Notorious, it gave us Tarzan and the Leopard Woman." The Coens cited their own examples of sub-par films and performances from the era that they saw as television re-runs while growing up: That Touch of Mink, Laurence Olivier, in brownface, co-starring with Charlton Heston in Khart

Strother Field

Strother Field is a public airport located in Cowley County, United States. It is located five nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Winfield and north of Arkansas City; the airport is jointly owned by both cities. This airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. An airport, jointly owned by Arkansas City and Winfield, was under construction in April 1942 when the United States Army Air Forces indicated a need for a training airfield by the Army Air Forces Flying Training Command, Gulf Coast Training Center. Strother Army Airfield was rushed to completion with the first class of cadets scheduled to arrive for basic training in Vultee BT-13 Valiant aircraft on December 14, 1942; the military use of Strother Field ended in October 1945 and it was turned over for civil use. Today, the site is Industrial Park. Remaining wartime structures include the runways, two hangars, two link training buildings, a tetrahedron wind cone, two ruins sites and a building of unknown original use.

The airport is named for Donald Root Strother, the first Army Air Corps pilot from Cowley County, Kansas to lose his life in World War II. His older brother Dean C. Strother became a four-star general in the United States Air Force. Strother Field covers an area of 1,530 acres at an elevation of 1,160 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways with asphalt surfaces: 17/35 is 5,506 by 100 feet and 13/31 is 3,137 by 75 feet. Strother field's industrial park includes a jet engine maintenance and manufacturing facility for GE Aviation. For the 12-month period ending November 19, 2008, the airport had 6,500 general aviation aircraft operations, an average of 17 per day. At that time there were 18 aircraft based at this airport: 83% single-engine, 11% ultralight, 6% multi-engine. Strother Field Industrial Park, Kansas Historical building inventory of Strother Field, 2008 Aerial image as of March 1996 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for WLD, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for WLD AirNav airport information for KWLD ASN accident history for WLD FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures

V. Sundaram

Captain V. Sundaram was an Indian pilot and animal welfare activist, he founded the Blue Cross of the largest animal welfare organization of Asia. Captain V. Sundaram became a pilot in 1935 at the age of 19, he returned to India to become an instructor at the Madras Flying Club. He flew extensively over the country, was the first person to take a picture of the Taj Mahal from air. During World War II, he trained American pilots. In 1945 he joined Tata Airlines, from 1945-1951, served as the pilot of the Maharaja of Mysore. During this time he flew Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel throughout India the latter when he was negotiating the merger of princely states with India, his wife, served as co-pilot in many of these flights. They set a world record for flying a de Havilland Dove from London to Madras in 27 hours; this record for a piston-engined aircraft is still unbroken. Captain Sundaram had an accident-free flying record during the 35 years he served as pilot, he wrote of his experiences.

Captain V. Sundaram was always known for his compassion for animals, it was known among pilots that he would keep circling around until the runway was cleared of stray animals. He was instrumental in stopping animal sacrifices at several places, he organized several seminars speaking against cruel methods of killing animals. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Animal Welfare Board of India until 1987. On a rainy day in 1959, Captain Sundaram saw two pups struggling to stay afloat in the flooded roads of T. Nagar, Chennai, he founded the Blue Cross of India, a shelter for animals. In his own words, "God had given me so much. There are so many charitable institutions for human beings, but so few for animals." Blue Cross, started with a kennel in his own home, grew under his leadership to become the largest animal welfare organization of Asia. Queen Victoria Medal from the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1964 Watamull Foundation Award, 1987 Silver medal from Madras SPCA Silver medal from the Mylapore Academy Distinguished Service Award from the Rotary club of South Madras Prani Mitra Award, posthumously An Airman's Saga.

Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. ISBN 81-7276-102-3

1978 Arkansas gubernatorial election

The Arkansas gubernatorial election of 1978, held on November 7, was the first time that Bill Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas. At this time, one gubernatorial term was two years. Incumbent two-term Democratic Governor David Pryor decided to not seek re-election in order to run for the United States Senate, as his predecessor and future Senate colleague Dale Bumpers did. Bill Clinton, Attorney General Frank Lady II, former State Representative and candidate for Governor in 1976 Randall Mathis, Clark County Judge Monroe Schwarzlose, turkey farmer Joe Woodward, Seventh Circuit Prosecuting Attorney Clinton, a former assistant to U. S. Senator J. William Fulbright and since 1977 the state Attorney General, won the nomination easily. A. Lynn Lowe, a Texarkana farmer, who served as state Republican Party chairman from 1974–1980, was unopposed for the 1978 gubernatorial nomination, he had been the Republican nominee for Arkansas's 4th congressional district seat in 1966. Clinton won easily. Clinton led in fundraising.

His campaign budget combined $709,234.00 while Lynn's was $171,382. Clinton, at the age of thirty-two, became the youngest Arkansas governor, the youngest governor in the United States since Harold E. Stassen won in Minnesota in 1938 at the age of thirty-one, the youngest governor in nation at this time. In 1992 he was elected third-youngest U. S. President. Lowe's total was the highest for a Republican nominee in Arkansas since Winthrop Rockefeller's third term bid in 1970, he carried fourteen out of seventy-five counties, including Miller and Union counties in South Arkansas