Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. It refers to the projection format in which a distorted image is "stretched" by an anamorphic projection lens to recreate the original aspect ratio on the viewing screen; the word anamorphic and its derivatives stem from the Greek words meaning "formed again". As a camera format, anamorphic format is losing popularity in comparison to "flat" formats such as Super 35 mm film shot using spherical lenses. In the years since digital cinema cameras and projectors have become commonplace, anamorphic has experienced a considerable resurgence of popularity, due in large part to the higher base ISO sensitivity of digital sensors, which facilitates shooting at smaller apertures; the process of anamorphosing optics was developed by Henri Chrétien during World War I to provide a wide angle viewer for military tanks. The optical process was called Hypergonar by Chrétien and was capable of showing a field of view of 180 degrees.
After the war, the technology was first used in a cinematic context in the short film Construire un Feu in 1927 by Claude Autant-Lara. In the 1920s, phonograph and motion picture pioneer Leon F. Douglass created special effects and anamorphic widescreen motion picture cameras. However, how this relates to the earlier French invention, development, is unclear. Anamorphic widescreen was not used again for cinematography until 1952 when Twentieth Century-Fox bought the rights to the technique to create its CinemaScope widescreen technique. CinemaScope was one of many widescreen formats developed in the 1950s to compete with the popularity of television and bring audiences back to the cinemas; the Robe, which premiered in 1953, was the first feature film released, filmed with an anamorphic lens. The introduction of anamorphic widescreen arose from a desire for wider aspect ratios that maximised overall image detail while retaining the use of standard cameras and projectors; the modern anamorphic format has an aspect ratio of 2.40:1, meaning the picture's width is 2.4 times its height.
The older Academy format 35 mm film has an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, when projected, is not as wide. Anamorphic widescreen was a response to a shortcoming in the non-anamorphic spherical widescreen format. With a non-anamorphic lens, the picture is recorded onto the film negative such that its full width fits within the film's frame, but so does its full height. A substantial part of the frame area is thereby wasted, being occupied by a portion of the image, subsequently matted-out and so not projected, in order to create the widescreen image. To increase overall image detail, by using all the available area of the negative for only that portion of the image which will be projected, an anamorphic lens is used during photography to stretch the image vertically, thereby filling the full frame's area with the portion of the image that corresponds to the area projected in the non-anamorphic format. Up to the early 1960s, three major methods of anamorphosing the image were used: counter-rotated prisms, curved mirrors in combination with the principle of Total Internal Reflection, cylindrical lenses.
Regardless of method, the anamorphic lens projects a vertically stretched image on the film negative. This deliberate geometric distortion is reversed on projection, resulting in a wider aspect ratio on-screen than that of the negative's frame. An anamorphic lens consists of a regular spherical lens, plus an anamorphic attachment that does the anamorphosing; the anamorphic element operates at infinite focal length, so that it has little or no effect on the focus of the primary lens it's mounted on but still anamorphoses the optical field. A cameraman using an anamorphic attachment uses a spherical lens of a different focal length than he would use for Academy format, the anamorphic attachment squeezes the image to half-width. Other anamorphic attachments existed which would expand the image in the vertical dimension, so that a frame twice as high as it might have been filled the available film area. In either case, since a larger film area recorded the same picture the image quality was improved.
The distortion introduced in the camera must be corrected when the film is projected, so another lens is used in the projection booth that restores the picture back to its correct proportions to restore normal geometry. The picture is not manipulated in any way in the
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Svema is a registered trade mark and former name of the Shostka Chemical Plant, located in Shostka, Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. It was founded in 1931 in Ukrainian SSR. "Svema" used to be the major photographic film manufacturer in the USSR, but their film lost market share in former Soviet countries to imported products during the late 1990s. They made black-and-white photographic film, photographic paper, B&W/colour cine film and magnetic tapes until 2000. Colour film was made with equipment dismantled from the Agfa-Wolfen Factory after World War II. Svema products were known among enthusiasts as an easy and sturdy product for beginners in home film development and printing. * Svema DS-4 Color Negative Film ISO/ASA 50 * Svema CO-32D Color Reversal film ISO/ASA 32 * Svema CO-50d Color Reversal film ISO/ASA 50 * Svema CND 64 Color Negative Film ISO/ASA 64 * Svema TsNL 65 Color Negative Film ISO/ASA 80 * Svema LN-9 Color Negative Film, 35mm motion picture film stock * Svema DS-5M Color Negative Film, 35mm motion picture film stock Reel to reel tapes Before 1987 Svema Foto 32.
Svema shut down in 2006, having served only as a district heating source for the town of Shostka in the intervening years. Ru:Свема Astrum a company that took over some of Svema's manufacturing equipment after its closure
Super 35 is a motion picture film format that uses the same film stock as standard 35 mm film, but puts a larger image frame on that stock by using the negative space reserved for the optical analog sound track. Super 35 was revived from a similar Superscope variant known as Superscope 235, developed by the Tushinsky Brothers for RKO in 1954; when cameraman Joe Dunton was preparing to shoot Dance Craze in 1982, he chose to revive the Superscope format by using a full silent-standard gate and optically recentering the lens port. These two characteristics are central to the format, it was adopted by Hollywood starting with Greystoke in 1984, under the format name Super Techniscope. As other camera rental houses and labs started to embrace the format, Super 35 became popular in the mid-1990s, is now considered a ubiquitous production process, with usage on well over a thousand feature films, it is the standard production format for television shows, music videos, commercials. Since none of these require a release print, it is unnecessary to reserve space for an optical soundtrack.
James Cameron was an early and vocal supporter of the format, first using it for The Abyss used it in Terminator 2: Judgment Day, True Lies, Titanic. It received much early publicity for making the cockpit shots in Top Gun possible, since it was otherwise impossible to fit 35 mm cameras with large anamorphic lenses into the small free space in the cockpit. John Hughes used the format in Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Ridley Scott used it in Black Rain, Black Hawk Down, Kingdom of Heaven, Body of Lies, Robin Hood, Ron Howard used it in Backdraft, Apollo 13, The Missing, Cinderella Man, The Da Vinci Code, Frost/Nixon, Angels & Demons, The Dilemma, Nicholas Meyer used it in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Quentin Tarantino used it in Reservoir Dogs and Kill Bill: Volumes 1 & 2, James Ivory used it in Howards End and The Remains of the Day, Martin Scorsese used it in The Age of Innocence, Kundun, Gangs of New York, The Aviator, The Departed, Shutter Island, Paul Verhoeven used it in Showgirls, Michael Bay used it in The Rock and Bad Boys II, Roland Emmerich used it in Independence Day, The Patriot, The Day After Tomorrow, 2012, Paul Thomas Anderson used it in Hard Eight, Wolfgang Petersen used it in Air Force One and Poseidon, The Coen Brothers used it in O Brother, Where Art Thou?, No Country for Old Men, A Serious Man, True Grit, Inside Llewyn Davis, Hail, Caesar!, Steven Spielberg used it in Minority Report, War Horse and The Post, Sam Raimi used it in Spider-Man 2 & 3.
David Fincher used the format in many of his films including Se7en, The Game, Fight Club, Panic Room. Franchises that used the Super 35 format include The Matrix, The Fast and the Furious, Harry Potter, the first three Pirates of the Caribbean movies, National Treasure, the first two The Chronicles of Narnia movies, The Twilight Saga. Super 35 is a production format. Theatres do not project Super 35 prints. Rather, films are shot in a Super 35 format but are — either through optical blowdown/matting or digital intermediate — converted into one of the standard formats to make release prints; because of this productions use Super 35's width in conjunction with a 3-perf negative pulldown to save costs on "wasted" frame area shot and accommodate camera magazines that could shoot 33% longer in time with the same length of film. If using 4-perf, the Super 35 camera aperture is 24.89 mm × 18.66 mm, compared to the standard Academy 35 mm film size of 21.95 mm × 16.00 mm and thus provides 32% more image area than the standard 35-mm format.
4-perf Super 35 is the original frame size, used in 35 mm silent films. That is, it is a return to the way the film stock was used before the frame size was cropped to allow room for a soundtrack. Super 35 competes with the use of the standard 35 mm format used with an anamorphic lens. In this comparison, advocates of Super 35 claim an advantage in flexibility. Super 35 uses standard "spherical" camera lenses, which are faster and cheaper to rent — a factor in low-budget production — and provide a wider range of lens choices to the cinematographer; the chief advantage of Super 35 for productions is its adaptability to different release formats. Super 35 negatives can be used to produce high-quality releases in any aspect ratio, as the final frame is extracted and converted from the larger full frame negative; this means that a full-frame video release can use more of the frame than the theatrical release, provided that the extra frame space is "protected for" during filming. The aspect ratio and extraction method must be chosen by the director of photography ahead of time, so the correct ground glass can be created to let the camera operator see where the extracted frame is.
Super 35 ratios have included: 4:3 16:9 1.85:1 2.00:1 Univisium 2.20:1 2.39:1 1.66:1 and 1.75:1 have been indicated in some Super 35 frame leader charts, although g
17.5 mm film
17.5 mm film was a film gauge for as many of eight types of motion picture film stock created by splitting unperforated 35 mm film. 17.5 mm film was first documented in 1898 with the creation of the Birtac camera, subsequently went through several different iterations up until the end of World War 2, when Kodak's 16 mm film and 8 mm film took its place in terms of popularity. In addition to original pioneering experiments, 17.5 mm film was used during World War II to use existing 35 mm stock more economically. Afterward, this format continued to be used in developing countries such as India, or for projects where usage of regular 35 mm film would have been too expensive; the British-American photographer and inventor Birt Acres split 35 mm film in half for his Birtac camera-projector in 1898. The film used had a single row of perforations running down the left side of the image, with two perforations per image; this is considered to be the first piece of motion picture equipment that utilized 17.5 film.
Alfred Wrench and Alfred Darling created second 17.5 mm format film in 1899 in London. The only differences between their and Acres' film was that their film had central perforations, it could be utilized as a medium for still pictures as well; the Biokam camera and printer was produced by the Warwick Trading Company. Tracing 17.5mm practices in Germany in 1902–1908 A Brief History of Amateur Film Gauges and Related Equipment
Ciné film is the term used in the UK to refer to the 9.5 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm and Super 8 motion picture film formats used for home movies. It is not used to refer to professional formats such as 35 mm or 70 mm film, is incorrect if applied to any video format. In the US, "movie film" is the common informal term for all formats and "motion picture film" the formal one. Cine film means "moving" film. Although there had been earlier attempts employing larger formats, the introduction of the 9.5 mm and 16 mm formats in the early 1920s succeeded in introducing the practice of showing rented "play-at-home" copies of professionally made films, which, in the case of feature-length films, were much shortened from the originals. More these new cine film gauges were the first practical formats for making casual amateur "home movies" of vacation trips, family gatherings, important events such as weddings. Amateur dramas and comedies were sometimes filmed just for fun and without any aspiration to artistic merit.
On occasion, professional filmmakers employed cine film for cost-saving reasons or to evoke a particular aesthetic effect. Amateur 16 mm film-making was an expensive hobby limited to the affluent; the 9.5 mm format was not quite so costly. The 8 mm format, introduced in 1932, consumed only one-quarter as much film as 16 mm and made home movies a reasonably affordable luxury for the many; the 16 mm format came to be used for commercial and industrial purposes as a cost-cutting, compact alternative to 35 mm film that produced an acceptably sharp and bright image on smaller screens. Cine film, being available, was used to record scientific data, such as observations of animal behaviour and human gait. In some cases, such as studies of fluid dynamics, recording was done onto cine film at higher speeds than those used in home movies. In the mid-1970s, Betamax and VHS home videocassette recorders were introduced. Color video cameras beyond the financial reach of all but the richest amateurs became cheaper and smaller.
Battery-powered camcorders combined the recorder and the camera into one portable and compact and affordable unit. By the early 1980s an hour of blank videotape cost no more than a three-minute 50-foot roll of 8 mm film with processing; the writing was on the wall for cine film as a mass market item, though in the early 2010s all the film formats mentioned above are still supported with new film stock and processing, albeit only from a few specialist suppliers. Since cine film is now an obsolete format, some companies offer a service whereby these films are converted to modern formats such as DVD, hobbyists have devised ways of performing the transfer with do-it-yourself equipment. Https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pgb7CwAAQBAJ&pg=PA18#v=onepage&q&f=false
CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, less later, for shooting widescreen movies that, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyros P. Skouras, the president of 20th Century Fox, marked the beginning of the modern anamorphic format in both principal photography and movie projection; the anamorphic lenses theoretically allowed the process to create an image of up to a 2.66:1 aspect ratio twice as wide as the common Academy format's 1.37:1 ratio. Although the technology behind the CinemaScope lens system was made obsolete by developments advanced by Panavision, CinemaScope's anamorphic format has continued to this day. In film-industry jargon, the shortened form,'Scope, is still used by both filmmakers and projectionists, although today it refers to any 2.35:1, 2.39:1, 2.40:1 or 2.55:1 presentation or, the use of anamorphic lensing or projection in general. Bausch & Lomb won a 1954 Oscar for its development of the CinemaScope lens.
French inventor Henri Chrétien developed and patented a new film process that he called Anamorphoscope in 1926. It was this process that would form the basis for CinemaScope. Chrétien's process was based on lenses that employed an optical trick which produced an image twice as wide as those that were being produced with conventional lenses, he attempted to interest the motion picture industry in his invention, but at that time the industry was not sufficiently impressed. By 1950, cinema attendance declined with the advent of a new competitive rival: television, yet Cinerama and the early 3D films, both launched in 1952, succeeded at the box office in defying this trend, which in turn persuaded Spyros Skouras, the head of Twentieth Century-Fox, that technical innovation could help to meet the challenge. Skouras tasked Earl Sponable, head of Fox's research department, with devising a new, projection system, but something that, unlike Cinerama, could be retrofitted to existing theatres at a modest cost – and Herbert Brag, Sponable's assistant, remembered Chrétien's "hypergonar" lens.
The optical company Bausch & Lomb was asked to produce a prototype "anamorphoser" lens. Meanwhile, Sponable tracked down Professor Chrétien, whose patent for the process had expired, so Fox purchased his existing Hypergonars from him and these lenses were flown to Fox's studios in Hollywood. Test footage shot with these lenses was screened for Skouras, who gave the go-ahead for development of a widescreen process based on Chrétien's invention, to be known as "CinemaScope". Twentieth Century-Fox's pre-production of The Robe committed to Technicolor Three-Strip origination, was halted so that the film could be changed to a CinemaScope production. Two other CinemaScope productions were planned: How to Marry a Millionaire and Beneath the Twelve-Mile Reef. So that production of these first CinemaScope films could proceed without delay, shooting started using the best three of Chrétien's Hypergonars while Bausch & Lomb continued working on their own versions; the introduction of CinemaScope enabled Fox and other studios to reassert its distinction from the new competitor, television.
Chrétien's Hypergonars proved to have significant operational defects. Bausch & Lomb, Fox's prime contractor for the production of these lenses produced an improved "Chrétien-formula" adapter lens design, subsequently produced a improved and patented "Bausch & Lomb formula" adapter lens design. "Bausch & Lomb formula" "combined" lens designs incorporated both the "prime" lens and the anamorphic lens in one unit. These "combined" lenses continue to be used to this day in special effects units. Other manufacturers' lenses are preferred for so-called "production" applications that benefit from lighter weight or lower distortion, or a combination of both characteristics. CinemaScope was developed to use a separate film for sound, thus enabling the full "silent" 1.33:1 aperture to be available for the picture, with a 2:1 anamorphic squeeze applied that would allow an aspect ratio of 2.66:1. When, developers found that magnetic stripes could be added to the film to produce a composite picture/sound print, the ratio of the image was reduced to 2.55:1.
This reduction was kept to a minimum by reducing the width of the normal KS perforations so that they were nearly square, but of DH height. This was the CinemaScope, or CS, known colloquially as "fox-holes". Still an optical soundtrack was added, further reducing the aspect ratio to 2.35:1. This change meant a shift in the optical center of the projected image. All of Fox's CinemaScope films were made using a silent/full aperture for the negatives, as was this studio's practice for all films, whether anamorphic or not. In order to better hide so-called "negative assembly" splices, the ratio of the image was changed by others to 2.39:1 and to 2.40:1. All professional cameras are capable of shooting 2.55:1 or 2.66:1 (standard "Full"/"Silent" aperture plate, preferred by many producers and all optical