Super 8mm film is a motion picture film format released in 1965 by Eastman Kodak as an improvement over the older "Double" or "Regular" 8 mm home movie format. The film is nominally 8mm wide, the same as older formatted 8mm film, but the dimensions of the rectangular perforations along one edge are smaller, which allows for a greater exposed area; the Super 8 standard allocates the border opposite the perforations for an oxide stripe upon which sound can be magnetically recorded. Unlike Super 35, the film stock used for Super 8 is not compatible with standard 8 mm film cameras. There are several varieties of the film system used for shooting, but the final film in each case has the same dimensions; the most popular system by far was the Kodak system. Launched in 1965 by Eastman Kodak at the 1964-65 Worlds Fair, Super 8 film comes in plastic light-proof cartridges containing coaxial supply and take up spools loaded with 50 feet of film, with 72 frames per foot, for a total of 3,600 frames per film cartridge.
This is enough film for 2.5 minutes at the professional motion picture standard of 24 frames per second, for 3 minutes and 20 seconds of continuous filming at 18 frames per second for amateur use. In 1973 the system was upgraded with a larger cartridge. In 1975 an larger 200-foot cartridge became available which could be used in designed cameras; the sound and the 200 foot cartridge system are no longer available, but the 50 foot silent cartridge system is still manufactured. Super 8 film was a reversal stock for home projection used for the creation of home movies, it became an popular consumer product in the late 1960s through the 1970s, but was replaced in the 1980s by the use of video tape. During the mid-to-late 1980s Super 8 began to re-emerge as an alternative method for movie production, beginning with its use in MTV music videos in 1981. In 1993 the company's Super8 Sound, now called Pro8mm, pioneered the use of the color negative in Super 8 by custom perforating and loading a variety of 35mm film stocks into the Super 8 film cartridge.
This included emulsions from Kodak and Ilford. Today Super 8 color negative film is the main color stock used. There are Super 8 reversal films available including 100D Kodak Ektachrome and 200D Agfa color as well as black-and-white from Foma, ADOX and ORWO and Kodak; the Super 8 plastic cartridge is the fastest loading film system developed, as it can be loaded into the Super 8 camera in less than two seconds without the need to directly thread or touch the film. In addition, coded notches cut into the Super 8 film cartridge exterior allow the camera to recognize the film speed automatically. Not all cameras can read all the notches however, there is some debate about which notches deliver the best results. Canon keeps an exhaustive list of their Super 8 cameras with detailed specifications on what film speeds can be used with their cameras. Testing one cartridge of film can help handle any uncertainty a filmmaker may have about how well their Super 8 camera reads different film stocks. Color stocks were available only in tungsten, all Super 8 cameras come with a switchable daylight filter built in, allowing for both indoor and outdoor shooting.
The original Super 8 film release was a silent system only, but in 1973 a sound on film version was released. The film with sound had a magnetic soundtrack and came in larger cartridges than the original cartridge in order to accommodate the sound recording head in the film path. Sound film requires a longer film path, a second aperture for the recording head. Sound cameras are compatible with silent cartridges, but not vice versa. Sound film is filmed at a speed of 18 or 24 frames per second. Kodak discontinued the production of Super 8 sound film in 1997 citing environmental regulations as the reason; the adhesive used to bond the magnetic track to the film is environmentally hazardous. In 2005 Kodak announced the discontinuation of their most popular stock Kodachrome due to the decline of facilities equipped with K-14 process. Kodachrome was "replaced" by a new ISO 64 Ektachrome; the last roll of Kodachrome was processed on January 18, 2011, in Parsons, Kansas, by the sole remaining lab capable of processing it.
In December 2012, Kodak discontinued color reversal stock in all formats including 35mm and Super 8. However, in Spring of 2019, Kodak introduced Ektachrome 100D in super 8 and 16mm formats, citing surges in demand. Today there is still a variety of Super 8 film stocks. Kodak sells one Super 8 color reversal stock, Ektachrome 100D, three Super 8 color negative stocks cut from their Vision 3 film series, ISO 50, ISO 200 and ISO 500 which can be used in low light. Kodak reformulated the emulsions for the B&W reversal stocks and made Tri-X in order to give it more sharpness. Film cut to Super 8 from other manufactured raw stock such as Fuji, Adox and Foma are available. Pro8mm offers 7 color negative stocks made from Fuji film. Color Reversal film for Super 8 is still available from several Super 8 specialty companies. Wittner Kinotechnik offers Super 8 made from a batch of Agfa Aviphot 200D, perforated and slit for Super 8, 8mm and 16mm formats; this film is loaded into Single cartridges by several of the specialty companies.
Other stocks, such as the new Fuji reversal film, existing supplies of Kodak 35mm 100D
Samuel "Sticks" Evans was an American drummer, music teacher and musical director. He was credited variously as Sammy "Stick" Evans, Samie Evans, Sammy Evans, Sammie Evans, Stick Evans, Sticks Evans, Belton Evans. In 1950, he recorded with the Milt Buckner Orchestra backing Wynonie Harris, in 1952-3 he was playing and recording with Milt Buckner's Organ Trio, he left the trio in February 1953, in 1954 he was with the Teddy Wilson Trio with Milt Hinton. In the early 1960s, he was recording on the Prestige label, credited as Belton Evans, accompanied on bass by Leonard Gaskin, for blues artists such as Curtis Jones, Sunnyland Slim, Sonny Terry, Big John Greer, LaVern Baker, King Curtis, he appears on John Lewis’ Jazz Abstractions album, with Bill Evans, Eric Dolphy, Ornette Coleman and Jim Hall, among others. That same year he was a member of the Ray Bryant Combo backing Aretha Franklin on her second album, Aretha: With The Ray Bryant Combo, his pupils included Bernard Purdie, Max Neuhaus, Terry Burrus.
Evans died of a stroke, in New York City, in 1994. 1959: The Wildest Guitar - Mickey Baker 1960: Slim's Shout - Sunnyland Slim 1960: Buck Jumpin', The Al Casey Quartet - Al Casey 1960: Sonny's Story - Sonny Terry 1960: Slim's Shout – Sunnyland Slim 1960: The Honeydripper - Roosevelt Sykes 1960: Sonny Is King - Sonny Terry 1960: Lightnin' - Lightnin' Hopkins 1960: Trouble Blues - Curtis Jones 1960: Pre Bird - Charles Mingus 1961: Beauty is a Rare Thing - Ornette Coleman 1961: Aretha: With The Ray Bryant Combo - Aretha Franklin 1964: Sam Cooke at the Copa - Sam Cooke 1964: Ya! Ya! - Budd Johnson
Hienghène Sport, known in Fwâi language as Hyehen Sport is a New Caledonian football team from Hienghène playing in the New Caledonia Super Ligue, France. The club was founded in the Hienghène, North Province in 1997 and made its first participation in the New Caledonia Super Ligue in 1999 on the territory of France. Hienghène has won two leagues, being the first in 2017, after the deduction of two points due to failing to provide referees, qualified trainers or youth teams; the club has two appearances in the 7th round of the Coupe de France, following its success in the New Caledonia Cup. During the 2014 edition, Hienghène lost 2 -- 1 to a Championnat National 3 club. In 2016, they lost 3–2 against RC Épernay Champagne a Championnat National 3 club. In 2019, the club competed again in the Coupe de France,but lost 3–1 in the 7th round against ASPV Strasbourg, they won the 2019 OFC Champions League. Along the way, they conceded only one goal. In the final they defeated fellow New Caledonian club AS Magenta by a score of 1–0, with Antoine Roine scoring the only goal.
In 2019 they became the second Oceanian club not from Australia or New Zealand to compete in the FIFA Club World Cup. In the 2019 FIFA Club World Cup, they faced the hosts, Qatari side Al Sadd in the playoff round on 11 December. Hienghène managed to take them to extra time, with Roine scoring their only goal, but Al Sadd scored twice in extra time and Hienghène were eliminated 3–1. New Caledonia Super Ligue Champions: 2017, 2019New Caledonia Cup Winners: 2013, 2015, 2019 OFC Champions League Winners: 2019 Squad for 2020 OFC Champions League Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Hienghène Sport profile at FIFA
The Texas Outstanding Service Medal is the sixth highest military decoration that can be conferred to a service member of the Texas Military Forces. Subsequent decorations are denoted by a bronze or silver twig of four oak leaves with three acorns on the stem device; the Texas Outstanding Service Medal is conferred to any service member of the Texas Military Forces serving in any capacity, whose performance has been such as to merit recognition for service performed in a superior and outstanding manner, but of a lesser degree than required for a higher decoration. The Texas Outstanding Service Medal was authorized by the Sixty-second Texas Legislature in House Bill number 30 and approved by Governor Preston Smith on 13 May 1971, effective the same date; the medal pendant is 1-1/4 of an inch in diameter. On the obverse side is a raised outline of a map of the State of Texas, encircled by the words "TEXAS OUTSTANDING SERVICE MEDAL" balanced with "OUTSTANDING" on the left "SERVICE" on the tip "MEDAL" on the right, "TEXAS" on the bottom, in raised letters.
On the reverse side of the pendant is a five-pointed raised star, 1/2 of an inch in diameter, one point up, surrounded by a wreath formed by an olive branch on the right and a live oak branch on the left, encircled by the words "STATE MILITARY FORCES" on the upper arc and "FOR SERVICE” on the lower arc, in raised letters. The pendant is suspended by a ring from a rayon moiré ribbon, 1-3/8 of an inch wide, composed of five stripes of gray alternating with five stripes of yellow, each of equal width 1/8 of an inch wide, beginning with a yellow stripe on the wearer's left. To denote second and succeeding decorations, a bronze twig of four oak leaves with three acorns on the stem is conferred. A silver oak leaf cluster is worn in lieu of five bronze oak leaf clusters. Awards and decorations of the Texas Military Awards and decorations of the Texas governmentTexas Military Forces Texas Military Department List of conflicts involving the Texas Military Texas Outstanding Service Medal
Rainmaker or The Rainmaker may refer to: Rainmaking, attempting to artificially induce or increase precipitation Rain dancing, a ceremonial dance, performed in order to invoke rain Rainstick, a percussion instrument used when performing in order to invoke rain Cloud seeding, dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei The Rainmaker, a lost American silent film The Rainmaker, by N. Richard Nash The Rainmaker, starring Burt Lancaster and Katharine Hepburn The Rainmaker, John Frankenheimer's 1982 television remake The Rainmaker, a novel by John Grisham The Rainmaker, starring Matt Damon and Danny DeVito The Rainmaker, a mysterious character in the film Looper Sarah Rainmaker, a fictional character from the Gen¹³ comic book series Rainmaker Rainmaker, the title song Rainmaker, the title song The Rainmaker, by The Flower Kings Rainmaker, a 1969 album by Michael Chapman "Rainmaker" "Rainmaker" "Rainmaker", by Harry Nilsson and Bill Martin from the 1969 album Harry, with cover versions by: Tom Northcott The Dillards, from the 1970 album Copperfields Bobbie Gentry, from the 1970 album Fancy Michael Nesmith, from the 1970 album Nevada Fighter The 5th Dimension, from the 1971 album Love's Lines and Rhymes "Rainmaker", by Kansas from the 1988 album In the Spirit of Things "Rainmaker", by The Partridge Family from the 2001 album Sound Magazine "Rainmaker", by Preston Reed from the 1996 album Ladies Night "Rainmaker", by Sleigh Bells from the 2017 EP Kid Kruschev "Rainmaker", by Sparklehorse from the 1996 album Vivadixiesubmarinetransmissionplot "Rainmaker", by Spear of Destiny from the 1984 album One Eyed Jacks "Rainmaker", by Traffic from the 1971 album The Low Spark of High Heeled Boys "Rainmaker", by Vanden Plas from the 1997 album The God Thing "Rainmaker", by Yanni from the 2003 album Ethnicity"Mr. Rainmaker", by Warrant from the 1990 album Cherry Pie Boyd Melson, American boxer Honi ha-M'agel, from the Talmud Rainmaker, ring name of Japanese professional wrestler Kazuchika Okada Rainmaker, generating new business or additional cash flow Rainmaker Digital Effects, a digital effects studio The Rainmaker: a Passion for Politics, a political memoir by Keith Davey Rainmaker, a mode in the video game Splatoon Rain Man The Rainmakers
The Battle of Praga or the Second Battle of Warsaw of 1794 was a Russian assault on Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794. It was followed by a massacre of the civilian population of Praga. After the Battle of Maciejowice General Tadeusz Kościuszko was captured by the Russians; the internal struggle for power in Warsaw and the demoralisation of the city's population prevented General Józef Zajączek from finishing the fortifications surrounding the city both from the east and from the west. At the same time, the Russians were making their way towards the city; the Russian forces consisted of two battle-hardened corps under Generals Aleksandr Suvorov and Ivan Fersen. Suvorov took part in the recent Russo-Turkish war in the heavy fighting in Polesie and in the Battle of Maciejowice. Fersen fought for several months in Poland but was joined by fresh reinforcements sent from Russia; each of them had 11,000 men. The Polish forces consisted of a variety of troops.
Apart from the rallied remnants of the Kościuszko's army defeated in the Battle of Maciejowice, it included a large number of untrained militia from Warsaw and Vilna, a 500-man Jewish regiment of Berek Joselewicz as well as a number of scythemen and civilians. The forces were organised in each covering a different part of Praga; the central area was commanded directly by General Józef Zajączek, the northern area was commanded by Jakub Jasiński and the southern by Władysław Jabłonowski. Altogether, the Polish commander had 104 cannons. Suvorov came to the walls of Praga with 86 cannons; the Russian forces reached the outskirts of Warsaw on 3 November 1794. Upon arrival, they started an artillery barrage of the Polish defences; this made. However, Suvorov's plan assumed a fast and concentrated assault on the Polish defences rather than a bloody and lengthy siege. At 3 o'clock in the morning of November 4, the Russian troops silently reached the positions just outside the outer rim of Polish field fortifications and two hours started an all-out assault.
The Polish defenders were surprised and soon the Polish lines were broken into several isolated pockets of resistance, bombarded by the Russians with canister shots with a devastating effect. General Zajączek was wounded and retreated from his post, leaving the remainder of his forces without command; this made the Poles retreat towards the centre of Praga and towards Vistula. The heavy fighting resulted in a complete defeat of the Polish forces. Joselewicz survived, being wounded, but all of his command was annihilated. Only a small part managed to evade encirclement and retreated to the other side of the river across a bridge. Like in his previous battles, when he had ordered his men to spare non-combatants and the evacuation of townspeople, Suvorov issued an order on 3 November 1794 that included special instructions regarding the treatment of enemy civilians, "Do not enter houses. However, after the battle spread to the streets and the insurgents hid in civilian houses, vowing to fight to the last man, the Russian troops engaged in massive violence against the civilian population, defying the orders given by Suvorov prior to the battle.
William Neville Gardiner, the British ambassador in Warsaw at that time, described the murder of civilians as a "hideous, unnecessary barbarism". Russian military memoirists and historians of the 18th–19th centuries, such as Faddey Bulgarin, Denis Davydov and Platon Zhukovich, believed the Russian troops slaughtered thousands of Polish civilians to avenge the massacre of over two thousand unarmed Russian soldiers occupying Warsaw by armed Polish mobs during the Warsaw Uprising of 1794, when 2,265 men, of Russian military servicemen stationed in Warsaw were massacred by armed Polish mobs, who played a major role in the attack, soldiers and cut with spikes and axes. Historian Norman Davies described as "an orgy of killing" of isolated Russian patrols and the execution of Polish pro-Russian activists. Zhukovich marked his relation of the events of the Warsaw Uprising with descriptions of unarmed Russian soldiers being slaughtered in an Orthodox church during the Eucharist. In the memoirs of Faddey Bulgarin, Russian General Ivan von Klügen, who took part in the Battle of Praga, described the massacre in the following terms: “We were being shot at from the windows of houses and the roofs, our soldiers were breaking into the houses and killing all who happened to get in the way… In every living being our embittered soldiers saw the murderer of our men during the uprising in Warsaw… It cost a lot of effort for the Russian officers to save these poor people from the revenge of our soldiers… At four o'clock the terrible revenge for the slaughter of our men in Warsaw was complete!”
Denis Davydov wrote, “During the assault on Praga the rage of our troops, who were burning with revenge for the treacherous slaughter of our comrades by the Poles, reached extreme limits”. Over the course of the assault, Russian field artillery was supporting the infantry by firing cannon balls and bombs at the parts of the city held by the rebels, causing much damage, as pointed out in the report of Suvorov; the latter noted, "The streets and squares of Praga was strewn with dead bodies, blood was flowing in streams." The wooden houses of Praga caught fire, leading to the massive explosion of