University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
Margaret Benson was an English author and amateur Egyptologist. One of the six children of Edward White Benson, an Anglican educator and clergyman, his wife Mary Sidgwick Benson, the sister of philosopher Henry Sidgwick who founded Newnham College, she and her sister Mary Benson went to Truro Girls High School, a school her father had founded while the first Bishop of Truro. Margaret was one of the first women to be admitted to Oxford University, where she attended Lady Margaret Hall, her intelligence and accomplishments were remarkable. She went to Egypt because of her health, became interested in Egyptology, was the first woman to be granted a government concession to excavate in Egypt, she excavated for three seasons in the Temple of the Goddess Mut, Precinct of Mut, a part of Karnak, where she was joined in the second season by Janet Gourlay,who became her companion. She suffered from frail health most of her life and was not able to continue the excavation after 1897, she suffered a severe mental breakdown in 1907, was treated first in an asylum at St George's Convent, Wivelsfield and from November 1907 to 1912 at The Priory in Roehampton.
She died in 1916 at The Rowans, 27 Lingfield Road, Wimbledon at the age of 50. In the Benson family, several members suffered from mental illnesses bipolar disorder. Margaret had none of whom married, she was known within the family as Maggie. One brother was the novelist E. F. Benson. Another was A. C. Benson, the author of the lyrics to Elgar's "Land of Hope and Glory" and master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, her youngest brother, Robert Hugh Benson, became a minister of the Church of England before converting to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a Catholic priest writing many popular novels. Benson, Margaret. Capital, Labour and the Outlook, 1891. A textbook. Benson, Margaret. Subject to Vanity, Methuen, 1894. "A volume of humorous and sympathetic sketches of animal life and home pets," with numerous illustrations. Benson and Gourlay, Janet; the Temple of Mut in Asher: An account of the excavation of the temple and of the religious representations and objects found therein, as illustrating the history of Egypt and the main religious ideas of the Egyptians, John Murray, 1899 Benson, Margaret.
The Soul of a Cat, Other Stories, Heinemann, 1901. "Stories about animals." Benson, Margaret. The Venture of Rational Faith, 1908. Religious philosophy. Benson, Margaret; the Court of the King, 1912.'Fanciful stories'. Martin, Jessica. "Benson, Margaret". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/56291. WRITER AND ARTIST: Death of the Daughter of the Late Archdeacon Benson, obituary in The Western Times, 16 May 1916 Peck. William H. Margaret Benson in Egypt For a detailed discussion of Benson's excavation history. Peck. William H. Margaret Benson 1865-1916 For a general biography. Bensoin, A. C; the Life and Letters of Maggie Benson
Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln. Construction continued in several phases throughout the medieval period. Like many of the medieval cathedrals of England it was built in the Gothic style, it was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the first building to hold that title after the Great Pyramid of Giza. The central spire was not rebuilt. For hundreds of years the cathedral held one of the four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, now securely displayed in Lincoln Castle; the cathedral is the fourth largest in the UK at around 5,000 square metres, after Liverpool, St Paul's and York Minster. It is regarded by architectural scholars. Remigius de Fécamp, the first Bishop of Lincoln, moved the episcopal seat there "some time between 1072 and 1092" About this, James Essex writes that "Remigius... laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1072" and "it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building... though he could not complete the whole before his death."
Before that, writes B. Winkles, "It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it." Up until St. Mary's Church in Stow was considered to be the "mother church" of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese. Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1124, the timber roofing was destroyed in a fire. Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years in 1185; the earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK: it has an estimated magnitude of over 5. The damage to the cathedral is thought to have been extensive: the Cathedral is described as having "split from top to bottom"; some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was exaggerated by poor construction or design. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed.
He was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a massive expansion programme. With his appointment of William de Montibus as master of the cathedral school and chancellor, Lincoln became one of the leading educational centres in England, producing writers such as Samuel Presbiter and Richard of Wetheringsett, though it declined with importance after William's death in 1213. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210; the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time — pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral; this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, five in the central tower. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock; the clock was installed in the early 19th century.
The two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh being completed in 1235; the latter, the Bishop's Eye, in the south transept was reconstructed a hundred years in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows: "For north represents the devil, south the Holy Spirit and it is in these directions that the two eyes look; the bishop the dean the north in order to shun. With these Eyes the cathedral's face is on watch for the candelabra of Heaven and the darkness of Lethe." After the additions of the Dean's eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in 1237 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire.
They replaced the small rounded chapels with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln. In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died and King Edward I of England decided to honour her, his Queen Consort, with an elegant funeral procession. After her body had been embalmed, which in the 13th century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were bur
A cathedral close is the area around a cathedral, sometimes extending for a hundred metres or more from the main cathedral building. In Europe in the Middle Ages, later, it was all the property of the cathedral and under the bishop or cathedral's legal jurisdiction rather than that of the city, it had gates which were locked at night or when there were disturbances in the city, hence the name. It included buildings housing diocesan offices, free-standing chapels associated with the cathedral, the palace of the bishop and other clergy houses associated with the cathedral, they sometimes but not are arranged in a sort of square around a courtyard, as in the close at Salisbury Cathedral. The German term is Domfreiheit. Today there are residences of non-clerics, which may include official or prominent persons such as judges' houses; until recent local government reforms many cathedral closes still functioned as separate administrative unit: St. David's cathedral close, in Pembrokeshire, counted as a separate civil parish from that of the adjacent village-city for some 50 years after the disestablishment in Wales.
Others still have the secularised former residences of canons but no resident senior clergy. In other cities, such as Trier, property close to the cathedral is occupied by clergy; the Barchester novels of Anthony Trollope are set in the cathedral close of the fictional town of Barchester
Henry Sidgwick was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist. He was the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1883 until his death, is best known in philosophy for his utilitarian treatise The Methods of Ethics, he was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research and a member of the Metaphysical Society and promoted the higher education of women. His work in economics has had a lasting influence, he founded Newnham College in 1875, a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It was the second Cambridge college to admit women after Girton College; the co-founder of the college was Millicent Garrett Fawcett. He joined the Cambridge Apostles intellectual secret society in 1856, he was born at Skipton in Yorkshire, where his father, the Reverend W. Sidgwick, was headmaster of the local grammar school, Ermysted's Grammar School, his mother was née Crofts. Henry himself was educated at Rugby, at Trinity College, Cambridge.
While at Trinity, Sidgwick became a member of the Cambridge Apostles. In 1859, he was chancellor's medallist and Craven scholar. In the same year, he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity and soon afterwards he became a lecturer in classics there, a post he held for ten years; the Sidgwick Site, home to several of the university's arts and humanities faculties, is named after him. In 1869, he exchanged his lectureship in classics for one in moral philosophy, a subject to which he had been turning his attention. In the same year, deciding that he could no longer in good conscience declare himself a member of the Church of England, he resigned his fellowship, he retained his lectureship and in 1881 he was elected an honorary fellow. In 1874 he published The Methods of Ethics, by common consent a major work, which made his reputation outside the university. John Rawls called it the "first academic work in moral theory, modern in both method and spirit". In 1875, he was appointed praelector on moral and political philosophy at Trinity, in 1883 he was elected Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy.
In 1885, the religious test having been removed, his college once more elected him to a fellowship on the foundation. Besides his lecturing and literary labours, Sidgwick took an active part in the business of the university and in many forms of social and philanthropic work, he was a member of the General Board of Studies from its foundation in 1882 to 1899. He married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, a member of the Ladies Dining Society in Cambridge, with 11 other members, was sister to Arthur Balfour. A 2004 biography of Sidgwick by Bart Schultz sought to establish that Sidgwick was a lifelong homosexual, but it is unknown whether he consummated his inclinations. According to the biographer, Sidgwick struggled internally throughout his life with issues of hypocrisy and openness in connection with his own forbidden desires, he was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research, was a member of the Metaphysical Society. He took in promoting the higher education of women.
He helped to start the higher local examinations for women, the lectures held at Cambridge in preparation for these. It was at his suggestion and with his help that Anne Clough opened a house of residence for students, which developed into Newnham College, Cambridge. When, in 1880, the North Hall was added, who, in 1876, had married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, lived there for two years, his wife became principal of the college after Clough's death in 1892, they lived there for the rest of his life. During this whole period, Sidgwick took the deepest interest in the welfare of the college. In politics, he was a liberal, became a Liberal Unionist in 1886. Early in 1900 he was forced by ill-health to resign his professorship, died a few months later. Sidgwick, who died an agnostic, is buried in Terling All Saints Churchyard, Essex, with his wife. In July 1895, the medium Eusapia Palladino was invited to England to Frederic William Henry Myers's house in Cambridge for a series of investigations into her mediumship.
According to reports by the investigators and Oliver Lodge, all the phenomena observed in the Cambridge sittings were the result of trickery. Her fraud was so clever, according to Myers, that it "must have needed long practice to bring it to its present level of skill."In the Cambridge sittings, the results proved disastrous for her mediumship. During the séances, Palladino was caught cheating to free herself from the physical controls of the experiments. Palladino was found liberating her hands by placing the hand of the controller on her left on top of the hand of the controller on her right. Instead of maintaining any contact with her, the observers on either side were found to be holding each other's hands, which made it possible for her to perform tricks. Richard Hodgson had observed Palladino free a hand to move objects and use her feet to kick pieces of furniture in the room; because of the discovery of fraud, the British SPR investigators such as Sidgwick and Frank Podmore considered Palladino's mediumship to be permanently discredited and because of her fraud she was banned from any further experiments with the SPR in Britain.
A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them. The "ghost" may be summoned by magic. Linked to the ghost is the idea of "hauntings", where a supernatural entity is tied to a place, object or person. Ghost stories are examples of ghostlore. Colloquially, the term "ghost story" can refer to any kind of scary story. In a narrower sense, the ghost story has been developed as a short story format, within genre fiction, it is a form of supernatural fiction and of weird fiction, is a horror story. While ghost stories are explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales. Ghosts appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form. A widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material.
Anthropologists link this idea to early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form; the campfire story, a form of oral storytelling involves recounting ghost stories, or other scary stories. Some of the stories are decades old, with varying versions across multiple cultures. Many schools and educational institutions encourage ghost storytelling as part of literature. In 1929, five key features of the English ghost story were identified in "Some Remarks on Ghost Stories" by M. R. James; as summarized by Frank Coffman for a course in popular imaginative literature, they were: The pretense of truth "A pleasing terror" No gratuitous bloodshed or sex No "explanation of the machinery" Setting: "those of the writer's own day"The introduction of pulp magazines in the early 1900s created new avenues for ghost stories to be published, they began to appear in publications such as Good Housekeeping and The New Yorker.
Ghosts in the classical world appeared in the form of vapor or smoke, but at other times they were described as being substantial, appearing as they had been at the time of death, complete with the wounds that killed them. Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer's Odyssey, which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, as well as the Old Testament in which the Witch of Endor calls the spirit of the prophet Samuel; the play Mostellaria, by the Roman playwright Plautus, is the earliest known work to feature a haunted dwelling, is sometimes translated as The Haunted House. Another early account of a haunted place comes from an account by Pliny the Younger. Pliny describes the haunting of a house in Athens by a ghost bound in chains, an archetype that would become familiar in literature. Ghosts appeared in the tragedies of the Roman writer Seneca, who would influence the revival of tragedy on the Renaissance stage Thomas Kyd and Shakespeare.
The One Thousand and One Nights, sometimes known as Arabian Nights, contains a number of ghost stories involving jinn and corpses. In particular, the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad" revolves around a house haunted by jinns. Other medieval Arabic literature, such as the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity contain ghost stories; the 11th century Japanese work The Tale of Genji contains ghost stories, includes characters being possessed by spirits. In the mid-16th century, the works of Seneca were rediscovered by Italian humanists, they became the models for the revival of tragedy. Seneca's influence is evident in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet, both of which share a revenge theme, a corpse-strewn climax, ghosts among the cast; the ghosts in Richard III resemble the Senecan model, while the ghost in Hamlet plays a more complex role. The shade of Hamlet's murdered father in Hamlet has become one of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature.
In another of Shakespeare’s works, the murdered Banquo returns as a ghost to the dismay of the title character. In English Renaissance theatre, ghosts were depicted in the garb of the living and in armour. Armour, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity; the sheeted ghost began to gain ground on stage in the 1800s because an armoured ghost had to be moved about by complicated pulley systems or lifts, became clichéd stage elements and objects of ridicule. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, point out, "In fact, it is as laughter threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of'spirit drapery'." An interesting observation by Jones and Stallybrass is that "at the historical point at which ghosts themselves become implausible, at least to an educated elite, to believe in them at all it seems to be necessary to assert their immateriality, their invisibility. The drapery of ghosts must now, indeed, be as spiritual as the ghosts themselves.
This is a striking departure both from the ghosts of the Renaissance stage and from the Greek and Roman theatrical ghosts upon which that stage drew. The most prominent feature of Renaissance ghosts is their gross materiality, they appear to us conspicuously clothed." Ghosts figured prominently in traditional
Walter Horatio Pater was an English essayist and art critic, fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists. His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity. Born in Stepney in London's East End, Walter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London in the early 19th century to practice medicine among the poor. Dr Pater died while Walter was the family moved to Enfield, London. Walter was individually tutored by the headmaster. In 1853, he was sent to The King's School, where the beauty of the cathedral made an impression that would remain with him all his life, he was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in 1854. As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskin's Modern Painters, which helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and gave him a taste for well-crafted prose, he gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in 1858 to Oxford. As an undergraduate, Pater was a "reading man", with literary and philosophical interests beyond the prescribed texts.
Flaubert, Gautier and Swinburne were among his early favourites. Visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers; the scholar Benjamin Jowett was offered to give him private lessons. In Jowett's classes, Pater was a disappointment; as a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergy, but at Oxford his faith in Christianity had been shaken. In spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater taught Classics and Philosophy to private students, his sister Clara Pater, a pioneer of women's education, taught ancient Greek and Latin at Somerville College, of which he was one of the co-founders. His years of study and reading now paid dividends: he was offered a classical fellowship in 1864 at Brasenose on the strength of his ability to teach modern German philosophy, he settled down to a university career.
The opportunities for wider study and teaching at Oxford, combined with formative visits to the Continent – in 1865 he visited Florence and Ravenna – meant that Pater's preoccupations now multiplied. He became acutely interested in art and literature, started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge, "Coleridge's Writings" contributed anonymously in 1866 to the Westminster Review. A few months his essay on Winckelmann, an early expression of his intellectual and artistic idealism, appeared in the same review, followed by "The Poems of William Morris", expressing his admiration for romanticism. In the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Michelangelo; the last three, with other similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissance, renamed in the second and editions The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry. The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa.
An essay on "The School of Giorgione", added to the third edition, contains Pater's much-quoted maxim "All art aspires towards the condition of music". The final paragraphs of the 1868 William Morris essay were reworked as the book's "Conclusion'; this brief "Conclusion" was to be Pater's most influential – and controversial – publication. It asserts that our physical lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, "renewed from moment to moment but parting sooner or on their ways". In the mind "the whirlpool is still more rapid": a drift of perceptions, feelings and memories, reduced to impressions "unstable, inconstant", "ringed round for each one of us by that thick wall of personality"; because all is in flux, to get the most from life, we must learn to discriminate through "sharp and eager observation": for Through such discrimination we may "get as many pulsations as possible into the given time": "To burn always with this hard, gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life."
Forming habits means failure on our part. "While all melts under our feet," Pater wrote, "we may well catch at any exquisite passion, or any contribution to knowledge that seems by a lifted horizon to set the spirit free for a moment, or any stirring of the senses, or work of the artist's hands. Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us in the brilliancy of their gifts is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening." The resulting "quickened, multiplied consciousness" counters our insecurity in the face of the flux. Moments of vision may come from simple natural effects, as Pater notes elsewhere in the book: "A sudden light transfigures a trivial thing, a weathervane, a windmill, a winnowing flail, the dust in the barn door.