Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Lancashire. The club has held first-class status since it was founded in 1864. Lancashire's home is Old Trafford Cricket Ground, although the team play matches at other grounds around the county. Lancashire was a founder member of the County Championship in 1890 and have won the competition nine times, most in 2011; the club's limited overs team is called Lancashire Lightning. Lancashire were recognised as the Champion County four times between 1879 and 1889, they won their first two County Championship titles in the 1904 seasons. Between 1926 and 1934, they won the championship five times. Throughout most of the inter-war period and their neighbours Yorkshire had the best two teams in England and the Roses Matches between them were the highlight of the domestic season. In 1950, Lancashire shared the title with Surrey; the County Championship was restructured in 2000 with Lancashire in the first division. They won the 2011 County Championship, a gap of 77 years since the club's last outright title in 1934.
In 1895, Archie MacLaren scored 424 in an innings for Lancashire, which remains the highest score by an Englishman in first-class cricket. Johnny Briggs, whose career lasted from 1879 to 1900, was the first player to score 10,000 runs and take 1,000 wickets for Lancashire. Ernest Tyldesley, younger brother of Johnny Tyldesley, is the club's leading run-scorer with 34,222 runs in 573 matches for Lancashire between 1909 and 1936. Fast bowler Brian Statham took a club record 1,816 wickets in 430 first-class matches between 1950 and 1968. England batsman Cyril Washbrook became Lancashire's first professional captain in 1954; the Lancashire side of the late 1960s and early 1970s, captained by Jack Bond and featuring the West Indian batsman Clive Lloyd, was successful in limited overs cricket, winning the Sunday League in 1969 and 1970 and the Gillette Cup four times between 1970 and 1975. Lancashire won the Benson and Hedges Cup in 1984, three times between 1990 and 1996, the Sunday League in 1989, 1998 and 1999.
They won the Twenty20 Cup for the first time in 2015. First XI honoursChampion County – 1881; as advised by the Association of Cricket Statisticians, the earliest known reference to the sport being played in the county has been found in the Manchester Journal dated Saturday, 1 September 1781. It concerned an eleven-a-side match played the previous Monday, 27 August, at Brinnington Moor between a team of printers and one representing the villages of Haughton and Bredbury, who were the winners; as Bredbury was in Cheshire, the match is the earliest reference for that county too. In 1816, the Manchester Cricket Club was founded and soon became the main north country rivals of Nottingham Cricket Club and Sheffield Cricket Club. On 23–25 July 1849, the Sheffield and Manchester clubs played each other at Hyde Park in Sheffield but the fixture was styled Yorkshire v Lancashire, it was the first match to involve a team using Lancashire as its name and is sometimes reckoned to have been the first Roses Match.
Yorkshire won by five wickets. Teams called Yorkshire, though based on the Sheffield club, had been active since 1833; the Roses Match is one of cricket's most famous rivalries. In 1857, the Manchester club moved to Old Trafford, the home of Lancashire cricket since. On Tuesday, 12 January 1864, Manchester Cricket Club organised a meeting at the Queen's Hotel in Manchester for the purpose of forming a club to represent the county. Thirteen local clubs were represented: Broughton, Longsight and Western from the Manchester area. Lancashire County Cricket Club was founded with the object of, it was said, "spreading a thorough knowledge and appreciation of the game throughout Lancashire", it was intended to stage home matches alternately at Old Trafford, Preston, Blackburn and at "other places to help introduce good cricket throughout the county". The new county club played its first-ever official game at Warrington against Birkenhead Park on Wednesday, 15 June 1864 but, not a first-class match; the first inter-county match, first-class, was played in 1865 at Old Trafford against Middlesex.
The early Lancashire side was reliant upon amateurs. During the early 1870s, the team was dominated by A. N. Hornby’s batting; the team's standard of cricket improved with the arrival of two professional players, Dick Barlow and Alex Watson. The impact of Barlow and Hornby was such that their batting partnership was immortalised in the poem At Lord’s by Francis Thompson; the team was further enhanced by A. G. Stee
Blackburn (UK Parliament constituency)
Blackburn is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Kate Hollern of the Labour Party. It has elected Labour MPs since its re-creation in 1955; the constituency encompasses the town of Blackburn in the North West of England. It borders four other constituencies: Ribble Valley to the north, Hyndburn to the east and Darwen to the south and Chorley to the west. Following the review of parliamentary representation in Lancashire, including the unitary authority of Blackburn with Darwen in the run up to the United Kingdom general election, 2010 the Boundary Commission for England made minor boundary changes to the existing constituency; the electoral wards in the Blackburn seat fought at the UK general election in 2010 were within the district of Blackburn with Darwen. Audley, Bastwell and Lammack, Corporation Park, Higher Croft, Little Harwood, Livesey with Pleasington, Mill Hill, Queen's Park, Roe Lee, Shadsworth with Whitebirk, Shear Brow and Wensley Fold.
For more details, see the Politics section of the Blackburn article. Blackburn was first enfranchised by the Reform Act 1832, as a two-member constituency, was first used at the 1832 General Election, it was abolished for the 1950 General Election, when it was replaced by two new single member constituencies, Blackburn East and Blackburn West. Blackburn was re-established as a single-member constituency for the 1955 General Election replacing the Blackburn East and Blackburn West constituencies, created only five years earlier. After its re-establishment in 1955, the constituency was a marginal, but Blackburn is now considered to be a Labour Party stronghold. Blackburn's MP, Jack Straw, was challenged in the 2005 General Election again by the Conservative Party but the former British ambassador to Uzbekistan, Craig Murray stood for election in Blackburn. Murray said: "I've been approached by several people in the Asian community who are under huge pressure from Labour activists to apply for a postal vote rather than a ballot vote and hand their postal vote over to the Labour party."
Over 50% more people used postal votes in the 2005 General Election in Blackburn than in 2001. Unlike in 1997 and 2001, the BNP had a candidate. In August 2011, Jack Straw announced he had no plans to retire, despite hitting 65 earlier that month. On 25 October 2013, Straw announced. In March 2014, Kate Hollern was selected, via an all women shortlist, as the candidate for Labour for the 2015 General Election, held the seat. Back to elections General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. Back to elections Caused by the 1868 election being declared void on petition after "undue influence by those who held the position of agents in the canvass". Back to elections Caused by Eccles' election being declared void on petition, due to bribery. Back to elections Back to elections List of Parliamentary constituencies in Lancashire Blackburn East 1950–1955 Blackburn West 1950–1955 Notes References nomis Constituency Profile Blackburn Labour Party Blackburn Liberal Democrats Janis Sharp Campaign Site Bushra Irfan Campaign Site
The Sporting Times
The Sporting Times was a weekly British newspaper devoted chiefly to sport, in particular to horse racing. It was informally known as The Pink ` Un; the paper was founded in 1865 by John Corlett, of Charlton Court, East Sutton, both its editor and its proprietor, by Dr Joseph Henry Shorthouse. Corlett wrote a column in the paper called'Our Note Book' and was associated with it from 1865 to 1913; the Sporting Times was published on a Saturday, its competitors included The Field, The Sportsman, the Sporting Life, Bell's Life in London. According to Alexander Andrews's Chapters in the History of British Journalism, the paper thrived "less upon its racing news than upon its profusion of coarse and scurrilous scraps of tittle-tattle, representing'society journalism' in its most degraded form". In the 1870s the chess column of The Sporting Times was written by John Wisker, winner of the 1870 British Chess Championship. On 14 September 1889 the magazine Vanity Fair carried one of its caricatures, printed in colour, of The Sporting Times editor John Corlett, subtitled The Pink'Un.
In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's story "The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle", first published in the Strand Magazine in January 1892, Sherlock Holmes deduces that a man is keen on gambling by noticing that he has a copy of the paper, commenting - "When you see a man with whiskers of that cut and the'Pink'un' protruding out of his pocket, you can always draw him by a bet". In 1922, under the heading "The Scandal of Ulysses", the paper reviewed the complete edition of James Joyce's novel Ulysses just published in Paris, its columnist "Aramis" writing trenchantly: In Old Pink'Un Days the sporting journalist J. B. Booth wrote about his work with the newspaper and its development, with anecdotes of the turf, the theatre, boxing, with frank accounts of some of the colourful characters of the worlds of sport and Fleet Street during the early twentieth century, he followed this up with A Pink ` Un Sporting Times: The Pink ` Un World. The paper is mentioned in the novel Burmese Days by George Orwell: In P.
G. Wodehouse's short story "Bingo and the Little Woman" Bertie Wooster reveals that, "bar a weekly wrestle with the Pink ’Un and an occasional dip into the form-book, I’m not much of a lad for reading"; the paper ceased publication in 1932. Rudyard Kipling mentions The Sporting Times as The Pink'Un in his autobiography Something of Myself. On 29 August 1882, at the Oval, the England cricket team was beaten for the first time in a home Test match by Australia, on 2 September The Sporting Times newspaper published a famous satirical death notice of English cricket, written by Reginald Shirley Brooks: In Affectionate RemembranceOFENGLISH CRICKET, WHICH DIED AT THE OVALON29th AUGUST, 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowingfriends and acquaintances. R. I. P. N. B.—The body will be cremated and theashes taken to Australia. This notice followed a similar one which had appeared two days before in C. W. Alcock's Cricket: a Weekly Record of The Game, reading in full: However, The Sporting Times was the first to refer to cremation and'the ashes'.
The England cricket team toured Australia during the winter of 1882, after it had won two out of three Tests its captain was presented with an urn containing the ashes of a cricket bail. Since The Ashes is the notional trophy England and Australia play for in Test match cricket; the urn is kept in the Lord's Cricket Ground museum. Due to its age and fragile condition, the original Ashes urn is not presented to the winning team; the Sporting Times' mock-obituary has been caricatured many times, notably by Australia's Daily Telegraph in describing Australia’s series loss to South Africa at the MCG in 2008: RIP, Australian Cricket, slaughtered by South Africa, December 30 at the MCG, aided and abetted by incompetent selectors, inept batting, impotent bowling, dreadful catching, poor captaincy.” Horseracing in the United Kingdom Booth, J. B. Old Pink'Un Days (London, Grant Richards Ltd. 1924, including a drawing by Philip May and a caricature by Ralph Rowland Booth, J. B. A Pink'Un Remembers Booth, J. B.
Sporting Times: The Pink'Un World
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Herbert Ingram was a British journalist and politician. He is considered the father of pictorial journalism through his founding of The Illustrated London News, the first illustrated magazine, he was a Liberal politician who favoured social reform and represented Boston for four years until his early death in a shipping accident. Ingram was born at Paddock Grove, Lincolnshire, the son of a butcher. After being educated at Laughton's Charity School and the free school in Wormgate, he was apprenticed as a fourteen-year-old to town printer Joseph Clarke; when Ingram finished his training he moved to London. In 1832 Ingram established his own printing and newsagents business in Nottingham, in partnership with his brother-in-law, Nathaniel Cooke; as a newsagent he noticed. He concluded that it would be possible to make a good profit from a magazine that included a large number of illustrations. However, it was to be a while; the newsagent business failed to make much progress until Ingram purchased the rights to a laxative known as Parr's Life Pills.
The profits from marketing these pills provided the capital which enabled him to set up and publish The Illustrated London News. Ingram moved back to London and after discussing the matter with his friend, Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch, he decided to start his own magazine – The Illustrated London News; the first edition appeared on 14 May 1842. Costing sixpence, the magazine had sixteen pages and thirty-two woodcuts and targeted a broadly middle class readership, it included pictures of the war in Afghanistan, a train crash in France, a steam-boat explosion in Canada and a fancy dress ball at Buckingham Palace. That pictorials were viewed as being as important as text for reporting was clear from the first issue, which stated that the aim was to bring within the public grasp "... the form and presence of events as they transpire. Ingram was a staunch Liberal, he announced in The Illustrated London News that the concern of the magazine would be "with the English poor" and the "three essential elements of discussion with us will be the poor laws, the factory laws, the working of the mining system".
Despite arguing the case for social reform, the paper claimed to be nonpartisan. Its first editorial had stated, "We commence our political discourse by a disavowal of the unconquerable aversion to the name of Party." However, this may have been no more than a desire to gain the widest possible readership, because as time progressed the paper displayed its Whig inclination. It showed moderation and caution in its reportage and this extended to that of the Irish Famine, sympathetic if not quite able to denounce the inadequacy of government policy or the ideas of prevailing economic or political orthodoxy. There was none of the overt negative stereotyping found in the most acerbic Punch cartoons. Overall there was an attitude that England had a responsibility towards the victims of what was interpreted as a natural disaster; the magazine was the first edition sold 26,000 copies. Within a few months it was selling over 65,000 copies a week. High prices were charged for advertisements and Ingram was soon making £12,000 a year from this publishing venture.
Encouraged by the success of The Illustrated London News, Ingram decided in 1848 to start a daily newspaper, the London Telegraph. When Andrew Spottiswoode started a rival paper, the Pictorial Times, Ingram purchased it and merged it with the Illustrated London News. In 1855 Ingram took over the Illustrated Times. Ingram employed leading artists of the day to illustrate social events, news stories and cities; the whole spectrum of Victorian Britain was recorded pictorially in The Illustrated London News for many decades. Special events were important to the success of The Illustrated London News; the magazine did well during the Great Exhibition of 1851 and the edition that reported the funeral of the Duke of Wellington in 1852 sold between 150,000 or 250,000 copies, according to various accounts. Illustrations came from all corners of the globe. By 1855 Ingram was using colour and had artists in Great Britain and continental Europe racing to the scene of stories to capture the drama in print.
The Crimean War caused a further boost to sales. By 1863, after Ingram's death, the Illustrated London News was selling over 300,000 copies a week; this was far higher than other journals. For example, newspapers such as the Daily News sold 6,000 copies at this time, the largest selling newspaper, The Times, only sold 70,000 copies; the Illustrated London News is still published today. Alison Booth, current editor, said: "He was inventive and far-sighted and his legacy of bringing pictures to journalism can still be seen on the front pages of newspapers and magazines all over the world; the Illustrated London News had many imitators. His first edition featured a great fire in Hamburg and drawings portrayed the horror for readers; the popularity of the paper soared and attracted the most talented artists." In 1856 Ingram became the Liberal candidate in a by-election in his home town of Boston. With help from his friends Mark Lemon and Douglas Jerrold at Punch, from the team at The Illustrated London News, Ingram advocated a policy of social reform.
He told the people of Boston they needed a "representative, at once the product and the embodiment o
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were