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AM broadcasting

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.

Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.

However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.

It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".

Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.

However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist

Lancashire hotpot

Lancashire hotpot is a stew originating from Lancashire in the North West of England. It consists of lamb or mutton and onion, topped with sliced potatoes and baked in a heavy pot on a low heat. In Lancashire before industrialisation, families would work at home spinning thread while scrags of mutton stewed over a low fire. Family members could attend to the cooking over many hours. In the initial stages of industrialisation and urbanisation, both men and women of all ages had long, strictly-regulated work hours that made it impossible to cook food that required extensive attention and preparation time. Lacking their own cooking facilities, housewives would carry a pudding or stew to the baker's oven and leave it there to cook; the recipe calls for a mix of mutton and onions covered with sliced potato. Many regional variations add vegetables. Many early recipes add lamb kidneys and modern variants may use beef or bacon chops instead of lamb, or have a pastry topping; the traditional recipe once included oysters.

Pickled red cabbage or beetroot, in some areas Lancashire cheese, are served as an accompaniment. It is thought that the "hot pot" referred to is a pottery dish used to cook casseroles in British cuisine. However, it is more to refer to the idea of a jumble or hodge podge of ingredients in the filling. Sir Kenelm Digby's 1677 The Closet Opened contains a recipe for the "Queen Mothers Hotchpot of Mutton". Mrs Beeton's Cookery Book contains a recipe for "Hotch Potch", calling for neck of mutton, carrot, peas and lettuce. Pot roast Scotch broth Scouse Stovies Betty's hotpot History of Lancashire Hotpot at Foods of England

Avantgarde History

Avantgarde History is a CD-R compilation album created by Eberhard Kranemann of his work with artists such as Neu! and Joseph Beuys in the late 1960s and early 1970s. It was released and is only available on request. Pissoff was a band founded in the late 1960s by some friends. Eberhard had studied under Beuys, the artist is featured with Pissoff on the first track, recorded in Düsseldorf's Creamcheese club. Shortly after this recording, Florian Schneider joined the band. An unedited version of this track was released separately by Kranemann; this is a retrospectively named ensemble consisting of Schneider and Kranemann, both of whom would go on to play in the band Kraftwerk. The three jams were recorded in 1967; the complete session was released separately by Kranemann. The three tracks featured were recorded live in 1972, shortly after the recording of Neu!'72 Live in Dusseldorf. The first two were recorded at the third at a concert. All three feature the line-up of Klaus Dinger on drums and vocals, Kranemann on slide guitar, Uli Trepte on bass guitar and Michael Rother on guitar.

After the split-up of Neu! in 1973, Kranemann founded his own project, for which he assumed the pseudonym "Fritz Mueller". An album was intended to be released by Dinger's Dingerland record label, but when the label collapsed, the release was shelved. Fritz Mueller Rock was released by Brain Records in 1977. Kranemann has continued the project and several more albums have been released privately. "Live at the Creamcheese, Düsseldorf, 1968 with Joseph Beuys - Handaktion, Eberhard Kranemann - Cello, Tenor Saxophone" by Pissoff "Florian - Flute, Eberhard - Double Bass" by the Origins of Kraftwerk "Florian - Violin, Eberhard - Cello" by the Origins of Kraftwerk "Florian - Flute, Eberhard - Tenor Saxophone" by the Origins of Kraftwerk "Live in Duesseldorf" by Neu! "Live in Duesseldorf" by Neu! "Live at Muenster University Hall" by Neu! "Fritz Mueller Radio" by Fritz Mueller Later in 2009, Kranemann made available a CD-R featuring his live recordings of Neu! from 1972. This featured longer versions of the tracks included on the compilation: "Live in Duesseldorf @ Party 1972" "Live in Duesseldorf @ Party 1972" "Live in Duesseldorf @ Party 1972" "Live in Muenster, University Hall 1972" "Live in Muenster, University Hall 1972" The CD-R was again released via Kranemann's Kunsthaus Boltenberg label