click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

A Dictionary of the English Language

Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language. There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary for the sum of 1,500 guineas, equivalent to about £250,000 in 2020. Johnson took seven years to complete the work, he did so single-handedly, with only clerical assistance to copy the illustrative quotations that he had marked in books. Johnson produced several revised editions during his life; until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 173 years Johnson's was viewed as the pre-eminent English dictionary. According to Walter Jackson Bate, the Dictionary "easily ranks as one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship, the greatest performed by one individual who laboured under anything like the disadvantages in a comparable length of time".

In earlier times, books had been regarded with something approaching veneration, but by the mid-eighteenth century this was no longer the case. The rise of literacy among the general public, combined with the technical advances in the mechanics of printing and bookbinding, meant that for the first time, texts, maps and newspapers were available to the general public at a reasonable cost; such an explosion of the printed word demanded a set pattern of grammar and spelling for those words. This could be achieved by means of an authoritative dictionary of the English language. In 1746, a consortium of London's most successful printers, including Robert Dodsley and Thomas Longman – none could afford to undertake it alone – set out to satisfy and capitalise on this need by the ever-increasing reading and writing public. Johnson's dictionary was not the first English dictionary, nor among the first dozen. Over the previous 150 years more than twenty dictionaries had been published in England, the oldest of these being a Latin-English "wordbook" by Sir Thomas Elyot published in 1538.

The next to appear was by Richard Mulcaster, a headmaster, in 1583. Mulcaster compiled what he termed "a generall table we commonlie use... It were a thing verie praise worthy...if som well learned...would gather all words which we use in the English tung...into one dictionary..."In 1598, an Italian–English dictionary by John Florio was published. It was the first English dictionary to use quotations to give meaning to the word; this was to change, to a small extent, in schoolmaster Robert Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall, published in 1604. Though it contained only 2,449 words, no word beginning with the letters W, X, or Y, this was the first monolingual English dictionary. Several more dictionaries followed: in Latin, English and Italian. Benjamin Martin's Lingua Britannica Reformata and Ainsworth's Thesaurus Linguae Latinae are both significant, in that they define entries in separate senses, or aspects, of the word. In English, John Cowell's Interpreter, a law dictionary, was published in 1607, Edward Phillips' The new world of English words came out in 1658 and a dictionary of 40,000 words had been prepared in 1721 by Nathan Bailey, though none was as comprehensive in breadth or style as Johnson's.

The problem with these dictionaries was that they tended to be little more than poorly organised and poorly researched glossaries of "hard words": words that were technical, obscure or antiquated. But the greatest single fault of these early lexicographers was, as historian Henry Hitchings put it, that they "failed to give sufficient sense of language as it appeared in use." In that sense Dr. Johnson's dictionary was the first to comprehensively document the English lexicon. Johnson's dictionary was prepared at 17 Gough Square, London, an eclectic household, between the years of 1746 and 1755. By 1747 Johnson had written his Plan of a Dictionary of the English Language, which spelled out his intentions and proposed methodology for preparing his document, he saw benefit in drawing from previous efforts, saw the process as a parallel to legal precedent: I shall therefore, since the rules of stile, like those of law, arise from precedents repeated, collect the testimonies of both sides, endeavour to discover and promulgate the decrees of custom, who has so long possessed whether by right or by usurpation, the sovereignty of words.

Johnson's Plan received the patronage of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield but not to Johnson's pleasure. Chesterfield was instead interested by Johnson's abilities. Seven years after first meeting Johnson to discuss the work, Chesterfield wrote two anonymous essays in The World that recommended the Dictionary, he complained that the English language was lacking structure and argued: We must have recourse to the old Roman expedient in times of confusion, chose a dictator. Upon this principle, I give my vote for Mr Johnson to fill that arduous post. However, Johnson did not appreciate the tone of the essay, he felt that Chesterfield had not made good on his promise to be the work's patron. In a letter, Johnson explained his feelings about the matter: Seven years, my lord, have now past since I waited in your outward rooms or was repulsed from your door, during which time I have been pushing on my work through difficulties of which it is useless to complain, have brought it at last to the verge of publication without one act of assistance

The Holocaust

The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population; the murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings. Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society. On 9–10 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known as Kristallnacht. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews from the rest of the population.

Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe. The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942; as German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, within territories controlled by Germany's allies. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945. By mid-1942, victims were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were worked to death or gassed.

The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945. The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era defined as beginning in January 1933, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissidents, gay men; the death toll of these groups is thought to rise to 11 million. The term holocaust used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenian Christians by Ottoman Muslims, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, romanized: holókaustos; the biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews. According to Haaretz, the writer Yehuda Erez may have been the first to describe events in Germany as the shoah. Davar and Haaretz both used the term in September 1939. On 3 October 1941 the American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".

In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November that year the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims, many Jews chose to use the term Shoah or the Yiddish term Churban. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the genocide of the European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views Kristallnacht in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum distinguishes between the Holocaust and "the era of the Holocaust", which began when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933.

Victims of the Holocaust era include those the Nazis viewed as inherently inferior, those targeted because of their beliefs or behavior (such as Jehovah's Witnesses and homosexual

House Training

"House Training" is the 20th episode of the third season of House and the 66th episode overall. A young female scam artist named Lupe collapses while participating in a Three-Card Monte scam on the street, she suffers from a lack of blood to the brain which temporarily paralyzed her ability to make decisions or exercise free will. Based on her background, Foreman suspects Lupe's condition stems from drug abuse, while Chase looks for other possibilities. Lupe senses Foreman's disdain for the decisions she's made in her life, Foreman grapples with his own humble past when his parents come to visit him; when Lupe's symptoms worsen and her organs begin to shut down and the team suspect autoimmune disease to be the culprit. When treatment does not work, the team thinks. Foreman presses for a full-body radiation treatment. However, severe pain after the radiation leads the team to the final, correct diagnosis: an infection; the radiation treatment has destroyed Lupe's immune system and there is nothing anybody can do to save her.

Foreman helps her cope with it. Meanwhile and Wilson go out on a date to see an art exhibit together after House asked Cuddy to go to a play with him and she declined. House probes Wilson's ex-wife about his dating habits. Lupe dies and when House performs an autopsy, he learns that she had a staph infection from a scratch due to her bra hook, the team didn't notice it because the strap covered it. House feels disappointed by the patient's death; the episode ends with small talk between Foreman and his mother, suffering from Alzheimer's. It is a bittersweet moment, as he realizes at the end of their conversation that she was not aware that he was her son. Foreman asks, "Do you know who I am, Mom? It's Eric," with her replying "Of course. My little boy's name is Eric." Omar Epps submitted this episode for consideration in the category of "Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series" on his behalf for the 2007 Emmy Awards. The song playing in the background towards the end is Matthew Ryan's Follow The Leader.

FOX.com - House official site

Canoe Marathon European Championships

The Canoe Marathon European Championships is an international canoe marathon event organised by the European Canoe Association. The first edition took place in 1995 and subsequent stagings were held every two years until 2013, after which it became an annual competition. Thirteen editions have been organised in nine different countries since the first championships in 1995; as of 2013, the competition has been staged every year. 1995: Murcia, Spain 1997: Pavia, Italy 1999: Gorzów, Poland 2001: Győr, Hungary 2003: Gdańsk, Poland 2005: Týn nad Vltavou, Czech Republic 2007: Trenčín, Slovakia 2009: Ostróda, Poland 2011: Saint-Jean-de-Losne, France 2013: Vila Verde, Portugal 2014: Piešťany, Slovakia 2015: Bohinj, Slovenia 2016: Pontevedra, Spain 2017: Ponte de Lima, Portugal 2018: Metković, Croatia As of 2017 Canoe Marathon European Championships European Canoe Association

Ithaca, Ohio

Ithaca is a village in Darke County, United States. The population was 102 at the 2000 census and 136 in 2010. John Colville platted Ithaca in 1832 and gave it the name of "Twinsborough." Its location on an established highway and along the Ohio Electric Railway caused the community to grow rapidly. The present name is a transfer from New York. Ithaca is located at 39°56′18″N 84°33′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.03 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 136 people, 44 households, 35 families living in the village; the population density was 4,533.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 52 housing units at an average density of 1,733.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 0.7 % Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population. There were 44 households of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.0% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.5% were non-families.

6.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.37. The median age in the village was 34.3 years. 27.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 53.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 102 people, 36 households, 28 families living in the village; the population density was 3,363.0 people per square mile. There were 38 housing units at an average density of 1,252.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 36 households out of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.2% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.21. In the village, the population was spread out with 30.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 112.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $39,500, the median income for a family was $47,083. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $27,500 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,647. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line. Mayor: David H. Peterson Council President: Kim McCoy Council Members: Barbara Rice, Mary Ray, Bo Ray, Dick Hoover, Rob Brown

Israel Premier Lacrosse League

The Israel Premier Lacrosse League is the premier lacrosse league in Israel, which debuted in 2015. The league competes during summer months only, in an attempt to attract players from abroad to participate; the IPLL says they learned their lessons from the Israel Baseball League, are running it in a manor that will enable them to be financially stable. The IPLL had four teams in the 2015 season before expanding to six in 2016, which were: There are six stadiums used by the IPLL which are: The 2015 season was the inaugural season of the IPLL. Barak Netanya LC won the IPLL Championship with a win over Haifa LC, with Bryan Hopper winning the EL AL Player of the Game award. A total of 16 games were played, with each team playing eight games. Source: The 2016 season of the IPLL was their second season. Tel Aviv LC decided to suspend operations for the 2016 season, however Ashdod LC, Kiryat Gat LC, Be'er Sheva LC joined the league for the 2016 season. A total of 22 games were played, with each team playing either eight games.

Be'er Sheva defeated Haifa in the finals 11:10 for the championship. Source