A Doll's House is a three-act play written by Norway's Henrik Ibsen. It premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 December 1879, having been published earlier that month; the play is set in a Norwegian town circa 1879. The play is significant for the way it deals with the fate of a married woman, who at the time in Norway lacked reasonable opportunities for self-fulfillment in a male-dominated world, despite the fact that Ibsen denies it was his intent to write a feminist play, it aroused a great sensation at the time, caused a "storm of outraged controversy" that went beyond the theatre to the world newspapers and society. In 2006, the centennial of Ibsen's death, A Doll's House held the distinction of being the world's most performed play that year. UNESCO has inscribed Ibsen's autographed manuscripts of A Doll's House on the Memory of the World Register in 2001, in recognition of their historical value; the title of the play is most translated as A Doll's House, though some scholars use A Doll House.
John Simon says that A Doll's House is "the British term for what call a'dollhouse'". Egil Törnqvist says of the alternative title: "Rather than being superior to the traditional rendering, it sounds more idiomatic to Americans." Nora Helmer – wife of Torvald, mother of three, is living out the ideal of the 19th-century wife, but leaves her family at the end of the play. Torvald Helmer – Nora's husband, a newly promoted bank manager, professes to be enamoured of his wife but their marriage stifles her. Dr Rank – a rich family friend, he is terminally ill, it is implied that his "tuberculosis of the spine" originates from a venereal disease contracted by his father. Kristine Linde – Nora's old school friend, widowed, is seeking employment, she was in a relationship with Krogstad prior to the play's setting. Nils Krogstad – an employee at Torvald's bank, single father, he is pushed to desperation. A supposed scoundrel, he is revealed to be a long-lost lover of Kristine; the Children – Nora and Torvald's children: Ivar and Emmy.
Anne Marie – Nora's former nanny, who gave up her own daughter to "strangers" when she became, as she says, the only mother Nora knew. She now cares for Nora's children. Helen – the Helmers' maid The Porter – delivers a Christmas tree to the Helmer household at the beginning of the play; the play opens at Christmas time. Nora's husband Torvald is working in his study, he playfully rebukes her for spending so much money on Christmas gifts, calling her his "little squirrel." He teases her about how the previous year she had spent weeks making gifts and ornaments by hand because money was scarce. This year Torvald is due a promotion at the bank where he works, so Nora feels that they can let themselves go a little; the maid announces two visitors: Mrs. Kristine Linde, an old friend of Nora's, who has come seeking employment. Kristine has had a difficult few years since her husband died leaving her with no money or children. Nora says that things have not been easy for them either: Torvald became sick, they had to travel to Italy so he could recover.
Kristine explains that when her mother was ill she had to take care of her brothers, but now that they are grown she feels her life is "unspeakably empty." Nora promises to talk to Torvald about finding her a job. Kristine tells Nora that she is like a child. Nora is offended, so she teases the idea that she got money from "some admirer," so they could travel to Italy to improve Torvald's health, she told Torvald that her father gave her the money, but in fact she managed to illegally borrow it without his knowledge because women couldn't do anything economical like signing checks without their husband. Over the years, she has been saving up to pay it off. Krogstad, a lower-level employee at Torvald's bank and goes into the study. Nora is uneasy when she sees him. Dr. Rank leaves the study and mentions that he feels wretched, though like everyone he wants to go on living. In contrast to his physical illness, he says that the man in the study, Krogstad, is "morally diseased." After the meeting with Krogstad, Torvald comes out of the study.
Nora asks him if he can give Kristine a position at the bank and Torvald is positive, saying that this is a fortunate moment, as a position has just become available. Torvald, Dr. Rank leave the house, leaving Nora alone; the nanny returns with the children and Nora plays with them for a while until Krogstad creeps through the ajar door, into the living room, surprises her. Krogstad tells Nora that Torvald intends to fire him at the bank and asks her to intercede with Torvald to allow him to keep his job, she refuses, Krogstad threatens to blackmail her about the loan she took out for the trip to Italy. Krogstad leaves and when Torvald returns, Nora tries to convince him not to fire Krogstad. Torvald refuses to hear her pleas, explaining that Krogstad is a liar and a hypocrite and that he committed a terrible crime: he forged someone's name. Torvald feels physically ill in the presence of a man "poisoning his own children with lies and dissimulation." Kristine arrives to help Nora repair a dress for a costume function that she and Torvald plan to attend the next day.
Torvald returns from the bank, Nora pleads with him to reinstate Krogstad, claiming she is worried Krogstad will publish libelous articles about Torvald and ruin his career. Torvald dismisses her fears and explains that
Captain Guy Wilbraham Wareing was a British World War I flying ace credited with nine aerial victories. Wareing was born in Latchford, Lancashire, the son of Frederick William Wareing, an engineer, his wife Jessie Mary. On 30 August 1917 he was commissioned from cadet to temporary second lieutenant on the General List to serve in the Royal Flying Corps, being confirmed in his rank and appointed a flying officer on 14 February 1918. Wareing was posted to No. 29 Squadron RAF in June 1918 to fly the S. E.5a single-seat fighter. He gained his first victory on 12 August, destroying a Pfalz D. III fighter over Ploegsteert, Belgium. After destroying two reconnaissance aircraft and driving another down out of control, Wareing became both an ace and a balloon buster by destroying an observation balloon over Gheluvelt on 7 September 1918, he sent a Fokker D. VII down in flames, destroyed three more balloons, two of them on two separate sorties on 29 September, he was appointed a temporary captain on 7 October 1918.
On 27 October 1918 Wareing was killed when he was shot down by a Fokker D. VII flown by Leutnant Josef Raesch of Jasta 43, he is buried in the churchyard of Église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, Tournai, Belgium, where his is the only Commonwealth War Grave. Wareing's award of the Distinguished Flying Cross was gazetted posthumously on 3 December 1918, his citation read: Lieutenant Guy Wilbraham Wareing. "A bold and courageous airman who has destroyed four enemy aeroplanes and shot down in flames a hostile balloon. He is conspicuous for zeal and devotion to duty." Shores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9
Home Reef is an ephemeral island built by a submarine volcano whose top has broken the surface and afterwards was eroded away by wave action. It is in the South Pacific, south of Late Island and southwest of Vava'u along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga. Home Reef temporarily rose above sea level in island-building eruptions in 1852, 1857, 1984, 2006. After a volcanic eruption started on 8 August 2006, Home Reef emerged as an island. In October 2006 it reached the same size as it did in 1984 when it was about 0.5 km × 1.5 km. The island was first seen by the crew of a yacht; the eruptions produced extensive rafts of pumice. The pumice rafts and new island were imaged by the Aqua satellite in August 2006. Images revealed several small hot crater lakes on the newly formed island. List of volcanoes in Tonga List of born islands Home Reef 2006 eruption Home Reef Reborn