A Princess of Mars is a science fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the first of his Barsoom series. It was first serialized in the pulp magazine All-Story Magazine from February–July, 1912. Full of swordplay and daring feats, the novel is considered a classic example of 20th-century pulp fiction, it is a seminal instance of the planetary romance, a subgenre of science fantasy that became popular in the decades following its publication. Its early chapters contain elements of the Western; the story is set on Mars, imagined as a dying planet with a harsh desert environment. This vision of Mars was based on the work of the astronomer Percival Lowell, whose ideas were popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Barsoom series inspired a number of well-known 20th-century science fiction writers, including Jack Vance, Ray Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Robert A. Heinlein, John Norman; the series was inspirational for many scientists in the fields of space exploration and the search for extraterrestrial life, including Carl Sagan, who read A Princess of Mars when he was a child.
John Carter, a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War, goes prospecting in Arizona after the war's end. Having struck a rich vein of gold, he runs afoul of the Apaches. While attempting to evade pursuit by hiding in a sacred cave, he is mysteriously transported to Mars, called "Barsoom" by its inhabitants. Carter finds that he has great strength and superhuman agility in this new environment as a result of its lesser gravity and lower atmospheric pressure, he soon falls in with a nomadic tribe of Green Martians, or Tharks, as the planet's warlike, six-limbed, green-skinned inhabitants are known. Thanks to his strength and martial prowess, Carter rises to a high position in the tribe and earns the respect and the friendship of Tars Tarkas, one of the Thark chiefs; the Tharks subsequently capture Dejah Thoris, Princess of Helium, a member of the humanoid red Martian race. The red Martians inhabit a loose network of city-states and control the desert planet's canals, along which its agriculture is concentrated.
Carter rescues Dejah Thoris from the green men in a bid to return her to her people. Subsequently, Carter becomes embroiled in the political affairs of both the red and green Martians in his efforts to safeguard Dejah Thoris leading a horde of Tharks against the city-state of Zodanga, the historic enemy of Helium. Winning Dejah Thoris' heart, he becomes Prince of Helium, the two live together for nine years. However, the sudden breakdown of the Atmosphere Plant that sustains the planet's waning air supply endangers all life on Barsoom. In a desperate attempt to save the planet's inhabitants, Carter uses a secret telepathic code to enter the factory, bringing an engineer along who can restore its functionality. Carter succumbs to asphyxiation, only to awaken back on Earth, left to wonder what has become of Barsoom and his beloved. John Carter: An Earthman from Virginia with a mysterious background, Captain John Carter fought in the American Civil War on the Confederate side. At the end of the war he goes prospecting for gold in Arizona.
After various adventures, including an attack by Apaches, he is miraculously transported to Mars. During his nine years on that planet he disappears from Earth and is believed dead, but he re-emerges in New York in 1876, settling in a house overlooking the Hudson River, he dies again in 1886, leaving instructions for a fictionalized Burroughs, who refers to Carter as his Uncle Jack, to entomb him in a crypt. He leaves Burroughs with the manuscript of A Princess of Mars, with instructions not to publish it for another 21 years. John Carter states that he has no memory before the age of 30 and has always appeared the same, without aging, he is adept at strategy and all weapons, including firearms and swords. He is clean-shaven, with close-cropped black hair and steel gray eyes, he is honorable and eternally optimistic in the face of certain death. From the Green Martians he received the name "Dotar Sojat," after the first two green warriors whom he slew after his advent on Barsoom, he sometimes uses this name as an alias in books of the Martian series.
Dejah Thoris: A red Martian princess of Helium, she is courageous, in mortal danger or under threat of dishonor by the evil designs of a succession of villains. She is the daughter of Mors Kajak, Jed of Lesser Helium, the granddaughter of Tardos Mors, Jeddak of Helium; as such she is aristocratic and fiercely proud of her heritage. Introduced early in the novel, she becomes the love interest of John Carter; as a central character in the first three Barsoom novels, her frequent capture by various enemies, subsequent pursuit by John Carter, is a constant motivating element in their plots. Tars Tarkas: A fierce Green Martian warrior from the tribe of Thark, he is unusual among his race for his ability to experience tender emotions such as friendship and love, his emotional development stems from a forbidden love affair in his youth, when he secretly began a partnership with a Green Martian woman named Gozava. He befriends John Carter and fights at his side. Carter helps him become Jeddak of Thark and negotiates an alliance between the Green Martians and the city-state of Helium, which results in the destruction of Helium's enemy, Zodanga.
Tars Tarkas more than once displays an ironic sense of humor. Tal Hajus: Jeddak of the Tharks, who years previ
The Fijian monkey-faced bat or Fijian flying fox is a megabat endemic to Fiji. It was discovered in old-growth cloud forest on Des Vœux Peak, the second highest mountain peak on the island of Taveuni by William and Ruth Beckon in 1976, is Fiji's only endemic mammal, it has been transferred from Pteralopex to its own monotypic genus Mirimiri. When encountered, this species was placed in the genus Pteralopex. All other members of the genus are found in the Solomon Islands. However, genetics research indicates significant genetic divergence between this species and Pteralopex; because it is no longer classified in the genus Pteralopex, some now refer to it as the Fijian flying fox rather than the Fijian monkey-faced bat. These bats weigh 222–362 grams, their forearms are 120 millimetres long. Their fur is uniformly thick, sometimes hiding their ears, their eyes are distinctly orange. Their wings attach to their bodies closer to the spine as opposed to lateral attachment, they lack tails. These bats are difficult to capture and few in number, so little is known about their biology.
They appear to shelter in clumps of epiphytic plants. A pregnant individual was once encountered in May. In different years, lactating females have been observed in May. Based on the morphology of their teeth, it is thought; the Fijian monkey-faced bat is found only on the third-largest island of Taveuni. It is only found within the montane forests of the island, it is possible that this species might be found on the island of Vanua Levu, but these observations have not been corroborated. It is the only megabat, endemic to Fiji. Only six individuals of this species have been observed. While its cloud forest is within Taveuni Forest Reserve, this does little to protect the land, as the majority of Fiji's Forest Reserves have been converted to mahogany plantations, it is listed as a critically endangered species due to habitat loss. The population size is estimated at less than 1,000 individuals. Due to its imperiled status, it is identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction as a species in danger of imminent extinction.
In 2013, Bat Conservation International listed this species as one of the 35 species of its worldwide priority list of conservation. Their habitat is being lost and fragmented by pollution, extreme weather, urbanization. Climate change is anticipated to shrink cloud forests worldwide, resulting in further habitat loss
Henry Ludwell Moore was an American economist known for his pioneering work in econometrics. Paul Samuelson named Moore as one of the several "American saints in economics" born after 1860. Moore was born in Charles County, the first of 15 children, he received a B. A. from Randolph-Macon College in 1892 and a Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1896. His thesis was on von Thünen's theory of the natural wage; the visiting lecturers included Simon Newcomb and J. B. Clark and he may have learned some mathematical economics from them. While doing the Ph. D. he spent a year at the University of Vienna. At that time study in Europe was quite usual. Moore was an early U. S. Ph. D, his academic career proceeded through an instructorship and lectureship at Johns Hopkins, a professorship at Smith College from 1897 to 1902 and to positions at Columbia University. He retired from Columbia in 1929 due to ill health. Moore's earliest interest seems to have been in the history of economic thought but in 1901 he turned to the project of providing a "statistical complement to pure economics."
Although he had studied with Carl Menger in Vienna, his "pure economics" belonged rather to the Marshallian and Walrasian branches of marginal economics. In 1903, 1909 and 1912, Moore visited Walras and Bortkiewicz respectively. To improve his knowledge of statistical techniques, he attended the lectures of Karl Pearson in 1909 and 1913. In 1917 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. Moore's first book, on testing the marginal productivity theory of wages, was well received as a pioneering venture, although Alfred Marshall refused to read it, telling Moore that "it proceeds on lines which I deliberately decided not to follow many years ago." Moore wrote two books on economic cycles, in which the economic cycle is presented as a reflection of a physical cycle. Economic Cycles argues that a rainfall cycle affects agricultural markets, which affect industrial markets. Generating Economic Cycles traces the rainfall cycle back to an astronomical cycle. There is a strong family resemblance between this cycle work and the earlier sunspot research of William Stanley Jevons.
Moore's last book Synthetic Economics aimed to provide a statistical counterpart to Walras's general equilibrium theory. With his contemporaries, Wesley Mitchell and Irving Fisher, H. L. Moore pioneered new kinds of quantitative economics in the United States. Unlike them, Moore was not a great public figure, he was a sensitive person who suffered from long periods of illness. At the end of his essay on Moore, Stigler writes "In general one can say that Moore was as much a founder of this movement as any one man is to be a founder of a great movement toward which a science has been moving." Laws of Wages: An Essay in Statistical Economics, 1911. Economic Cycles: Their Law and Cause, 1914. Forecasting the Yield and Price of Cotton, 1917. Generating Economic Cycles, 1923. Synthetic Economics, 1929There is a full bibliography in Stigler's article below. Stigler, George J.. "Henry L. Moore and Statistical Economics". Econometrica. 30: 1–21. Doi:10.2307/1911284. JSTOR 1911284. Morgan, Mary S.. The History of Econometric Ideas.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 26–34. ISBN 0-521-37398-0. New School: Henry Ludwell Moore Two of Moore's books are available at the Archive for the History of Economic Thought Laws of Wages Economic Cycles Columbia University Library: Henry Ludwell Moore Collection
The men's 50 kilometre cross-country skiing competition at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, United States, was held on Saturday 23 February at Mount Van Hoevenberg, Essex County, New York. Sven-Åke Lundbäck of Sweden was the 1978 World champion and Ivar Formo of Norway was the defending champion from the 1976 Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria; each skier started at half a minute intervals. Of the 43 athletes who started the race, 6 did not finish. Nikolay Zimyatov of the Soviet Union took his third Gold medal of the games after winning the 30 kilometre and being part of Soviet Union's winning 4 × 10 km relay team. Sources: Final results
Michael J. Hunter is an American politician from the state of Oklahoma. Hunter served as the Secretary of State of Oklahoma from 1999 to 2002, having been appointed by Governor of Oklahoma Frank Keating. On November 1, 2016, he was appointed to the same post by Governor Mary Fallin, he served as Special Counsel to the Governor. On February 20, 2017, Hunter was appointed Attorney General of Oklahoma, replacing Scott Pruitt, confirmed as the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency three days earlier on February 17. In 2018, Hunter was elected beating Mark Myles. May 28, 2018 was the first day of arguments in the case that his office brought against Johnson & Johnson regarding the opioid epidemic. Hunter was born on July 1956 to Chester and Phyllis Hunter, he grew up on a farm in Garfield County, is a fourth generation Oklahoman. Hunter received his undergraduate degree from Oklahoma State University in 1978, he graduated from the University of Oklahoma College of Law in 1982. While at OU Law, Hunter served as the President of the Student Bar Association.
Upon graduating, Hunter entered private practice. His area of specialization was in energy, real property, public employment law and utility regulation. In 1984, Hunter was elected to the Oklahoma House of Representatives. While in the House, he served as Chairman of the Republican Caucus and Vice Chairman of the House Criminal Justice Committee. In 1988, he was one of the eight lawmakers recognized by the Daily Oklahoman as Oklahoma’s Best Legislators; that same year he was the recipient of the Oklahoma District Attorneys’ Legislative Appreciation Award for his work in criminal justice. Hunter remained in the House until 1991. After leaving the Oklahoma Legislature, Hunter returned to private practice until 1993. From 1993 to 1994, Hunter served as the General Counsel of the Oklahoma Corporation Commission, the state's regulatory authority for public utilities and gas, transportation and pipelines companies. In 1994, Hunter was the Republican nominee for Attorney General of Oklahoma. Hunter would lose the election to Democratic Muskogee County District Attorney Drew Edmondson.
Following the election of J. C. Watts as the Congressman for Oklahoma's 4th congressional district, Hunter was appointed as Watts' chief of staff in 1995, serving until 1999; as Watts' chief of staff, Hunter managed his offices in Washington, D. C. Norman and Lawton, Oklahoma, he served as legal counsel to Congressman Watts in his work on the National Security and the Transportation and Infrastructure Committees. In 1998, incumbent Republican Governor of Oklahoma Frank Keating was reelected to second four-year term. Keating's first Secretary of State Tom Cole stepped down to return to the private sector. On March 16, 1999, Keating appointed Hunter to serve as the 29th Oklahoma Secretary of State. In addition to his duties as Secretary of State, Hunter served as Governor Keating’s chief liaison to the Oklahoma Legislature and to the state’s federal delegation in Washington, D. C. Hunter resigned as Secretary of State in October 2002 to become the executive vice president and chief operating officer of the American Council of Life Insurers under president and CEO Frank Keating.
He managed 135 member staff. The ACLI is the advocacy and research arm of the life insurance industry. In 2011, after serving as Secretary of the Commissioners of the Oklahoma Land Office, Hunter was named chief operating officer of the American Bankers Association, serving again under Keating as president and CEO. Hunter oversees the ABA's government relations, public policy and communications activities. In August 2009, Democratic Governor of Oklahoma Brad Henry appointed Hunter the 47th Secretary of the Commissioners of the Land Office; the Commissioners of the Land Office is charged with managing the lands the U. S. Congress granted to Oklahoma at statehood to help benefit public education; the office administers the trust funds and proceeds derived from selling and renting the public lands. Hunter resigned from the Land Office effective September 1, 2010. Douglas Allen, the Assistant Secretary of the Commissioners of the Land Office under Hunter, was appointed interim Secretary, Secretary, by the Commissioners.
In June 2015, Hunter was appointed First Assistant Attorney General of the State of Oklahoma by Attorney General Scott Pruitt. On February 17, 2017, Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt resigned to become Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under President Donald Trump. To fil the vacancy caused by Pruitt's resignation, Governor Mary Fallin appointed Hunter as Attorney General to fill the remainder of Pruitt's unexpired term on February 20, 2017. An attorney general opinion is a written interpretation of existing State or federal law issued by the Attorney General. While the opinions are not binding upon the courts, State officials are obligated to fellow them under they are set aside by a court. All opinions are permanent until overruled by a court. Hunter is married to Cheryl Plaxico Hunter. Cheryl is a practicing lawyer who served as a member of the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education from 2000 to 2009, appointed by Governor Frank Keating, they have two sons and Brock.
Joseph Belcher was a minister from Dedham, Massachusetts. Belcher was born on May 14, 1669 in Milton and was graduated from Harvard College in 1690. Soon after moving to Dedham, he married Abigail Thompson, they had six children. His son, Sir Joseph Belcher, was a teacher in the Dedham Public Schools. In 1721 he came down with a "dangerous paralysis" and went to Roxbury to the home of his son-in-law, Rev. Thomas Walter. There he was cared for by Dr. Philip Sampson, he died in Roxbury on April 27, 1723 and five of the "principal men" of Dedham were appointed to hire a coach to transport his body back to Dedham. The town appropriated 40 pounds to cover the expenses of his funeral, he is buried in the Old Village Cemetery. He first preached in Dedham on April 17, 1692 and again for the second time a month on May 15th; the records of May 23, 1692 Town Meeting indicate that "the Ch and Town have given a call" to have Belcher move to Dedham and serve as the minister. Belcher returned to preach on June 12th and did so beginning on October 30th.
Church records indicate the call was given on December 4, 1692. A few weeks on December 23rd, Town Meeting voted to set his salary at 60 pounds a year, he was minister at the First Church and Parish in Dedham from 1693 until 1723, although illness prevented him from preaching after 1721. During his time as minister, a tax was instituted in Dedham to ensure, he tried to have the church return to a system of voluntary contributions in 1696. By the end of his tenure his salary was 100 pounds a year plus the firewood provided by members of the parish; the town contributed 60 pounds to build a parsonage on land now owned by the Allin Congregational Church. His portrait, donated in 1839, hangs just left of First Church's pulpit. Five of his sermons survive. One was delivered before the Great and General Court, one before the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, two preached in Dedham for young people, one at the ordination of Nathaniel Cotton in Bristol, Rhode Island. Lockridge, Kenneth. A New England Town.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-95459-3. Smith, Frank. A History of Dedham, Massachusetts. Transcript Press, Incorporated. Retrieved July 18, 2019. Worthington, Erastus; the history of Dedham: from the beginning of its settlement, in September 1635, to May 1827. Dutton and Wentworth. Retrieved July 17, 2019. Joseph Belcher at Find a Grave