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Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometres east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometres north of Ulm. It is its largest town, it is the largest town in the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has had the status of Große Kreisstadt, it is noted for its many half-timbered houses constructed from the 16th century through the 18th century. With an area of 146.63 km2, Aalen is ranked 7th in Baden-Württemberg and 2nd within the Government Region of Stuttgart, after Stuttgart. With a population of about 66,000, Aalen is the 15th most-populated settlement in Baden-Württemberg. Aalen is situated on the upper reaches of the river Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Jura which lies to the south and south-east, close to the hilly landscapes of the Ellwangen Hills to the north and the Welland to the north-west; the west of Aalen's territory is on the foreland of the eastern Swabian Jura, the north and north-west is on the Swabian-Franconian Forest, both being part of the Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains.

The south-west is part of the Albuch, the east is part of the Härtsfeld, these two both being parts of the Swabian Jura. The Kocher enters the town's territory from Oberkochen to the south, crosses the district of Unterkochen enters the town centre, where the Aal flows into it; the Aal is a small river located only within the town's territory. Next, the Kocher crosses the district of Wasseralfingen leaves the town for Hüttlingen. Rivers originating near Aalen are the Rems and the Jagst, both being tributaries of the Neckar, just like the Kocher; the elevation in the centre of the market square is 430 metres relative to Normalhöhennull. The territory's lowest point is at the Lein river near Rodamsdörfle, the highest point is the Grünberg's peak near Unterkochen at 733 metres. Aalen's territory ranges over all lithostratigraphic groups of the South German Jurassic: Aalen's south and the Flexner massif are on top of the White Jurassic, the town centre is on the Brown Jurassic, a part of Wasseralfingen is on the Black Jurassic.

As a result, the town advertises itself as a "Geologist's Mecca". Most parts of the territory are on the Opalinuston-Formation of the Aalenian subdivision of the Jurassic Period, named after Aalen. On the Sandberg, the Schnaitberg and the Schradenberg hills, all in the west of Aalen, the Eisensandstein formation emerges to the surface. On the other hills of the city, sands and residual rubble prevail; the historic centre of Aalen and the other areas in the Kocher valley are founded on holocenic floodplain loam and riverbed gravel that have filled in the valley. Most parts of Dewangen and Fachsenfeld are founded on formations of Jurensismergel, Posidonienschiefer, Amaltheenton and Obtususton moving from south to north, all belonging to the Jurassic and being rich in fossils, they are at last followed by the Trossingen Formation belonging to the Late Triassic. Until 1939 iron ore was mined on the Braunenberg hill.. The maximum extent of the town's territory amounts to 18 kilometres in a north-south dimension and 25 kilometres in an east-west dimension.

The area is 14,662.8 hectares, which includes 42.2% 6,186.2 hectares agriculturally used area and 37.7% 5,534.9 hectares of forest. 11.5% 1,692.3 hectares are built up or vacant, 6.4% 932.8 hectares is used by traffic infrastructure. Sporting and recreation grounds and parks comprise 1% 152.7 hectares, other areas 1.1% 163.9 hectares. The following municipalities border on Aalen, they are listed clockwise, beginning south, with their respective linear distances to Aalen town centre given in brackets: Oberkochen, Heuchlingen, Abtsgmünd, Neuler, Hüttlingen, Westhausen, Lauchheim and Neresheim, all in the Ostalbkreis district, furthermore Heidenheim an der Brenz and Königsbronn, both in Heidenheim district. Aalen's territory consists of the town centre and the municipalities merged from between 1938 and 1975; the municipalities merged in the course of the latest municipal reform of the 1970s are called Stadtbezirke, are Ortschaften in terms of Baden-Württemberg's Gemeindeordnung, which means, each of them has its own council elected by its respective residents and is presided by a spokesperson.

The town centre itself and the merged former municipalities consist of numerous villages separated by open ground from each other and having their own independent and long-standing history. Some however have been created as planned communities, which were given proper names, but no well-defined borders. List of villages: Aalen forms a Mittelzentrum within the Ostwürttemberg region, its designated catchment area includes the following municipalities of the central and eastern Ostalbkreis district: Abtsgmünd, Essingen, Hüttlingen, Kirchheim am Ries, Neresheim, Oberkochen, R

Landfills in the United Kingdom

Landfills in the United Kingdom were the most used option for waste disposal. Up until the 1980s, policies of successive governments had endorsed the "dilute and disperse" approach. Britain has since adopted the appropriate European legislation and landfill sites are operated as full containment facilities. However, many dilute and disperse sites remain throughout Britain; the use of landfill is recognised as the Best practicable environmental option for the disposal of certain waste types. In order to apply the principles of the EC 5th Programme of Policy & Action in relation to the environment and sustainable development the Government has prepared a waste strategy; the waste strategy policy on landfill is to promote landfill practices which will achieve stabilisation of landfill sites within one generation. This policy is to be implemented through guidance set out in a revised series of waste management papers on landfill. In addition, the United Kingdom and many other countries are parties to the 1992 agreement on sustainable development at the Earth Summit.

The United Kingdom's strategy for sustainable development was published in 1994. In the field of waste management, the strategy requires that the present generation should deal with the waste it produces and not leave problems to be dealt with by future generations. In recognition of the increasing quantities of waste that are being disposed of to landfill the Government has, from October 1996, imposed a tax on certain types of waste deposited in landfill. Landfill operators licensed under the Environmental Protection Act or the Pollution Control & Local Government Order 1978 etc. were required to register their liability for the tax by 31 August 1996. Landfill operators who use their site for recycling, incineration or sorting waste can apply to have the relevant area designated a tax-free site; the tax is administered by HM Revenue & Customs and it has been estimated that the tax will raise £500m a year for the exchequer. The scope of the tax is set down in the Landfill Tax Regulations 1996.

The Landfill Tax Order 1996 sets out provisions for exempting waste generated as a result of cleaning up contaminated land. The tax is based on the weight of the waste to be deposited, thereby applying the polluter pays principle, it aims to promote a more sustainable approach to waste management by providing an incentive to dispose of less waste and to recover more value from waste through recycling. All waste is taxed at £80.00 per tonne, except for the following lower risk wastes where the tax is £2.50 per tonne: Naturally occurring rocks and soils, gravel, clean building or demolition stone, top soil, peat and dredgings Ceramic or cemented materials, ceramics, concrete. Processed or prepared mineral materials which have not been used or contaminated: moulding sands and clays, clay absorbents, manmade mineral fibres and mica. Furnace slags. Low activity organic compounds. Gypsum and calcium sulphate based plaster, if disposed of in a separate containment cell on a mixed landfill site or in an inactive only site.

Online sites record the locations of landfills in the United Kingdom: For landfills in England and Wales see the "what's in your backyard" section of the Environment Agency website. For landfills in Scotland see the Waste infrastructure maps section of the Scottish Environment Protection Agency website. Data for landfills in Northern Ireland appear as lists in the Public Registers section of the Northern Ireland Environment Agency website; some expanding urban areas have encroached onto former landfills. With implementation of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 in May 1994 Part I of the Control of Pollution Act 1974 was replaced by Part II of the EPA; the EPA seeks to build on a system put in place by Control of Pollution Act with stricter licensing controls and other provisions aimed at ensuring waste handling and recovery operations do not harm the environment. Responsibility for waste rests with the person who produces it together with everyone who handles it, right through to final disposal or reclamation.

Only “fit and proper” persons may run waste sites and responsibility for a closed landfill site will continue until all risks of pollution or harm to human health and safety are past. The licensing regime enables waste regulation authorities to refuse to accept the surrender of a license. Prior to enablement of the 1990 Act in May 1996, operators could hand back their licenses without restriction, leaving the public purse to cover any restoration and clean-up liabilities. Concern about the scale of those liabilities prompted operators to return licenses for nearly 25% of the waste disposal sites in England and Wales shortly before the new regime came into force. Now under section 39 of the 1990 Act, a WRA can not accept the surrender of a license unless it is satisfied that the condition of the land arising from its use for treating, keeping or disposing of waste is “unlikely” to cause environmental damage or harm human health; the EC Landfill Directive Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste was agreed in Europe at Council on 26 April 1999 and came into force in the EU on 16 July 2001.

It was transposed into United Kingdom law in 2002. The full text of the Directive was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities L182/1 on 16 July 1999 and is available on the Europa Website – a site dedicated to European

2009 Monterey Sports Car Championships

The 2009 Monterey Sports Car Championships presented by Patrón was the tenth and final round of the 2009 American Le Mans Series season. It took place at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, California on October 11, 2009; the race was won by the Acura of de Ferran Motorsports, driven by Simon Pagenaud and retiring driver Gil de Ferran, which wore a tribute livery based on Jim Hall's Chaparrals. Adrian Fernández and Luis Díaz won the LMP2 category in the Fernández Racing Acura while only six tenths of a second behind the overall winning de Ferran car; the GT2 class was won by the #45 Flying Lizard Motorsports Porsche after contact with the #3 Corvette Racing while approaching the finish line on the final lap. Guy Cosmo and John Baker of Orbit Racing won their first race in the ALMS Challenge category after the Velox Motorsport entry was disqualified. Pole position winners in each class are marked in bold. Class winners are marked in bold. Cars failing to complete 70% of winner's distance are marked as Not Classified

John Calvin Fiser

John Calvin Fiser was an American merchant and soldier. He served as an officer in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, fighting in both the Eastern as well as the Western theaters. Fiser was wounded five times in the conflict, losing an arm in 1863's Battle of Fort Sanders, he was appointed a general officer late in the war. Afterward he returned to his business interests and was active in Confederate veterans organizations. John Fiser was born in 1838 in the city of Dyersburg located in Tennessee, his father was Matthew Day Fiser and his mother's identity is not known. In 1848 Fiser's family moved to Batesville in Mississippi. After his father died Fiser was raised by his uncle, John B. Fiser, a politician and merchant living in Panola County. In 1853 he began working in Lafayette County, clerking in a country store near the shore of the Tallahatchie River. In 1855 Fiser moved to Memphis and found work as a cotton merchant and in the mercantile business; when the American Civil War began in 1861 Fiser returned to Mississippi to follow the Confederate cause.

On May 27 he was elected a first lieutenant in the 17th Mississippi Infantry, assigned to Company H in the regiment he had helped create in Panola County. On June 4 he was made the regiment's adjutant, he participated with the 17th Mississippi in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21; that autumn he fought with distinction during the Battle of Ball's Bluff, where he was praised for his "most important and effective service."On October 12, 1861, Fiser was appointed the assistant adjutant general of his regiment, during the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia early the following year he was elected lieutenant colonel of the 17th Mississippi as of April 26, 1862. He fought during the Peninsula Campaign, replacing the regiment's colonel when that officer became a casualty in the Battle of Malvern Hill; the 17th's attack that day has been described as: At Malvern Hill, 1 July 1862, about six in the evening, they made a desperate charge upon the Federal line, under a terrible fire of shell, grape and Minié balls, but without success.

Colonel Holder was wounded and Lieutenant-Colonel Fiser took command. Fiser continued to command the regiment during the Maryland Campaign in the fall of 1862, leading it in the Battle of Antietam on September 17; that year he was appointed adjutant of his brigade. He fought during the Fredericksburg Campaign that winter, part of Brig. Gen. William Barksdale's brigade that defended the Rappahannock River crossing at the town on December 11. Fiser was wounded during the main battle two days later, he fought during the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign, was wounded during the Battle of Gettysburg that July. Fiser was first shot in the cheek and hit in the same leg twice. In the fall of 1863 Fiser and his regiment were sent west with Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's First Corps units, he participated in the Battle of Chickamauga and fought during the Knoxville Campaign. On November 29 Fiser was hit in his right arm as he reached the top of the Union defensive position during the Battle of Fort Sanders, a wound requiring the amputation of the limb.

An account of his actions in the attack follows: Fiser has a hatchet buckled onto his sword belt, he vowed to cut down the tall flagstaff on top of the enemy fort. He climbed to the top of the parapet during the heat of battle, was making for the flagstaff when a ball shattered his arm, rolling him back into the ditch. While recovering from losing his arm, Fiser was assigned to recruiting duties. On February 26, 1864, he was promoted to the rank of colonel, but the wound was slow to heal and he resigned his commission on June 12 and returned home; that winter Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws asked for Fiser for service in South Carolina, he rejoined the Confederate Army. In 1865 Fiser was given command of a brigade of reservists from Georgia, part of the scattered forces that opposed the Union soldiers of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman during the Carolinas Campaign. On April 9 his small 800-man brigade was merged with that of Col. George P. Harrison, his senior, reducing Fiser to regimental command.

In 1865 Fiser was appointed a brigadier general, however the Confederate Senate never confirmed his commission as such. When the Civil War ended in 1865 he returned to Memphis, where he resumed his pre-war business affairs. In 1866 he married Hayes Dunn, with whom he would have three daughters, shortly thereafter changed the spelling of his name to Fizer, reasoning, the way it had sounded all his life. Three streets in Memphis were named after him, all using this spelling, he became a partner in a large and successful cotton brokerage firms and participated in local Democratic politics. In 1871 Fiser was elected president of the Confederate Historical and Relief Association based in Memphis, at the time of his death he was serving as president of the Office Security Building and Loan Association. Fiser died of dysentery in 1876, his remains were buried in the Chapel Hill section of the Elmwood Cemetery located in Memphis. List of American Civil War generals Rowland, Military History of Mississippi, 1803-1898, The Reprint Co.

1908, ISBN 0-87152-266-7

Live! (Carla Bley album)

Live! is a live album by American composer and keyboardist Carla Bley recorded at the Great American Music Hall in 1981 and released on the Watt/ECM label in 1982. Critical reaction to the album is positive but varies; the Allmusic review by Brian Olewnick awarded the album 3 stars, stating: "Listeners looking for prime Carla Bley would do better to search out her earlier, far more adventurous and creative work". The Penguin Guide to Jazz awarded the album 3½ stars and stated: "Live! is a treat, representing one of the finest performances by her and Mantler on record". All compositions by Carla Bley. "Blunt Object" - 5:10 "The Lord Is Listenin' to Ya, Hallelujah!" - 7:24 "Time and Us" - 7:59 "Still in the Room" - 9:06 "Real Life Hits" - 4:26 "Song Sung Long" - 7:30 Carla Bley - organ, piano Michael Mantler - trumpet Steve Slagle - alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, flute Tony Dagradi - tenor saxophone Vincent Chancey - French horn Gary Valente - trombone Earl McIntyre - tuba, bass trombone Arturo O'Farrill - piano, organ Steve Swallow - bass guitar D. Sharpe - drums

Not of This Earth (The Damned album)

Not of This Earth is the eighth studio album by The Damned. It is called I'm Alright Jack & The Beanstalk; the album has a convoluted history. Following the Final Damnation concerts in 1988, the original line-up of the band had collaborated to record the track "Prokofiev", which had a low-key USA-only release on the independent Skinnies Cut label. Over the following months, Scabies continued to collaborate with James, Kris Dollimore, guitarist with The Godfathers, on demos. James soon moved on. Scabies and Dollimore recruited bass player Moose, the trio travelling to Scotland to work on further demos. Initial attempts to persuade Vanian to join the project were unsuccessful, as the singer was dismissive of the demo songs. Scabies abandoned the material, began working with Alan Lee Shaw; this time the new material progressed further, Dollimore rejoined the project and a number of bassists were auditioned before Moose returned. Alternative singers were suggested. Vanian completed the new line-up as singer.

A period of rehearsal followed, the new band debuted at The Dome in Tufnell Park under the moniker The Damagement. At this point the decision was taken to revert to The Damned banner; the new line-up performed a BBC Radio 1 session in November 1993, toured the UK, U. S. and Japan. The group's recordings had built a cult following in Japan, following excellent reception of the new material at the gigs there, Toshiba offered the group the funding to record it as an album. Recording took place at the late Connie Plank's studio in Germany, before additional tracks were overdubbed at the Stoneroom Studio back in the UK. None of the Scabies/Dollimore material was used, all songs coming from Scabies/Shaw. James Taylor of James Taylor Quartet fame added Hammond organ to some tracks, while ex-Sex Pistols bass player Glen Matlock played on "Tailspin" and part of "Never Could Believe"; the results were issued by Toshiba as Not of This Earth in Japan in November 1995, with a remix of "Prokofiev" as an unlisted'hidden' track.

In April 1996, the Marble Orchard label issued the album in the UK, now titled I'm Alright Jack & the Beanstalk. This had been the planned title of the album all along, but had been considered too much of a mouthful for the Japanese market; the cover was a 3D lenticular design, using the Japanese artwork as a background for a risqué animation. This version of the album was issued in Germany and Sweden; the album saw a release in the USA in 1996, but this release, on the Cleopatra label, was titled Not of This Earth once again, featured different cover artwork. By this time, the new line-up was breaking up. Vanian wanted to continue touring to cover the costs of his divorce, was performing with his Phantom Chords project. Scabies was less keen to continue fearing playing to smaller audiences; the pair disagreed over the writing of the album. A proposed tour of small venues was shelved, apart from a one-off show at Plymouth Cooperage, the line-up's final live performance; the band split in August 1995, by August 1996 would be reforming once more – this time with Vanian accompanied by Captain Sensible instead of Scabies.

The Vanian/Scabies/Shaw/Dollimore/Moose line-up have featured on two other Damned releases – the remix EP Testify and the live album Molten Lager. Much confusion has sprung up about the Not of This Earth/I'm the Beanstalk album; the Damned's official site carried the unhelpful message "Not intended for release in this form" on its discography page on the album, the music press referred to 2001's Grave Disorder as the group's first release since Anything in 1986. Several sources list it as a compilation album. To further the confusion about the album's name, Castle Music reissued it as I'm Alright Jack & the Beanstalk in the USA in 2002, with Imperial doing the same in Japan. Thanks to the ease of importing CDs and the rise of internet shopping, copies of the US release of Not of This Earth can be found in Europe, with Cleopatra reissuing the album in The Damned Box Set in 1999; the Castle release featured a non-lenticular sleeve based on the original Japanese artwork, included the four tracks cut at the 29 November 1993 Radio 1 session as bonus tracks.

All songs written by Alan Lee Shaw and Rat Scabies, except where noted."I Need a Life" – 3:20 "Testify" – 2:56 "Shut It" – 2:48 "Tailspin" – 4:13 "Not of This Earth" – 2:55 "Running Man" – 5:06 "My Desire" – 2:48 "Never Could Believe" – 4:57 "Heaven Can Take Your Lies" – 3:49 "Shadow to Fall" – 3:02 "No More Tears" – 5:14 "Prokofiev" – 3:24 The DamnedDave Vanian – Vocals Kris Dollimore – Lead Guitar Alan Lee Shaw – Theme Guitar, Backing vocals Rat Scabies – Drums, Piano Jason "Moose" HarrisBass, Backing vocalswith: James Taylor – Hammond organ Glen Matlock – bass guitar on "Tailspin" and "Never Could Believe"TechnicalIan Caple – Engineer David M Allen – Producer NB: Alan Lee Shaw is credited with "Theme Guitar" – his own descriptive term for his thematic style of rhythm guitar, added to the album credits by Scabies as a joke