In ancient Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru, known as sḫt-jꜣrw or the Field of Reeds, are the heavenly paradise where Osiris rules once he had displaced Anubis in the Ogdoad. It has been described as the ka of the Nile Delta; the ancient Egyptians believed that the soul resides in the heart, so, upon death, the Weighing of the Heart occurred. Each human heart is weighed on a giant scale against an ostrich feather, which represents the concept of Maat; those souls which balance the scales are allowed to start a long and perilous journey to the Field of Reeds, where they will exist in pleasure for all eternity. Hearts heavy with evil tip and fall into the crocodilian jaws of the demon Ammit. After this "second death", the soul is doomed to restlessness in Duat; the souls who qualify face many perils before reaching Aaru. Once they arrive, they enter through a series of gates; the exact number of gates varies according to sources. They are uniformly described as guarded by evil demons armed with knives.
Aaru is known as the home of Osiris. Aaru was placed in the east where the Sun rises, described as boundless reed fields, like those of the earthly Nile Delta; this ideal hunting and farming ground allowed the souls here to live for eternity. More Aaru was envisaged as a series of islands covered in fields of rushes; the part where Osiris dwelt is sometimes known as the "field of offerings", sḫt-ḥtpt in Egyptian. Heaven Elysium The Summerland Neorxnawang Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis; the Egyptian Heaven and Hell. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd. p. 37. Retrieved 2009-06-06. Jobes, Gertrude. Dictionary of Mythology and Stymbols, Part 1. New York:The Scarecrow Press, 1962. Egyptian Field of Reeds and Christian Heaven
Ludwig Bruns was a German neurologist, a native of Hanover. He studied medicine in Göttingen and Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1882. Subsequently, he was an assistant to Eduard Hitzig at the insane asylum in Nietleben as well as at the psychiatric and nerve clinic in Halle. Afterwards he worked with Hermann Oppenheim at the Charité Hospital in Berlin. Bruns would maintain a working relationship with Oppenheim throughout his professional career, he studied in Paris and England returning to his hometown of Hanover, where in 1903 he became a professor of neurology. Bruns was the first director of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Nervenärzte. Bruns was interested in all aspects of neurology, however he is best known for his work in the fields of child neurology and neuropsychology. In 1906 he published Die Hysterie im Kindesalter, in which he explains that abnormal behaviour in children is due to internal conflicts, being caused by overbearing parents who favor harsh punishment, his most significant work was Handbuch der Nervenkrankheiten im Kindesalter, a textbook he co-authored with August Cramer and Theodor Ziehen.
In addition. He published an important treatise on localization of tumors titled Die Geschwultse des Nervensystem. Bruns ataxia: Difficulty in moving the feet when they are in contact with the ground and a tendency to fall backwards, associated with frontal lobe lesions. Bruns’ syndrome: Characterized by sudden and severe headache, accompanied by vomiting and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head. Principal causes are cysts and cysticerosis of the fourth ventricle, tumours of the midline of the cerebellum and third ventricle. Bastian-Bruns law: In complete transverse lesion in the upper spinal cord, the tendon reflexes and muscular tone below the level of the lesion are lost. Named with neurologist Henry Charlton Bastian. Bruns nystagmus: Bilateral nystagmus found in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Stephen Ashwal; the founders of child neurology. Norman Publishing. ISBN 0-930405-26-9. Ludwig Bruns @ Who Named It
Philippe Horvath is a French scientist working for DuPont Nutrition and Health. His work was integral to the development of CRISPR-Cas, a versatile biochemical method for targeted genetic engineering. For this work, he was awarded the 2015 Massry Prize along with Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, as well as the 2016 Canada Gairdner International Award, with his Massry co-laureates in addition to Feng Zhang, Rodolphe Barrangou, Anthony Fauci, Frank Plummer. After attending school in Colmar, Horvath studied cellular and molecular biology at the Université Louis Pasteur, where he obtained a Master's in 1996 and a Ph. D. in 2000. After graduation, he went to the Department of Research and Development of Rhodia Food in Dangé-Saint-Romain, where he worked to develop molecular biology techniques for bacterial strain screening, microbial identification, typing of lactic acid bacteria and their phages. In 2004, Rhodia Food was acquired by Danisco, Philippe was promoted to senior scientist in 2006.
The division was purchased by DuPont in 2011, Horvath was appointed an Associate to the DuPort Fellows Forum in 2014, a DuPont Nutrition & Health Technical Fellow in 2015. Since late 2002, Philippe's research activities have centered around CRISPR. Early work was stimulated by with the aim of improving the durability of bacterial starter cultures to improve the manufacture of cheese and ice cream efforts to address bacteriophages---viruses that infect bacteria. Horvath explored sections in the bacterial genome with clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats, both for their utility in differentiating between strains, because of their role in the bacterial immune system; as this prokaryotic viral defense mechanism was understood, it was recognized that CRISPRs could be used with specific endonuclease enzymes for genome editing and gene regulation. As of 2016, Philippe has been the co-inventor of 95 patents and/or applications, co-author of 31 peer-reviewed research articles. Philippe Horvath on ORCID Philippe Horvath on Researcher ID Philippe Horvath on the Copains d’avant social network
Anne Deborah Atai Omoruto was a Ugandan family physician, public health specialist, academic. In 2014, she led a team of 12 Ugandan physicians as part of the World Health Organization's response to the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, she was born in Kumi District on November 22, 1956. She attended the Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, in India, graduating with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree, she graduated from Makerere University School of Medicine with a Master of Medicine in internal medicine. Atai was the chairperson of the Department of Family Medicine at the Makerere University Medical School and concurrently served as the chair of the Department of Community Medicine at the Mulago National Referral Hospital. In July 2014, Omoruto was asked by the World Health Organization to respond to the Ebola crisis in Liberia, she brought with her a team of Ugandan health workers. Together they trained over one thousand Liberian works on the management of Ebola patients and protection against the disease.
She was the mother of five children Wamala Francis, Kiyai Dorothy Esther Ndiko, Ariong James Oscar, Atai Elisabeth Mary and Acom Victoria Ruth. Makerere University College of Health Sciences Uganda Cancer Institute Uganda Ministry of Health Website of Uganda Ministry of Health
The selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators. A key element in the theory is the domain of danger, the area of ground in which every point is nearer to a particular individual than to any other individual; such antipredator behavior results in aggregations. The theory was proposed by W. D. Hamilton in 1971 to explain the gregarious behavior of a variety of animals, it contrasted the popular hypothesis that evolution of such social behavior was based on mutual benefits to the population. The basic principle governing selfish herd theory is that in aggregations, predation risk is greatest on the periphery and decreases toward the center. More dominant animals within the population are proposed to obtain low-risk central positions, whereas subordinate animals are forced into higher risk positions; the hypothesis has been used to explain why populations at higher predation risk form larger, more compact groups.
It may explain why these aggregations are sorted by phenotypic characteristics such as strength. W. D. Hamilton proposed the theory in an article titled "Geometry for the Selfish Herd". To date, this article has been cited in over 2000 sources. To illustrate his theory, Hamilton asked readers to imagine a circular lily pond which sheltered a population of frogs and a water snake. Upon seeing the water snake, the frogs scatter to the rim of the pond, the water snake attacks the nearest one. Hamilton proposed that in this model, each frog had a better chance of not being closest to, thus vulnerable, to attack by the water snake if he was between other frogs; as a result, modeled frogs jumped to smaller gaps between neighboring frogs. This simple example was based on what Hamilton identified as each frog's domain of danger, the area of ground in which any point was nearer to that individual than it was to any other individual; the model assumed that frogs were attacked from random points and that if an attack was initiated from within an individual’s domain of danger, he would be attacked and killed.
The risk of predation to each individual was, correlated to the size of his domain of danger. Frog jumping in response to the water snake was an attempt to lower the domain of danger. Hamilton went on to model predation in two-dimensions, using a lion as an example. Movements that Hamilton proposed would lower an individual’s domain of danger were based on the theory of marginal predation; this theory states that predators attack the closest prey, who are on the outside of an aggregation. From this, Hamilton suggested that in the face of predation, there should be a strong movement of individuals toward the center of an aggregation. A domain of danger may be measured by constructing a Voronoi diagram around the group members; such construction forms a series of convex polygons surrounding each individual in which all points within the polygon are closer to that individual than to any other. Movements toward the center of an aggregation are based upon a variety of movement rules that range in complexity.
Identifying these rules has been considered the "dilemma of the selfish herd". The main issue is that movement rules that are easy to follow are unsuccessful in forming compact aggregations, those that do form such aggregations are considered too complex to be biologically relevant. Viscido and Wethey identified three factors that govern good movement rules. According to such factors, a plausible movement rule should be statistically to benefit its followers, should be to fit the capabilities of an animal, should result in a compact aggregation with desired central movement. Identified movement rules include: Nearest Neighbor RuleThis rule states that individuals within a population move towards their nearest neighbor, it is the mechanism proposed by Hamilton. This rule, may not be beneficial in small aggregations, where moving toward nearest neighbor does not correlate to movement from the periphery. Time Minimization RuleThis rule states that individuals within a population move toward their nearest neighbor in time.
This rule has gained popularity as it considers the biological constraints of an animal, as well as its orientation in space. Local Crowded Horizon RuleThis rule states that individuals within a population consider the location of many, if not all, other members within the population in guiding their movements. Research has revealed a variety of factors; these factors include initial spatial position, population density, attack strategy of the predator, vigilance. Individuals holding central positions are more to be successful at remaining in the center. Simpler movement strategies may be sufficient for low density populations and fast-acting predators, but at higher densities and with slower predators, more complex strategies may be needed. Lastly, less vigilant members of a herd are less to obtain smaller domains of danger as they begin movement later; the selfish herd theory may be applied to the group escape of prey in which the safest position, relative to predation risk, is not the central position, but rather the front of the herd.
The theory may be useful in explaining the escape strategy chosen by a herd leader. Members at the back of the herd have the greatest domain of danger and suffer the highest predation risk; these slow members must choose whether to stay in the herd, thus be the most targets, or whether to desert the herd, signal their vulnerability. The latter may entice the pursuit of the predator to this sole individual. In light of this, the decision of the escape route by the front members of t
Giacinto Macripodari, O. P. was Dominican friar. He was a Dominican missionary in Moldavia and was bishop of Skopje, custodian canon of Esztergom and Bishop of Csanád, his sermons had great success both in Italian. Giacinto Macripodari was a Greek born on the Aegean island of Chios, part of the Ottoman empire at the time, in 1610, his family were Catholic and during his youth he traveled overseas to further his education. From 1632 to 1636 he studied in a theological school in Paris. After he completed his studies Macripodari traveled back to his native Chios where he became vicar and taught at the Dominican monastery. Several years the learned Macripodari moved to the Christian quarter of the Ottoman empire's capital, where he soon became vicar of the Dominican monastery, his sermons had great attainment both in the Italian languages. In 1645 Macripodari became the confessor of the German envoy to Constantinople Alexander von Greiffenklau, this association and support helped further his career.
Macripodari was appointed custodian canon of Esztergom in 1645. He traveled to Vienna where Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor nominated him as the titular bishop of Skopje, a post he held from July 29, 1645 to 1649. Subsequently, Macripodari sought to obtain a regular episcopal seat, he migrated to Moldavia in 1646, where he stayed in its capital city. In 1658 he was appointed by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor as Bishop of Csanád, he continued to serve until the 2 May 1668. Makripodari moved to Nagyszombat where he was the assistant bishop of the Archbishop of Esztergom. Makripodari died in 1672