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Abbas ibn Firnas

Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini known as Abbas ibn Firnas, was an Andalusian polymath: an inventor, chemist, Andalusian musician, Arabic-language poet. Of Berber descent, he was born in Izn-Rand Onda, Al-Andalus, lived in the Emirate of Córdoba, is reputed to have attempted flight; the crater Ibn Firnas on the Moon is named in his honor, as well as the Ibn Firnas Airport in Baghdad and one of the bridges over the Guadalquivir river in Córdoba. Abbas Ibn Firnas designed a water clock called al-Maqata, devised a means of manufacturing colorless glass, invented various glass planispheres, made corrective lenses, devised a chain of things that could be used to simulate the motions of the planets and stars, developed a process for cutting rock crystal that allowed Spain to cease exporting quartz to Egypt to be cut. Ibn Firnas made an early attempt at aviation; the only surviving contemporary evidence of his flight attempt is a poem written by Mu'min ibn Said, a court poet of Córdoba under Muhammad I, acquainted with and critical of Ibn Firnas.

Ibn Said's poem states: He surpassed in velocity the flight of the ostrich, but he neglected to arm his body with the strength of the vulture. This was elaborated on seven centuries by the Algerian historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari, who wrote a more detailed description of Ibn Firnas that included the following: Among other curious experiments which he made, one is his trying to fly, he covered himself with feathers for the purpose, attached a couple of wings to his body, getting on an eminence, flung himself down into the air, when according to the testimony of several trustworthy writers who witnessed the performance, he flew a considerable distance, as if he had been a bird, but, in alighting again on the place whence he had started, his back was much hurt, for not knowing that birds when they alight come down upon their tails, he forgot to provide himself with one. According to Lynn Townsend White Jr. al-Maqqari used "many early sources no longer extant", including several eye-witnesses whom recorded the event, the only surviving contemporary source being that poem by ibn Said, in which Abbas ibn Firnas is described as a terrestrial flightless bird- from which White concluded that Ibn Firnas made the first successful recorded flight.

It has been suggested that Ibn Firnas's attempt at glider flight might have inspired the attempt by Eilmer of Malmesbury between 1000 and 1010 in England, but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Armen Firman may be the Latinized name of Abbas Ibn Firnas. According to some secondary sources, about 20 years before Ibn Firnas attempted to fly he may have witnessed Firman as he wrapped himself in a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts and jumped from a tower in Córdoba, intending to use the garment as wings on which he could glide; the alleged attempt at flight was unsuccessful, but the garment slowed his fall enough that he only sustained minor injuries. However, there is no reference to Armen Firman in other secondary sources, all of which deal exhaustively with Ibn Firnas' flight attempt. Armen Firman is not mentioned in al-Maqqari's account; as this story was recorded only in a single primary source, al-Maqqari, since Firman's jump is said to have been Ibn Firnas' source of inspiration, the lack of any mention of Firman in al-Maqqari's account may point to synthesis, the tower jump confused with Ibn Firnas' gliding attempt in secondary writings.

Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi History of aviation Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari Lagâri Hasan Çelebi List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world J. Vernet, Abbas Ibn Firnas. Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. I, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970–1980. Pg. 5. Lynn Townsend White, Jr.. "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2, p. 97–111, doi:10.2307/3101411. Salim T. S. Al-Hassani, Elisabeth Woodcock, Rabah Saoud. 2006. 1001 Inventions. Muslim Heritage in Our World. Manchester: Foundation for Science and Civilisation. See pages 308–313. Zaheer, Syed Iqbal. An Educational Encyclopedia of Islam. Iqra Welfare Trust. P. 1280. ISBN 9786039000440

Johann Friedrich Gronovius

Johann Friedrich Gronovius was a German classical scholar and critic. Born in Hamburg, he studied at several universities and travelled in England and Italy. In 1643, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and history at Deventer, in 1658 to the Greek chair at Leiden, where he remained until his death. In 1665, Gronovius succeeded Antonius Thysius the Younger as the 6th Librarian of Leiden University. Gronovius edited and annotated Statius, Livy, Aulus Gellius and Seneca's tragedies. In addition, he was the author of Commentarius de sestertiis and of an edition of Hugo Grotius's De jure belli et pacis, amongst numerous other works, his Observationes contain a number of brilliant emendations. His son Jakob Gronovius was a classical scholar. Johann Friedrich Gronovius died in Leiden in 1671; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gronovius, Johann Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. John Edwin Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, II, 1908 Friedrich August Eckstein in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste

Viktor Kolelishvili

Viktor Kolelishvili is a Georgian rugby union player. His position is flanker, he plays for Clermont Auvergne in the Top 14 and the Georgia national team, he played for Georgia in the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Viktor Kolelishvili started his career with the club Lelo Tbilisi, he plays for the Lelo's first team in the Georgia Championship young and impresses both in attack and defence. He is called up by the Georgia national team for the 2008 IRB Nations Cup and hold his first cap at only 18 years old against Italy A. In 2011, he won the U23 championship. Few months he joins the Georgian squad to play the 2011 RWC and took part of games against Scotland and Argentina, he played his first Top 14 game in May 2012 against Castres. For the 2013-2014 season, he joined Lyon OU, loaned by Clermont. After an impressive season in Pro D2, he is back in Top14 with Clermont for the 2014-2015 season by suffered of an ACL injury and was out for the rest of the season

Bolshevik Platform of the KPSS

The Bolshevik Platform of the CPSU is a communist political association on the territory of the former Soviet Union. It was founded on July 13, 1991 on the Initiative of the association Unity - for Leninism and the Communist Ideals, set up in 1988 in opposition to the politics of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev. Unity and the Platform were led by Nina Andreyeva; when the CPSU was banned in 1991 the majority of the Platform favoured the creation of a new party. In November 1991 Andreeva and Andrei Lapin founded the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and Sergei Gubanov the Worker-Peasant Socialist Party. A Minority under the leadership of the president of the Ideological Commission Tatyana Khabarova who didn’t recognize he dissolution of the KPSS stayed in the Platform; the Platform supported different efforts to reestablish the KPSS and became part of the Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union UCP-CPSU) founded in 1993 as successor of the CPSU.

The Platform left the UCP-CPSU however in 1995 because of growing disagreement about its political orientation. The Bolshevik Platform created the Movement of Citizens of the USSR in 1993 which organized the Movement For the Soviet Union with the aim of founding a Congress of the Citizens of the USSR, it took place in October 1995 open to all former citizens of the USSR. Khabarova declared that the Congress and its regional committees formed an institution "representing the Soviet people at the moment"; the Bolshevik Platform fought against "revisionism" in the KPSS. It considers the other communist parties in the post-Soviet states as rightwingers, it wants the immediate restoration of the Soviet Union and the CPSU and is opposed to work in the institutions of the state. The Platform doesn’t take part in elections; the Bolshevik Platform published Svetoch

V-J Day in Times Square

V-J Day in Times Square is a photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt that portrays a U. S. Navy sailor grabbing and kissing a stranger—a nurse—on Victory over Japan Day in New York City's Times Square on August 14, 1945; the photograph was published a week in Life magazine, among many photographs of celebrations around the United States that were presented in a twelve-page section titled "Victory Celebrations". A two-page spread faces three other kissing poses among celebrators in Washington, D. C.. Kissing was a favorite pose encouraged by media photographers of service personnel during the war, but Eisenstaedt was photographing a spontaneous event that occurred in Times Square soon before the announcement of the end of the war with Japan was made by U. S. President Harry S. Truman at seven o'clock; because he was photographing changing events during the celebrations, Eisenstaedt did not have an opportunity to get the names and details. The photograph does not show the face of either person involved, numerous people have claimed to be the subjects.

The photograph was shot just south of 45th Street looking north from a location where Broadway and Seventh Avenue converge. The photograph was taken according to Donald W. Olson and his team, it was taken with a Leica IIIa camera. In two different books he wrote, Alfred Eisenstaedt gave two different accounts of taking the photograph and of its nature. From Eisenstaedt on Eisenstaedt:In Times Square on V. J. Day I saw a sailor running along the street grabbing every girl in sight. Whether she was a grandmother, thin, didn't make a difference. I was running ahead of him with my Leica looking back over my shoulder but none of the pictures that were possible pleased me. In a flash, I saw something white being grabbed. I clicked the moment the sailor kissed the nurse. If she had been dressed in a dark dress I would never have taken the picture. If the sailor had worn a white uniform, the same. I took four pictures, it was done within a few seconds. Only one is right, on account of the balance. In the others the emphasis is wrong — the sailor on the left side is either too small or too tall.

People tell me. From The Eye of Eisenstaedt: I was walking through the crowds on V-J Day. I noticed a sailor coming my way, he was kissing them all -- young girls and old ladies alike. I noticed the nurse, standing in that enormous crowd. I focused on her, just as I'd hoped, the sailor came along, grabbed the nurse, bent down to kiss her. Now if this girl hadn't been a nurse, if she'd been dressed in dark clothes, I wouldn't have had a picture; the contrast between her white dress and the sailor's dark uniform gives the photograph its extra impact. It became a cultural icon overnight and by establishing his copyright, Eisenstaedt controlled the rights to it, only allowing a limited number of reproductions which determined how it could be used. U. S. Navy photo journalist Victor Jorgensen captured another view of the same scene, published in The New York Times the following day. Jorgensen titled his photograph Kissing the War Goodbye, it shows less of Times Square in the background, lacking the characteristic view of the complex intersection so that the location needs to be identified, it is dark and shows few details of the main subjects, it does not show the lower legs and feet of the subjects.

Unlike the Eisenstaedt photograph, protected by copyright, this Navy photograph is in the public domain as it was produced by a federal government employee on official duty. While the angle of the photograph may be less interesting than that of Eisenstaedt's photo, it shows the actual location of the iconic kiss occurring in the front of the Chemical Bank and Trust building, with the Walgreens pharmacy signage on the building façade visible in the background; the surprised woman on the left in Jorgensen's photograph has been positively identified as Kay Hughes Dorius of Utah. Lawrence Verria and George Galdorisi, authors of The Kissing Sailor, a 2012 book about the identity of the couple, used interviews of claimants, expert photo analysis, identification of people in the background and consultations with forensic anthropologists and facial recognition specialists, they concluded that the woman was Greta Zimmer Friedman and that she was wearing her dental hygienist uniform in the photograph."It wasn't my choice to be kissed", Friedman stated in a 2005 interview with the Library of Congress.

"The guy just came over and grabbed!" she said, adding, "That man was strong. I wasn't kissing him, he was kissing me." "I did not see him approaching, before I know it I was in this tight grip," Friedman told CBS News in 2012. Friedman died at age 92 on September 8, 2016, in Richmond, due to age-related health complications. Edith Shain wrote to Eisenstaedt in 1980 claiming to be the woman in the picture. On June 20, 2010, Shain died at age 91 of liver cancer. Verria and Galdorisi's 2012 book stated that Shain could not have been the woman because her height of just 4 ft 10 in was insufficient in comparison with the height of any of the men claiming to be the sailor. Numerous men have claimed to be the sailor, including Donald Bonsack, John Edmonson, Wallace C. Fowler, Clarence "Bud" Harding, Walker Irving, James Kearney, Marvin Kingsburg, Arthur Leask, George Mendonça, Jack Russell, Bill Swicegood. George Mendonsa of Newport, Rhode Island, on leave from the USS The Sullivans, was watching a movie w

Hazel Keech

Hazel Keech known by her married name Gurbasant Kaur, is a British−Mauritian film actress and model who has appeared in Indian television programs and films. She has appeared in Bodyguard as well as in a Suzuki advertisement, she danced in the Frankfinn Music remix item number, "Kahin Pe Nigahaen". She appeared in the reality television programme Bigg Boss 7 in 2013. Keech was born in Essex, England, to a British father and an Indo-Mauritian Hindu mother of Bihari ancestry, she did her schooling at Beal High School in Redbridge, where she performed in stage shows and learned various forms of dance including Indian classical, British dance and western contemporary. Keech became involved in television and stage, she danced in the British programme Agatha Christie's Marple. The BBC documentary show Call, she joined the team of the Bollywood musical Bombay Dreams for their London promotional tour in 2002 and sang in the choir of the West End musical Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat the following year.

She was an extra in several of the Harry Potter films. In 2005, while holidaying in Mumbai, she received work offers and decided to stay and pursue a modelling and acting career in India. Keech appeared in various music videos as "Kahin Pe Nigahen" as well as many TV commercials, such as Vivel by ITC, the Sprite'University of Freshology' commercial. Keech appeared in the 2007 Tamil film Billa, where she performed an item number in the song "Sei Ethavathu". In 2011, she played a supporting role in the Hindi film Bodyguard produced by Atul Agnihotri and directed by Siddique, she performed an item number titled "Aa Ante Amlapuram" in the film Maximum. She performed a song, "Chal Chal Chal", in the film Krishnam Vande Jagadgurum, she appeared in the popular Indian TV show Bigg Boss 7 in September 2013 but a week she was eliminated, the first contestant to exit the house. In an interview after her eviction she expressed her anger about Pratyusha Banerjee, saying, "She likes to create problems". On 12 November 2015, Keech got engaged to Indian cricketer Yuvraj Singh.

They were married on 30 November 2016. After marriage, Hazel adopted the name "Gurbasant Kaur", given to her by Sant Balvinder Singh during the wedding ceremony. Hazel Keech on Twitter Hazel Keech on IMDb