The Secret of Kells
The Secret of Kells is a 2009 French-Belgian-Irish animated fantasy film animated by Cartoon Saloon that premiered on 8 February 2009 at the 59th Berlin International Film Festival. It went into wide release in Belgium and France on 11 February, Ireland on 3 March, it was directed by Tomm Moore and co-directed by Nora Twomey, produced by Paul Young, Didier Brunner and Vivian Van Fleteren, written by Fabrice Ziolkowski, distributed by Gébéka Films, Kinepolis Film Distribution, StudioCanal and Buena Vista, edited by Fabienne Alvarez-Giro and music composed by Bruno Coulais and Kíla. It stars Evan McGuire, Brendan Gleeson, Christen Mooney, Mick Lally, Michael McGrath, Liam Hourican, Paul Tylak and Paul Young, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature but it lost to Up. Brendan, a young and idealistic boy living in the knit community at the Abbey of Kells, is under the strict care of his stern uncle, Abbot Cellach. Cellach is obsessed with building a wall around the Abbey.
Brendan is apprenticed in the scriptorium of the monastery. After listening to the other monks of the monastery talk about Brother Aidan, the creator of the Book of Iona, Brendan is curious about the mysterious illuminator and "the book that turns darkness into light". Aidan arrives in Kells, accompanied by his white cat, Pangur Bán, after his own monastery is destroyed by a raid. After eavesdropping on a discussion between Cellach and Aidan, Brendan wanders to the scriptorium, where he finds the still-to-be-completed book. Pangur Bán guards the book, but when the cat sees that Brendan means no harm to the book, she accepts him. Aidan tells Brendan about the book. Seeing Brendan as a suitable apprentice, Aidan sends Brendan, with Pangur Bán for company, into the woods to obtain gall nuts to make ink for the illumination of the book. However, Brendan is cornered by a hungry pack of wolves, he is saved by the faerie from the beginning of the film. Although at first suspicious of Brendan's presence, Aisling comes to accept him after he reveals his intentions of helping to create the book.
After a brief yet scary close encounter with Crom Cruach, a deity of death and destruction, of whom Aisling is afraid and Aisling return to the outskirts of the forest. She assures Brendan that he can visit anytime he wants. Upon his return home, Brendan is reprimanded by Cellach, who forbids him to leave the monastery again. However, Brendan continues to work with Aidan. Brendan learns that Aidan's work is endangered by the loss of the Eye of Colm Cille, a special magnifying lens captured from Crom Cruach; when Brendan tries to leave to visit Crom's cave to obtain another Eye, he is confined to his room by Cellach. Pangur Bán and Aisling set Brendan free. After running into the heart of the woods, Brendan tells Aisling of his objective. A shocked Aisling begs him not to confront the dark deity, warning that Crom Cruach will kill him just as it killed the rest of her people, but Brendan persuades Aisling to assist him, by stating that if he does not retrieve the Eye, the book will never be completed.
Convinced, Aisling helps. Brendan duels with Crom and seizes the Eye, blinding Crom and causing the dark deity to consume itself, becoming an ouroboros. Upon returning to the cave entrance, Brendan finds the forest covered in white flowers. Brendan continues to assist Aidan in secret; the brothers of the monastery excitedly watch the two create the book. In a fit of frustration, Cellach locks Brendan and Aidan in the scriptorium, but not before ripping out a page that Brendan had created for the book. Shortly thereafter, the Vikings invade Kells, Cellach watches in horror as they breach the wooden gate. Brendan and Aidan manage to escape by using smoke from the gall berry ink, confusing the raiders when they burst into the scriptorium. Meanwhile, the wooden staircase to the central tower of the abbey becomes overloaded with panicked villagers and collapses; the village and abbey below is set ablaze. Cellach is wounded by an arrow, stabbed by a Viking raider. After they leave, having survived the attack, sees the burning remains of the scriptorium.
The central tower of the abbey is left untouched by the Vikings, leaving the few villagers and Brother Tang to survive the carnage. Thinking that his nephew has perished, Cellach falls into a deep despair. While running through the woods and Aidan are confronted by the raiders, the Viking leader takes the book's bejeweled cover and scatters the pages. Before two Viking raiders can kill Brendan and Aidan, Aisling's black wolves attack the Vikings, saving the two refugees. Brendan and Aidan depart. Cellach and the remaining villagers take refuge in the monastery. Brendan and Aidan travel across Ireland, after many years, complete the book. Aidan, after entrusting the book to Brendan, dies; the now-adult Brendan returns to Kells with Pangur Bán, guided by Aisling. The aged guilt-ridden Cellach is nearing death. Brendan and the abbot reunite, Brendan displays the complete Book of Kells to his uncle; the film closes with an animation rendition of some of the illuminated pages of the book. Evan McGuire as Brendan, a bright and curious 12-year-old who leads a sheltered life.
Brendan Gleeson as Abbot Cellach, a former illuminator who now superintends a wall to protect the Abbey of Kells from invasion. Christen Mooney as Aisling, a forest fairy, related to the Tuatha De Danann, living in the woods outside of Kells. Mick Lally as Brother Aidan, a master illuminato
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628, he became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
He demonstrated his ability as a commander and was promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist 11th forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament, he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England and Ireland from 16 December 1653.
As a ruler, he executed an effective foreign policy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey; the Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, a revolutionary bourgeois by Leon Trotsky, his tolerance of Protestant sects did not extend to Catholics. He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Elizabeth Steward; the family's estate derived from Oliver's great-grandfather Morgan ap William, a brewer from Glamorgan who settled at Putney in London, married Katherine Cromwell, the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the famous chief minister to Henry VIII. The Cromwell family acquired great wealth as occasional beneficiaries of Thomas's administration of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Morgan ap William was a son of William ap Yevan of Wales. The family line continued through Richard Williams, Henry Williams to Oliver's father Robert Williams, alias Cromwell, who married Elizabeth Steward in 1591, they had ten children. Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a member of the landed gentry; as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". Cromwell was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, attended Huntingdon Grammar School, he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge a founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree after his father's death.
Early biographers claim that he attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Antonia Fraser concludes that it was that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time, his grandfather, his father, two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647. Cromwell returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death; as his mother was widowed, his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family. On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier. Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had strong connections with Puritan gentry families there; the marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, behin
Monasterboice are the remains of an early Christian monastic settlement in County Louth in Ireland, north of Drogheda. The ruins are a National monument of Ireland and give their name to the local village; the name Monasterboice is a part-anglicization of the Irish name Mainistir Bhuithe meaning "monastery of Buithe". It was anglicized as Monasterboye and Monasterboyse. Boice is the English version of the Latin name Boecius, adopted as the equivalent of the Irish Buithe; the monastic settlement was founded in the late 5th century by Saint Buithe who died around 521. Poet and historian Flann Mainistrech, Flann of Monasterboice, was lector here. Little is known about the monastery except for a list of abbots, it fell into ruin after the establishment of the Cistercian Mellifont Abbey nearby in 1142. A parochial church was in use at the location by the 13th century; the site includes the remains of two churches built in the 14th century or and an earlier round tower, but it is most famous for its high crosses.
The round tower is about 28 metres tall, is in good condition. It was built shortly after 968 and damaged in a fire in 1098; the three high crosses date from the 10th form part of the scriptural group. The 5.5-metre Muiredach's High Cross is regarded as the finest high cross in the whole of Ireland. It is named after an abbot, Muiredach mac Domhnaill, who died in 923 and features biblical carvings of both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible; the North and West crosses are notable examples of this kind of structure, but these have suffered much more from the effects of the weather. A copy of the main cross is held in the Albert Museum in London; the property is accessible to the public. Burials in the graveyard around the ruins continue in the present day. List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Celtic art Monasterboice Conservation Study PDF 8.8MB
Kells, County Meath
Kells is a town in County Meath, Ireland. The town lies off 16 km from Navan and 65 km from Dublin, it is best known as the site of Kells Abbey. The settlement was known by the Irish name Ceannanas or Ceannanus, it is suggested that the name'Kells' developed from this. From the 12th century onward, the settlement was referred to in English and Anglo-Norman as Kenenus, Kenles, Kenlis and Kells, it has been suggested that Kenlis and Kells come from an alternative Irish name, Ceann Lios, meaning " head fort". Kells and Headfort all feature in the titles taken by the Taylor family. In 1929, Ceannanus Mór was made the town's official name in both English. Following the creation of the Irish Free State, a number of towns were renamed likewise. Ceanannas has been the official Irish-language form of the place name since 1969. In 1993, Kells was re-adopted as the town's official name in English. Before Kells was a monastery, it was the site of a royal site inhabited by the High King Cormac mac Airt who moved his residence from the Hill of Tara, for reasons scholars are not yet sure about.
Kells was an important place on one of the five ancient roads that came out of Tara - this road being named Slí nan nAssail and which ran from Tara to Rathcrogan, another royal site, in County Roscommon. About 560 AD, Colmcille – a prince of the royal house of the Northern Uí Néill family – acquired Kells in recompense of a fault acted against him by his cousin the High King Diarmuid MacCarroll, who granted him the Dún of Ceannanus to establish a Monastery; the present monastery at Kells is thought to have been founded around 804 AD by monks from St Colmcille's monastery in Iona who were fleeing Viking invasions. In 1152, the Synod of Kells completed the transition of the Colmcille's establishment from a monastic church to a diocesan church. A synod reduced the status of Kells to that of a parish. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Lordship of Meath in 1182; the religious establishments at Kells continued to flourish under their Anglo-Norman overlords. Kells became a border town garrison of the Pale and was the scene of many battles between the Kingdom of Breifne and the Hiberno-Normans.
From 1561 to 1800, Kells returned two MPs to the Parliament of Ireland. During the Irish rebellion of 1641, Kells was burned by the O'Reilly clan during their attacks on the Pale; the period of the Great Famine saw the population of Kells drop by 38% as measured by the census records of 1841 and 1851. The Workhouse and the Fever Hospital were described as full to overflowing; the Kells Monastic Site, with its round tower, is associated with St Colmcille, the Book of Kells, now kept at Trinity College Dublin and the Kells Crozier, exhibited at the British Museum. The round tower and five large Celtic crosses can still be viewed today. Four of the crosses are in the churchyard of St Columba's church; the other Celtic cross was positioned in the middle of a busy crossroads until an accident involving a school bus. It now stands in front of a former courthouse. A roof protects the cross from the elements. Curiously, a replica is safe from the elements inside the museum. Close by the graveyard of St. Columba's church stands.
This dates from the 11th century. Access to the monks' sleeping accommodation aloft is by ladder; this small rectangular building is positioned at one of the highest points in the town. The Oratory is kept locked. Just outside the town of Kells on the road to Oldcastle is the hill of Lloyd, named after Thomas Lloyd of Enniskillen, who camped a large Williamite army here during the wars of 1688-91 against the Jacobites. Here stands a 30m high building called the Tower of Lloyd, an 18th-century lighthouse folly, the area around the tower has been developed as a community park, includes the Paupers' Grave; this cemetery was a necessity in the times of great poverty in the country. Mass is still celebrated there annually and the cemetery is a reminder of the Workhouse and extreme poverty engendered by changes in farming practice in the 19th century and during the Famine; the population of Kells town was 6,135. This represents a slight increase in population over the 2011 Census. There was a 22% increase in total population between 1996 and 2002.
Until the opening of the new motorway in June 2010, Kells stood as a busy junction town on the old N3 road with over 18,000 vehicles passing through the town each day. Kells was a renowned traffic bottleneck from both the N3 national primary route and N52 national secondary route passing through the town centre; the new M3 motorway reduces the journey time to Dublin, as well as the numbers of vehicles in the town. Kells is served by a regular bus service run by Bus Éireann, the 109, 109A and 109X, which take about 1.5 hours to Busáras in Dublin. The original Kells railway station, serving a line between Oldcastle and Drogheda via Navan, opened on 11 July 1853, it was closed for passenger traffic on 14 April 1958 and for all traffic on 1 April 1963."Meath on Track" are seeking reinstatement of the Navan railway link, on to Dublin. It is estimated that a Kells to Dublin City Centre rail service would take 60 minutes depending on stops; the Butcher Boy was filmed at Headfort House The Secret of Kells is an Oscar-nominated animated film set in Kells The late Hol
Glendalough is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, renowned for an Early Medieval monastic settlement founded in the 6th century by St Kevin. From 1825 to 1957, the head of the Glendalough Valley was the site of a galena lead mine. Glendalough is a recreational area for picnics, for walking along networks of maintained trails of varying difficulty, for rock-climbing. Kevin, a descendant of one of the ruling families in Leinster, studied as a boy under the care of three holy men, Eoghan and Eanna. During this time, he went to Glendalough, he was to return with a small group of monks to found a monastery where the'two rivers form a confluence'. Kevin's writings discuss his fighting "knights" at Glendalough, his fame as a holy man spread and he attracted numerous followers. He died in about 618, traditionally on 3 June. For the next six centuries, Glendalough flourished and the Irish Annals contain references to the deaths of abbots and raids on the settlement. Circa 1042, oak timber from Glendalough was used to build the second longest Viking longship recorded.
A modern replica of that ship was built in 2004 and is located in Roskilde, Denmark. At the Synod of Rath Breasail in 1111, Glendalough was designated as one of the two dioceses of North Leinster; the Book of Glendalough was written there about 1131. St. Laurence O'Toole, born in 1128, became Abbot of Glendalough and was well known for his sanctity and hospitality. After his appointment as Archbishop of Dublin in 1162, he returned to Glendalough, to the solitude of St. Kevin's Bed, he died in Eu, in Normandy in 1180. In 1176, the Annals of Tigernach report that Glendalough was'plundered by the foreigners'. In 1214, the dioceses of Glendalough and Dublin were united. From that time onwards, the cultural and ecclesiastical status of Glendalough diminished; the destruction of the settlement by English forces in 1398 left it a ruin but it continued as a church of local importance and a place of pilgrimage. Glendalough features on the 1598 map "A Modern Depiction of Ireland, One of the British Isles" by Abraham Ortelius as "Glandalag".
Descriptions of Glendalough from the 18th and 19th centuries include references to occasions of "riotous assembly" on the feast of St. Kevin on 3 June; the present remains in Glendalough tell only a small part of its story. The monastery in its heyday included workshops, areas for manuscript writing and copying, guest houses, an infirmary, farm buildings and dwellings for both the monks and a large lay population; the buildings which survive date from between the 10th and 12th centuries. Glendalough is a titular see in the Catholic Church, it is used for bishops. Raymond D'Mello Marian Przykucki Donal Murray Diarmuid Martin Guy Sansaricq See Annals of Inisfallen AI800.2 Minndenach, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested. AI809.2 Échtbrann, abbot of Glenn dá Locha. AI1003.6 Dúnchad Ua Mancháin, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested. The Gateway to the monastic city of Glendalough is one of the most important monuments, now unique in Ireland, it was two-storeyed with two fine, granite arches. The antae or projecting walls at each end suggest.
Inside the gateway, in the west wall, is a cross-inscribed stone. This denoted sanctuary, the boundary of the area of refuge; the paving of the causeway in the monastic city is still preserved in part but little remains of the enclosure wall. This fine tower, built of mica-slate interspersed with granite is about 30 metres high, with an entrance 3.5 metres from the base. The conical roof was rebuilt in 1876 using the original stones; the tower had six timber floors, connected by ladders. The four storeys above entrance level are each lit by a small window. Round towers, landmarks for approaching visitors, were built as bell towers, but served on occasion as store-houses and as places of refuge in times of attack; the largest and most imposing of the buildings at Glendalough, the cathedral had several phases of construction, the earliest, consisting of the present nave with its antae. The large mica-schist stones which can be seen up to the height of the square-headed west doorway were re-used from an earlier smaller church.
The chancel and sacristy date from the late early 13th centuries. The chancel arch and east window were finely decorated; the north doorway to the nave dates from this period. Under the southern window of the chancel is an ambry or wall cupboard and a piscina, a basin used for washing the sacred vessels. A few metres south of the cathedral an early cross of local granite, with an unpierced ring, is known as St. Kevin's Cross. Reconstructed from the original stones, based on a 1779 sketch made by Beranger, the Priests' House is a small Romanesque building, with a decorative arch at the east end, it gets its name from the practice of interring priests there in the 19th centuries. Its original purpose is unknown; this stone-roofed building had a nave only, with entrance at the west end and a small round-headed window in the east gable. The upper part of the window can be seen above what became the chancel arch when the chancel and
Brú na Bóinne
Brú na Bóinne or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, located in a bend of the River Boyne. It contains one of the world's most important prehistoric landscapes dating from the Neolithic period, including the large Megalithic passage graves of Knowth and Dowth as well as some 90 additional monuments; the archaeological culture associated with these sites is called the "Boyne culture". Since 1993 the site has been a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO, known since 2013 as "Brú na Bóinne - Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne"; the area is located eight kilometers west of Drogheda in County Meath, Ireland, in a bend of the River Boyne. It is around 40 kilometers north of Dublin. Brú na Bóinne is surrounded on its southern and eastern sides by the Boyne. All but two of the prehistoric sites are on this river peninsula; the area has been a centre of human settlement for at least 6,000 years, but the major structures date to around 5,000 years ago, from the Neolithic period.
The site is a complex of Neolithic mounds, chamber tombs, standing stones and other prehistoric enclosures, some from as early as 35th century BC - 32nd century BC. The site thus predates the Egyptian pyramids and was built with sophistication and a knowledge of science and astronomy, most evident in the passage grave of Newgrange; the site is referred to as the "Bend of the Boyne" and this is taken to be a translation of Brú na Bóinne. The associated archaeological culture is called the Boyne culture; the site covers 780 ha and contains around 40 passage graves, as well as other prehistoric sites and features. The majority of the monuments are concentrated on the north side of the river; the most well-known sites within Brú na Bóinne are the passage graves of Newgrange and Dowth, all known for their collections of megalithic art. Each stands on a ridge within the river bend and two of the tombs and Newgrange, appear to contain stones re-used from an earlier monument at the site. Newgrange is the central mound of the Boyne Valley passage grave cemetery, the circular cairn in which the cruciform burial chamber is sited having a diameter of over 100 metres.
Knowth and Dowth are of comparable size. There is no in situ evidence for earlier activity at the site, save for the spotfinds of flint tools left by Mesolithic hunters; the passage tombs were constructed beginning in around 3,300 BC and work stopped around 2,900 BC. The three largest tombs of Newgrange and Dowth may have been constructed to be visible from each other and from northern and southern approaches along the River Boyne, as part of a scheme to "bind the disparate elements of the extended passage tomb cemetery into a more defined prehistoric numinous precinct"; the area continued to be used for habitation and ritual purposes until the early Bronze Age, during which a number of embanked and wooden post circles were built. Artefacts from the Bronze Age are comparatively inconspicuous: some cist and ring ditch burials and burnt mounds. For the Iron Age there is only evidence of sporadic activity, such as burials near Knowth and at Rosnaree. Valuable items from the Roman period such as coins and jewelry were found as votive offerings near Newgrange.
Numerous other enclosure and megalith sites have been identified within the river bend and have been given simple letter designations, such as the M Enclosures. In addition to the three large tombs, several other ceremonial sites constitute the complex including: Cloghalea Henge Townleyhall passage grave Monknewtown henge and ritual pond Newgrange cursus Each of the three main megalith sites have significant archaeoastronomical significance. Newgrange and Dowth have Winter solstice solar alignments, while Knowth is oriented towards the spring and autumn Equinox. In addition, the immediate environs of the main sites have been investigated for other possible alignments; the layout and design of the Brú na Bóinne complex across the valley has been studied for astronomical significance. All access to Newgrange and Knowth is by guided tour only, with tours beginning at the Visitor Centre, opened in 1997 in Donore, County Meath; the tourist visitor centre is located on the south side of the river Boyne, the historical site is located on the north side of the river and is accessed via a shuttle with a tour guide.
Bus Éireann route 163 operates between the Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre via Donore. The nearest railway station is Drogheda railway station 9 kilometres distant. List of archaeoastronomical sites by country Lewis-Williams, D. and Pearce, D. Inside the Neolithic Mind and Hudson, London, 2005, ISBN 0-500-05138-0 O'Kelly, M. J. Newgrange: archaeology and legend, London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. 1982. Stout, Geraldine and the Bend of the Boyne, 2002, Cork University Press, ISBN 1859183417, 9781859183410, google books UNESCO's World Heritage Site description Official website Newgrange.com Knowth.com Brú na Bóinne in myth and folklore
Durrow, County Offaly
Durrow is a small rural village in County Offaly, Ireland. Durrow is located on the N52 off the N6 road between Tullamore. Durrow Abbey, surrounded by woods, is one of Ireland's most important early Christian monasteries founded by Saint Colmcille. Many mistakenly assign County Laois as the location of this particular monastic settlement due to the presence of a larger town in Laois called Durrow. Iona was established during that time Colum Cille yearned for monasteries in Ireland; the poem'An Exile's Dream' indicates Durrow as location for a monastery. Durrow was part of the territory of Tethba, which now lies in Co. Longford, it was located near one of Ireland's five ancient routes, Slighe Mór. However, no accounts survive of what Colum Cille's monastery was like at its foundation, but it included a wooden church and huts for residence and work for the monks; the great monastic enclosure of Durrow can be seen in the aerial photographs of the surrounding lands. South of the monastery is evidence of Early Christian burials, unearthed by excavation of burial mounds by the National Museum of Ireland.
Patronage shifted during the millennium. The Kings of Meath, Kings of Tethba and the MacGeoghegans, as well as chieftains known as Cinél Fiachach supported the monastery; this support did not permit them to appoint it abbot, selected from Colum Cille's own extended family at the start. Rule of the Columban monasteries would be dominated by certain families who became hereditary rulers forming ecclesiastical dynasties. Uí Neill association was important and in 763 Domnall, King of Meath, was buried in the graveyard of Durrow. In 764 a war was fought with Clonmacnoise over burial rights the burial site of future Kings of Meath. Book of Durrow Colum Cille Durrow Abbey List of abbeys and priories in Ireland List of towns and villages in Ireland npa.ie Images at megalithomania Megalithicireland.com census.nationalarchives.ie